T5 lesson 04 aqeedah_20100905

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Education

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: Shahedur

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Islam, religion, Faith, Quran, Hadith, Aqeeda, Creed

atMusallah at-Taqwa Islamic College of Canberra Saturday September 5, 2010 Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles Class Notes – Term 5, Week 4 ... ... His Messengers ... Fourth Pillar - Iman in the Prophets & Messengers • This means believing in every one of the prophets and messengers Allah (swt) has named in the Quran and the belief that Allah (swt) sent others besides them whose number and names only He (swt) knows. • The messengers (ar-rusul, plural of rasool) are the ones who are sent to convey a message. What is meant by rasool is those of mankind who had revelation and religious law sent to them and were ordered to convey it to the people. The first of the messengers was Nuh (as) and the last of them was Muhammad (saw). Allah (swt) says: Íνω÷èt/ .ÏΒ z↵Íh‹Î;¨Ζ9$#uρ 8yθçΡ 4’n<Î) !$uΖø‹ym÷ρr& !$yϑx. y7ø‹s9Î) !$uΖø‹ym÷ρr& !$ΡÎ) Verily, we have inspired you (O Muhammad ) as we inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him [An Nisaa; 4:163] • Also, Allah (swt) said about Muhammad (saw): ∩⊆⊃∪ $VϑŠÎ=tã >™ó©x« Èe≅ä3Î/ ª!$# tβ%x.uρ 3 z↵ÍhŠÎ;¨Ψ9$# zΟs?$yzuρ «!$# tΑθß™§‘ Å3≈s9uρ öΝä3Ï9%y`Íh‘ ÏiΒ 7‰tnr& !$t/r& ϑptèΧ tβ%x. $¨Β Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets, and Allah is ever aware of everything. [Al Ahzaab; 33:40] • Whoever does not believe in the messengers has gone astray and will be of the losers on the Day of Resurrection. Those who claim to believe in Allah (swt) but disbelieve in the Messengers and Books do not estimate Allah (swt) with the estimation due to Him. Allah (swt) says: &™ó©x« ÏiΒ 9Ž|³o0 4’n?tã ª!$# tΑt“Ρr& !$tΒ (#θä9$s% øŒÎ) ÿÍνÍ‘ô‰s% ¨,ym ©!$# (#ρâ‘y‰s% $tΒuρ They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration). [Al An’aam; 6:91] • Those who estimate Allah (swt) with the estimation due to Him know His attributes of knowledge, wisdom and mercy, and they inevitably know for certain that He sent the messengers and revealed the books, because this is what is implied by His attributes, for He did not create this universe in vain. • Whoever disbelieves in the Messengers whilst claiming to believe in Allah (swt) is a kaafir in the sight of Allah (swt) and their belief will not avail them in any form. • ...

• There was not a nation left without Allah (swt) sending a messenger to them with a special prescribed law for his people, or a prophet sent to revive prescribed laws given previously. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊄⊆∪ ֍ƒÉ‹tΡ $pκŽÏù Ÿξyz žωÎ) >π¨Βé& ôÏiΒ βÎ)uρ ... and there never was a nation but a warner had passed among them. [Faatir; 35:24] • What is the difference between a messenger and a prophet? The view of those who say that there is no difference is incorrect. Allah (swt) differentiates some of His messengers as being both messengers and prophets: Allah (swt) says about Moosa (as): ∩∈⊇∪ $|‹Î;Ρ Zωθß™u‘ tβ%x.uρ $TÁn=øƒèΧ tβ%x. …çµΡÎ) 4 #©y›θãΒ É=≈tGÅ3ø9$# ’Îû öä.øŒ$#uρ And mention In the Book (this Quran) Moosa. Verily! He was chosen and he was a Messenger (and) a Prophet. [Faatir; 35:24] • The favoured definition is that: A messenger is the one who receives the revelation of a new law (shariah) and a Prophet is the one who is sent to confirm the law of the one who came before him. • The wisdom of Allah (swt) dictated that He would send a warner to each of the nations before this ummah. His Justice dictated that He would not punish anyone until after the proof had been established against them. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊇∈∪ Zωθß™u‘ y]yèö6tΡ 4©®Lym tÎ/Éj‹yèãΒ $¨Ζä. $tΒuρ ... and we never punish until we have sent a Messenger (to give warning). [Al Israa; 17:15] • Hence the number of messengers and prophets who have come throughout human history is immense. According to the report of Abu Umaamah, Abu Dharr stated: I said, ‘O messenger of Allah, what is the complete number of Prophets?’, he said: ‘124,000, among whom the messengers where 315, a large number [Ahmad]. The Attributes of the Messengers • The messengers were human and created beings. They had no share at all of Lordship nor any right to a share of worship or divinity. Allah (swt) says about the Prophet (saw) and he had the highest standing with Allah (swt): z©Í_¡¡tΒ $tΒuρ Ύöy‚ø9$# zÏΒ ßN÷ŽsYò6tGó™]ω |=ø‹tóø9$# ãΝn=ôãr& àMΖä. öθs9uρ 4 ª!$# u™!$x© $tΒ žωÎ) #…ŽŸÑ Ÿωuρ $Yèø tΡ ©Å¤ø uΖÏ9 à7Î=øΒr& Hω ≅è% ∩⊇∇∇∪ tβθãΖÏΒ÷σム5Θöθs)Ïj9 ׎Ï±o0uρ ֍ƒÉ‹tΡ žωÎ) O$tΡr& ÷βÎ) 4 â™þθ¡9$# Say: "I possess no power of benefit or hurt to myself except as Allah wills; if I had the knowledge of the Ghayb (unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched Me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to people who believe." [Al Araaf; 7:188] • The Messengers experience whatever the rest of mankind experience with regard to illness, death, the need for food and drink and so on. Allah (swt) said about Ibrahim (as) that he described His Lord by saying: ∩∇⊇∪ ÈÍŠøtä† ¢ΟèO ©Í_çGŠÏϑム“Ï%©!$#uρ ∩∇⊃∪ ÉÏ ô±o„ uθßγsù àMôÊ̍tΒ #sŒÎ)uρ ∩∠®∪ ÈÉ)ó¡o„uρ ©Í_ßϑÏèôÜムuθèδ “Ï%©!$#uρ And it is He who gives me food and drink. And when I am ill, it is He who cures me. Who will cause me to die, and then to life (again). [Al Araaf; 7:188]

