T5 lesson 02 aqeedah_20100815

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Information about T5 lesson 02 aqeedah_20100815

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: Shahedur

Source: slideshare.net


Islam, religion, Faith, Quran, Hadith, Aqeeda, Creed

atMusallah at-Taqwa Saturday August 15, 2010 Islamic College of Canberra Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles Class Notes – Term 5, Week 2 . ... : , : . The second level: Iman – and it has seventy and odd branches, the highest of them is the saying that ‘none has the right to be worshipped except Allah (laa ilaaha illallah), the lowest of them is removal of that which is harmful from the path, and a sense of shame (al-hayaa) is a branch of Iman. Its pillars are six: to truly believe in Allah ... Iman – an Introduction • The second ‘martaba’ of the religion is Iman. The linguistic meaning of Iman is to believe in something. As Allah (swt) says: ∩⊇∠∪ tÏ%ω≈|¹ $¨Ζà2 öθs9uρ $uΖ©9 9ÏΒ÷σßϑÎ/ |MΡr& !$tΒuρ ... but you will never believe us when we speak the truth [Yusuf; 12:17] • The ‘shar3i’ meaning of Iman is: Certain faith in the heart, speech of the tongue and action of the parts of the body. • As per the hadith mentioned by the Sheikh (ra), Iman has seventy and odd braches, the highest being the testimony of the shahadah and the lowest being the removal of that which is harmful from the path, and shame is a branch of Iman. • • ‘Bid’un’ (odd) implies an unstated number between three and nine. Removal of that which is harmful implies things which harm or emit an offensive smell such as rocks, thorns, scrap or rubbish. • ‘Al-Hayaa’ (sense of shame) is something which is experienced when one is embarrassed and prevents a person from doing that which is contrary to good manners. • The person who has shame will abstain from sin as a result of this shame. If an abstinence from sin has occurred as a result of hayaa then this is a part of Iman. • ‘Al-Hayaa’ is a natural disposition which will carry a person to do that which is good and pleasing and prevent them from doing that which is bad and displeasing. As the hadith of the Prophet (saw) says: If you have no sense of shame then do as you wish. [Bukhari]

Difference between Iman and Islam • There is no difference between Iman and Islam if they are mentioned in separate contexts. That is, if Islam is mentioned independently, then it carries the meaning of Iman, and vice-versa. Allah (swt) says: ö/ä3÷ƒuθyzr& t÷t/ (#θßsÎ=ô¹r'sù ×οuθ÷zÎ) tβθãΖÏΒ÷σßϑø9$# $yϑΡÎ) The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). so make reconciliation between Your brothers ...[Al Hujuraat; 49:10] • • That is, the Muslims are the brothers of one another. However, if Islam and Iman are mentioned within the same context then their meaning will differ from one another. Generally speaking, Islam now comes to mean the outward acts of worship while Iman comes to mean the acts of worship contained exclusively within the heart. This is proven in Surat Al Hujuraat: öΝä3Î/θè=è% ’Îû ß≈yϑƒM}$# È≅äzô‰tƒ $£ϑs9uρ $oΨôϑn=ó™r& (#þθä9θè% Å3≈s9uρ (#θãΖÏΒ÷σè? öΝ©9 ≅è% ( $¨ΨtΒ#u™ Ü>#{ôãF{$# ÏMs9$s% The bedouins say: "We believe." say: "You believe not but you only say, 'We have surrendered (in Islam),' for faith has not yet entered your hearts …[Al Hujuraat; 49:14] • That is, say O Arabs, we have outwardly (i.e. through our actions) entered into Islam, but until now the realities of Iman have not entered your hearts. • Having said this, if Islam and Iman are mentioned in the same context and Islam becomes the outward actions and Iman the inward actions, it is still not possible to have Islam except with some accompanying Iman in the heart (otherwise this would imply hypocrisy). This portion of Iman makes a person a Muslim, however this does not mean they have fulfilled the full requirements of Islam. • For example, a person may fulfil their outward acts of worship, they may fear Allah and love Allah (actions of the heart), however it is weak and not to the level which will prevent them from abstaining from all sins. • We are not able to judge someone as being a Mu’min (believer) as we do not know what is in their hearts, rather we call them Muslims because we can only judge on the outward actions. Pillars of Iman • The way in which the words of the author that Iman consists of seventy and odd branches is harmonised with the fact that Iman has six pillars is to say: i. The Iman which is ones aqeedah (creed and belief) has six fundamentals. These are what are mentioned in the hadith of Jibreel. ii. As for the Iman which covers actions and their various types, then it has seventy and odd branches. Allah (swt) has called the salaat (prayer) Iman. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊇⊆⊂∪ ÒΟŠÏm§‘ Ô∃ρâ™ts9 Ĩ$¨Ψ9$$Î/ ©!$# žχÎ) 4 öΝä3oΨ≈yϑƒÎ) yì‹ÅÒã‹Ï9 ª!$# tβ%x. $tΒuρ ... and Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem) [Al Baqarah; 2:143]. • The tafseer of this verse means; your prayers towards Jerusalem, since before the sahabah were ordered to face the ka’bah, they used to face Jerusalem.

