TacSat Path Web OV 6 1 04

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Information about TacSat Path Web OV 6 1 04

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Tibald

Source: authorstream.com

Operationally Responsive Space TacSat Path Going Forward Overview :  Operationally Responsive Space TacSat Path Going Forward Overview May 28, 2004 OFFICE OF FORCE TRANSFORMATION OFFICE OF FORCE TRANSFORMATION Envisioned System Concept :  Envisioned System Concept Automatic Orbit Maneuvers for Constellation Building Joint Task Force Commander Combatant Commander OPLAN Use Authorized JTF Commander Decides: 1. Payload Capability Needed 2. Area of Interest 3. Area for Direct Downlink 4. When to Call-Up Asset Schedule of Downlink Times & Locations 3-5 Days Launch Team Precise Orbit Calcs. Range Safety Clearance SC/Payload Integration PLD SW Load/Select Batt. Charge, Fueling Final LV Integration Launch Direct Downlink Request Mission Call-Up Key Elements of the System: Micro/Small Satellites Fast & Affordable Launch SIPRNET Two Levels of Responsive: Call-Up Time for Existing Assets Response to a New, Unforeseen, Threat or Opportunity in 3-9 months 1-14 days Pending Mission Tactical Micro-Satellites: Unique Capability Set:  Tactical Micro-Satellites: Unique Capability Set Traditional Satellites UAV Tactical Micro-Sat Very Low RF Power Sensors Long Dwell Usually Lowest Cost for a Unique/New Capability Continuous Global Coverage by Several Constellations Broad Dissemination Most Easily Accomplished Well Defined & Understood Missions & Targets of Interest Satisfy a Broad Range of Operational Requirements High Cost Launch on Demand Tailored Mission Payloads Tailored Coverage Covert (LPI/LPD) & Low Power Sensors Allows Rapid Implementation of New Technologies Medium Cost Tactical Control Access to Denied Areas Global Access Long-Duration Missions Broad / Multi-Theater Coverage Receiver (S/C) is Covert & Safe Tactical Micro-satellites offer a Unique Combination of Capabilities Creating a Valuable Niche and Allowing a Robust, Tiered Network for Tactical or Operational Tasking LAST YEAR’s TacSat Study Conclusions (April 2003):  LAST YEAR’s TacSat Study Conclusions (April 2003) STUDY CONCLUSIONS A Tactical Micro-Satellite System, “TacSat”, is a Credible Concept Micro-Satellite Capabilities becoming Impressive The SIPRNET is Waiting to be Exploiting Promising New Launch Vehicle Developments are Underway CONOPS & Coverage are Realistic for Conflict Specific Missions TacSats Provide a Unique Combination of Desirable Characteristics The Tactical Micro-Satellite Platform Provides an Efficient Mechanism to Bring New Technologies & Capabilities to the Forces Consistent with Technology’s Development Cycle Time Increases Tiered Support and Ability to Perform Cross-Platform Mission The TacSat System makes Space Assets an Organic Part of the Joint Task Force THIS YEAR (April 2004):  THIS YEAR (April 2004) TacSat-1 Navy Led Experiment Tactical RF Payloads & UHF Link Low Resolution Visible & IR Cameras SIPRNET Exploitation using VMOC Launch on SpaceX’s Maiden Flight of Falcon Spacecraft: 1 Year Start to Finish TacSat-2 Air Force Led Experiment Tactical Imaging & RF Payloads Tactical CDL & UHF Links Autonomous Spacecraft Operations Experiment SIPRNET Exploitation using VMOC Good Example of Spiral Development Serious Responsive Space Planning Efforts Underway TacSat-2 / Roadrunner Picture Complements of AFRL & MSI TacSat-1 on Vibration Table Requirements EMPHASIS is Critical for an Operational System:  Requirements EMPHASIS is Critical for an Operational System TACTICAL SPACE SYSTEM 1) Must be an Organic Part of the Joint Task Force. Implies Tactical Control and Networking. 