• The humanity of the messengers implies that they would be exposed to trials and tribulations like all other human beings. Their people may harm them and make them bleed as they did to the Prophet (saw) in the battle of Uhud. They may expel them from their homes as Ibrahim (as) migrated from Iraq to Syria and as the Prophet (saw) migrated from Makkah to Madinah. Their opponents may also kill them. Allah (swt) says: ∩∇∠∪ šχθè=çGø)s? $Z)ƒÌsùuρ ÷Λäö/¤‹x. $Z)ƒÌx sù ÷Λän÷Žy9õ3tFó™$# ãΝä3Ý¡à Ρr& #“uθöκsE Ÿω $yϑÎ/ 7Αθß™u‘ öΝä.u™!%y` $yϑ=ä3sùr& ... is it that whenever there came to you a messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed. [Al Araaf; 7:188] • The messengers did not merely suffer tribulation, they were the most sorely tested of mankind. This is as per the hadith of the Prophet (saw) reported by Tirmidhi that a man will be tested according to his level of religious commitment. • One of the implications of their being human is that they did the same kind of work as other humans do. For example, the Messenger (saw) was engaged in trade before his risaalah. The Prophets also tended sheep, among them Moosa (as) who was hired as a shepherd for a number of years. • The Prophet (saw) said: ‘I am just a human like yourselves, I forget just as you forget. So if I forget, then remind me’. [Muslim] • Allah (swt) described the messengers as being slaves of His, and this is at the height of their honour and in the context of praise of them. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊇∪ #ƒÉ‹tΡ šÏϑn=≈yèù=Ï9 tβθä3u‹Ï9 Íνωö6tã 4’n?tã tβ$s%öà ø9$# tΑ¨“tΡ “Ï%©!$# x8u‘$t6s? Blessed be He who sent down the criterion (this Quran) to his slave (Muhammad) that he may be a warner to the 'Alamin (mankind and jinns). [Al Furqan; 25:1] • The more a person attains a state of true enslavement to Allah (swt), the closer they become to attaining human perfection. The further away they are from attaining true enslavement to Allah (swt), the more they fall and are led astray. • The messengers won the race in this respect. Their lives were a series of efforts to attain this true enslavement to Allah (swt). The Prophet (saw) was praised by his Lord for achieving the noblest degree of true enslavement to Allah (swt). Requirements of Iman in the Messengers • Iman in the messengers is comprised of four matters: i. To believe that they were truly messengers sent by Allah (swt): To disbelieve in just one of the messengers sent by Allah (swt) constitutes kufr (disbelief) in all of them. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊇⊃∈∪ tÎ=y™ößϑø9$# ?yθçΡ ãΠöθs% Mt/¤‹x. The people of Nooh rejected the Messengers. [Al Shu’araah; 26:105] Allah (swt) declared them to be deniers of all the messengers, even though no other messenger was sent to them besides Nooh (as). Because of this, the Christians who deny Muhammad (saw) are in essence also denying Eisa (as) and are not following him either – especially since he gave them news of the coming of Muhammad. This is because the messengers are bearers of one message, and that is the message of monotheism (tawheed).