First Pillar – Belief in Allah (refer to pages 134-150 of the textbook for more comprehensive notes) • Iman in Allah (swt) comprises four matters: i. Belief in the existence of Allah. The existence of Allah (swt) is proven by: I. The natural disposition (fitrah). II. The Revelation (al-wahy). IV. I. The intellect (al-‘aql). III. What is experienced and perceived. As for the proof of the natural disposition of His existence, then every created being is created upon the natural fitrah of belief in its creator. No one is turned away from this natural fitrah except when his heart is taken over by that which will turn them away from it (see hadith in textbook). II. As for the proof of the intellect (al-‘aql) for the existence of Allah (swt) is due to the fact that all these created things must have a creator who brought them into being since it is not possible for any being to create itself, nor that it should just appear by chance without cause. Since it is not possible that the creation brought itself into existence, nor that it came into being randomly and without cause then it has to be the case that Allah (swt) is the One who brought it into being. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊂∈∪ šχθà)Î=≈y‚ø9$# ãΝèδ ÷Πr& >™ó©x« Ύöxî ôÏΒ (#θà)Î=äz ÷Πr& Were they created by nothing or did they create themselves?! [At Toor; 52:35] III. As for the proof of revelation for the existence of Allah (swt) then all of the revealed books state this. Also the rulings and laws send down in revelation which ensure the wellbeing of the creation are proof that they are from a wise Lord who knows everything that benefits His creation. IV. As for the proof contained in what is experienced and perceived for the existence of Allah (swt) then it has two angles: a. We hear and see those who supplicate being answered and those in distress who call upon Him being relieved to such an extent that it is a certain proof of His existence. It has been something always witnessed till this day, that those who call upon Allah (swt) sincerely and fulfil the conditions for supplication to be answered will be responded to. Allah (swt) says: ∩®∪ šÏùÏŠóß∆ Ïπs3Í×≈n=yϑø9$# zÏiΒ 7#ø9r'Î/ Νä.‘‰ÏϑãΒ ’ÎoΤr& öΝà6s9 z>$yftFó™$$sù öΝä3−/u‘ tβθèW‹ÉótGó¡n@ øŒÎ) When you sought aid and deliverance from your Lord and He responded to you. [Al Anfal; 8:9] b. The clear miracles brought by the Prophets and seen or heard by the people are a decisive proof for the One who sent them, i.e. Allah (swt). This is because they were things outside the realm of human ability, and were done by Allah (swt) to aid and help His messengers. ii. Iman in His Lordhip (ar-Ruboobiyah): That is, that He alone is the Lord, having no sharer or helper in that. The Lord (ar-rubb) is the one who creates, is the Sovereign King, and the Command is His. It is not known that anyone from the creation denied the Lordship of Allah (swt) except those who did so out of arrogance and not out of belief in what they said. This was the case with Firawn. The mushriks (polytheists) used to affirm the Lordship of Allah (swt) even though they wrongfully worshipped others besides Him.