2) Must Provide Operationally Useful Coverage 3) Must be Battlefield Class of Cost for a DEPLOYED System (# Launches + # of Spacecraft, etc) 4) Must Provide 1 Year of Operations 5) Must Minimize Time to Deploy 6) Must Maximize Payload Capability 7) Must Provide Sensing Unknown to Adversary Emphasis of a FEW (2 or 3) Requirements will Drive the Resulting System INTERNET COMPARISON1 1) Internet Comms Must Continue Despite Loss of Gateways 2) Internet Must Support Multiple Types of Communications Services 3) Architecture Must Accommodate a Varity of Networks 4) Architecture Must Permit a Distributed Management of Resources 5) Architecture Must be Cost Effective 6) Must Permit Host Attachment with Low Level of Effort 7) Resources Used in Architecture Must be Accountable 1 “Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols”, David Clark, MIT, SIGCOMM ’88, Computer Communications Review Vol 18 #4, 1988 Parallel, Spiral Development:  Parallel, Spiral Development Cooperative Buildup and Leveraging to Arrive at an Operational System Parallel Efforts in Launch, Networking, & TacSat Experimentation are Already Occurring TacSat Experiments TacSat-1, 2, …, N System Design, Prototyping, & Rqmts Development Operational Acquisition Launch Vehicle Developments Lower Cost Space S&T and RDT&E Operational Tactical System CONCEPT Network & Comms Developments TacSat Mission Deployments General Orbit & Coverage Considerations:  General Orbit & Coverage Considerations Coverage will Drive Operational Utility as Well As Cost Ability to Launch AFTER Knowing the Region of Interest Helps Reduce Number of Spacecraft & Launches Needed Allowing 1-2 Weeks for Orbit Maneuvering will Cut the Number of Launches Required to LEO Missions in Half Example: LEO for Mid-Latitudes (+/-78) 4 TacSats, 1 each in 0, 30, 180, 210 Plane Ave. Revisit is 1.1 hrs Likely Implementation… 2 Launches into Planes 180 Deg. Apart Raise Orbit of 2 Sats (1 per Plane) by 1000km to Separate Nodes by 30 deg. (Takes ~15 days) Example: Elliptical for Long Dwells 3 Planes Separated by 120 degrees Generally Provides 24 hour Coverage, Except Near Equator Orbit: 11,500km x 1200km at 63.4º inclination Likely Implementation: 3 Launches, 120 deg. Apart Example for 1 day of Passes: LEO 500 km & Agile 20deg FOV Major System Cost Considerations: Call-Up Time:  Major System Cost Considerations: Call-Up Time Launch Processing <3-5 Days Causes Inventory Costs to Sky Rocket Also, Shorter Times Generally Require Waivers of Safety, National, and International Processes Call-Up Includes Launch Processing Time Orbit Maneuvering Time Major System Cost Considerations: Spacecraft Unit Cost:  Major System Cost Considerations: Spacecraft Unit Cost Spacecraft Unit Cost is a System Cost Driver, behind Call-Up Must Carefully Trade Near Term Performance to Keep Cost Down Appropriate Missions with Today’s Technology:  Appropriate Missions with Today’s Technology Select RF Missions SIGNIT / ELINT SEI / AIS Blue Force Tracking Data Ex-Filtration Surge or Replacement Comms Software Radios for Flexibility Near Term Imaging Missions 2-3 Meter Class Visible, 5m Class HSI and IR Select Chemical/Bio Detection Select Space Surveillance and Control Missions New Capabilities & Increased Performance will Come with Technology Improvements If a Robust and Standardized Tactical Space System is in Place First Conclusions:  Conclusions TacSat-1 Experiment Provides a Tangible Implementation & 1st Step Believe, and Hope, Helping to Energize the DoD and Industry in the Responsive Space Area Proper Prioritization of Requirements is Essential for an Operational System Development to be Successful 1) Organic Part of the JTF : Tactical Control & Networking 2) Operationally Useful Coverage 3) Battle Asset Class of Cost for a Called-Up TacSat Mission System Cost Drivers Must be Carefully Traded and Matched to the Needs of the Forces Call-Up Time & Performance Cooperative Development is Needed to Realize an Useful Tactical Space System Launch, Network/Comm, Spacecraft, Ground, TacSat Experimentation

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