ii. To believe in each of them, in particular those whose names we know: Such as Muhammad, Ibrahim, Moosa, Eisa and Nooh (as), and these five are the ones firmest in their resolve (ulu al-azm) from amongst the messengers. As for those whose names are unknown to us, then we have general and comprehensive belief in all of them: šø‹n=tã óÈÝÁø)tΡ öΝ©9 ¨Β Νßγ÷ΨÏΒuρ y7ø‹n=tã $oΨóÁ|Ás% ¨Β Οßγ÷ΨÏΒ y7Î=ö7s% ÏiΒ Wξߙ①$uΖù=y™ö‘r& ô‰s)s9uρ Indeed we have sent messengers before you (O Muhammad); some of them we have related to you their story and of some we have not related to you their story. [Ghafir; 40:78] iii. To affirm whatever is narrated authentically from their reports: Either in the Quran or the Sunnah, and this may include their stories, their miracles and everything general or particular regarding them. iv. To act in accordance with the revealed law of the Messenger (saw) who was sent to us: He is the seal of the messengers who was sent to all people, and the shariah he came with is the basis of legislation. Allah (swt) says: |MøŠŸÒs% $£ϑÏiΒ %[`tym öΝÎηÅ¡à Ρr& þ’Îû (#ρ߉Ågs† Ÿω §ΝèO óΟßγoΨ÷t/ tyfx© $yϑŠÏù x8θßϑÅj3ysム4©®Lym šχθãΨÏΒ÷σムŸω y7În/u‘uρ Ÿξsù ∩∉∈∪ $VϑŠÎ=ó¡n@ (#θßϑÏk=|¡ç„uρ But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission. [Ghafir; 40:78] Fruits of Iman in the Messengers • Iman in the Messengers has great fruits, from them: i. Knowledge of the mercy of Allah (swt) and the great care He has for His servants since He sent to them messengers to guide them to the way of Allah (swt) and to make clear how they should worship Allah (swt). ii. Giving thanks to Allah (swt) for this great blessing. iii. Love and respect for the messengers and to give them their due level of respect and praise, since they are messengers sent by none other than Allah (swt). Deniers of the Messengers • Those obstinate rejecters who denied their messengers did so claiming that messengers of Allah (swt) cannot be from mankind. This is because they only look at the outward appearance of man, viewing him only as a body which eats, drinks, sleeps and fulfils their needs. • They do not look at the essence of man, the soul which was breathed into him. It is this soul which distinguishes man and makes him human and gives him the role of khaleefah (vicegerent) on earth. Allah (swt) equipped man to be able to have contact with Him by means of his soul. • The false evidence used by the obstinate rejecters to support their claim are as Allah (swt) says:

ÇÚö‘F{$# ’Îû šχ%x. öθ©9 ≅è% ∩®⊆∪ Zωθß™§‘ #ZŽ|³o0 ª!$# y]yèt/r& (#þθä9$s% βr& HωÎ) #“y‰ßγø9$# æΛèεu™!%y` øŒÎ) (#þθãΖÏΒ÷σムβr& }¨$¨Ζ9$# yìuΖtΒ $tΒuρ ∩®∈∪ Zωθß™§‘ $Z6n=tΒ Ï™!$yϑ¡¡9$# š∅ÏiΒ ΟÎγøŠn=tæ $uΖø9¨”t∴s9 tÏiΨÍ≥yϑôÜãΒ šχθà±ôϑtƒ ×πx6Í×≈n=tΒ And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them, except that they said: "Has Allah sent a man as (His) Messenger?”. Say: "If there were on the earth angels walking about in peace, we should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a messenger." [Al Israa; 17:94-5] • Allah (swt) refutes this claim of theirs since each messenger was sent to the people of the earth who are themselves human. If the inhabitants of this earth were angels, Allah (swt) would have sent down an angel from the heavens as a messenger to them so that he would be like them. • Also a messenger sent to mankind through a man would feel what they feel, understand their inclinations and longings and knows their needs and burdens. He leads them step-by-step, understands their motives, emotions and responses because at the end of the day he is one of them. • Also it would be very difficult to see the angels, so when the disbelievers suggest that the messengers be angels, they did not understand the nature of the angels. Seeing the angels is no simple matter, as the Prophet (saw) was given great mental and physical strength, yet when he saw Jibreel in his true form he was filled with terror. Review questions 1. Why didn’t the disbelievers estimate Allah (swt) with an estimation due to Him, as per verse 91 of Surat Al An’aam? 2. In your own words describe the difference between a messenger and a prophet. How do we know that a difference exists? 3. What is the ultimate honour which Allah (swt) describes the messengers as having? Explain your answer. 4. What are the implications of disbelieving in a single messenger sent by Allah (swt)? Support your answer with evidence. 5. What claim did the disbelievers make in an attempt to justify their rejection of the messengers? How can this claim be refuted?

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