The command of Allah (swt) covers the creational command and the legislative command. So just as he arranges and controls the creation decreeing for it whatever He wishes, then likewise He is the sovereign Judge who lays down and prescribes the acts of worship and the judgements for social affairs and dealings. Thus, whoever takes someone else along with Allah (swt) to prescribe and legislate with regards to acts of worship, then they have committed shirk and have not realised Iman. iii. Iman in Allah’s sole right to be worshipped (al-Uloohiyyah): That is, that He alone is the One who has the right to be worshipped, and no share of any worship is to be directed to anyone else besides Him. Al-Ilaah means that which is worshipped with love and veneration. Allah (swt) says: ∩⊇∉⊂∪ ÞΟŠÏm§9$# ß≈yϑôm§9$# uθèδ žωÎ) tµ≈s9Î) Hω ( Ó‰Ïn≡uρ ×µ≈s9Î) ö/ä3ßγ≈s9Î)uρ And the God alone who has the right to be worshipped is a single God (Allah) so do not worship anything besides Him, nor associate anything in worship with Him, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. [Al Baqarah; 2:163] Everything which is taken as a god to be worshipped besides Him is a false and futile object of worship. Furthermore the fact that they are called good (aaliha) in no way gives them the right to be worshipped. Allah (swt) has exposed the futility of worshipping others besides Him with two clear intellectual proofs: a. These gods which they worship, do not possess any attributes of divinity. Rather they are created beings which cannot create, nor can they bring any benefit to those who worship them, nor can they keep away any harm from them, nor do they have any power over their life or death, nor do they own and control anything in the heavens. So this being the state of these gods, then to worship them is the greatest folly. b. The mushriks used to affirm that Allah (swt) alone is the Lord, the Creator and the Controller of all affairs, therefore this should necessitate that they single Him out with all worship just as they have singled him out by affirming all Lordship. iv. Iman in Allah’s names and attributes: That is, to affirm, whatever names and attributes Allah (swt) affirmed for Himself in His Book, or in the Sunnnah of His Messenger (saw) in a manner befitting Him, without changing their meaning (tahreef), without denial of them (ta’teel), without asserting how they are (takyeef) and without declaring them to be like the attributes of the creation (tamtheel). With regard to this issue, two groups have gone astray: i. The Mu’attilah: Those who deny Allah’s names and attributes, or some of them, claiming that to affirm them necessitates making a resemblance between Allah (swt) and His creation. This is a false and futile claim and its futility is shown in a number of ways: a. It would necessitate conclusions that are futile, such as that there is contradiction in the Speech of Allah (swt). This is because Allah (swt) affirmed the names and attributes for Himself and also denied that anything is like Him. So if affirming them necessitated resemblance between Allah and His creation, then this would mean that there is a contradiction in Allah’s speech and that some of it negates the rest. b. If two things have a name or a description that is common to them both, it does not necessitate that they are alike. So you see that two people share the fact that they are humans and possess hearing, sight and speech but that does not mean that they are alike in their human qualities.

ii. The Mushabbihah: Those who affirm the names and attributes and also declare Allah (swt) to be like His creations. This claim of theirs is false and futile and its futility is shown in a number of ways. a. That it is disproven by the intellect and the revelation since it is not possible that the texts of the Kitaab and Sunnah require and necessitate something that is false and futile. b. That Allah (swt) addressed the people with that which is in essence understandable to them, however as for its essential reality and how that which is spoken of is, then this knowledge which Allah (swt) has kept to himself. For example Allah (swt) has affirmed for Himself that He hears and hearing is something understandable to us, but as for the reality of how Allah’s (swt) heating is, then that is unknown to us. Fruits of Iman • Iman in Allah as we have described it will produce great fruits for the believers, from them: i. That a person implements and realises the tawheed of Allah (swt) such that he is not attached and devoted to other than Him. So he does not place hope in others, fear others, and does not worship and besides Him. ii. Completion of one’s love for Allah (swt) and revere Him as is commanded by His perfect names and exalted attributes. iii. To accomplish worship of Him by doing whatever He has commanded and avoiding whatever He has forbidden. Review questions • There are no review notes for this week, Please read the allocated pages in the textbook (134-150) and ensure that you have understood the essential points.

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