Published on February 18, 2014
Musallah at-Taqwa Islamic College of Canberra Saturday September 12, 2009 ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles Class Notes – Term 3, Week 5 ﻭﹶﺃْﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﱠﺘﻲ ﹶﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ، ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺨﻮﻑ ُ ْ َ َ ُ َ ِ ْ َ ِ َ ِْ ُ ﺪ ِ ِ َ َ َ ُ َِ َ ِ ﻟِ َ َ ُ َ ِ ﹾ ﹸ ِ ْ ﹺ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﺟﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻮﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻏﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻫﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺨﺸﻮﻉ ، ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺨﺸﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻹَﻧﺎَﺑﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎَﻧﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ َ ﺮ َ ُ َ ﺘ َ ﱡ ﹸ َ ﺮ ﹾَ ﹸ َ ﺮ ْ َ ﹸ َ ُ ُ ُ َ َ ْ َ ﹸ َ ِ ﹸ َ ِ ْ ِ َ ﹸ َ ِ ْ ِ َ ﹶ ﹸ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﻐﺎﹶﺛﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠْﺑﺢ ، ﻭﺍﻟﱠﺬﺭ ، ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫِﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﹶﺃﻧْﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﱠﺘﻲ ﹶﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﷲ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ ﹺ َِ َ ﻟِ َ َ ُ َ ﹸ ﱡ َ ِ َ ﺪ ﹸ ِ َ َ ِ ِْ َ ﹸ َ ﺬ ُ َ ﻨ ﹾ ُ َ ﹶ ُ ﹶ ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ: ﴿ ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﷲ ﻓﻼ َﺗﺪﻋﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﹶﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﴾. ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ِﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ َ ُ ﹶ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ ْ َ َ ْﹰ َ ﹺ ِ ﹶ ًَ ِ ََ ُْ َﻥ َ َ ﹺَ ِ ﹶ َ ُ ْﹶ َ ُ ْ ُ ْ ﹺﻙ ﹶ ِﺮ َ ﺪ ﹸ ﹶ ﻣﺸﺮ ٌ ﻛﺎﻓ ٌ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ: ﴿ ﻭﻣﻦ َﻳﺪﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻬﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻُﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ ﹺﺑﻪ ﻓﺈﱠﻤﺎ ﺣﺴﺎُﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ َ ْ ِ ُ َ ِ َ َ َ ْ ْ ُ َ َ ِ ً َ َ ْ َ ﹶ ُ ِ ﹶ ﹺﻧ ﺭﱢﻪ ﹺﺇﱠﻪ ﻻ ُﻳﻔﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ ﴾. ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ "ﺍﻟ ﱡﻋﺎﺀ ﻣ ﱡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ" ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ: ﴿ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ َﹶ ﹶ َ ُ ْ َﺑ ِ ﻧ ُ ﹾ ِ ُ ﹶ ِ ُ ﹶ َ ِ َ ِ ِ ﺪ َ ُ ُﺦ َِ َ ِ َ ﺪ ﹸ ﹶ .﴾ ﺭﱡﻜﻢ ﺍﺩﻋﻮﹺﻧﻰ ﹶﺃﺳﺘﺠﺐ ﹶﻟﻜﻢ ﹺﺇ ﱠ ﺍﱠﺬﻳﻦ َﻳﺴﺘﻜﺒﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩِﺗﻲ ﺳﻴﺪﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﺟﻬﱠﻢ ﺩﺍﺧﺮﻳﻦ َ ْ َ ﹺ ْ ﹸ ْ ﻥ ﻟ ِ َ ْ َ ﹾ ﹺ ُ ﹶ َ ْ ِ َ َ َ َ ْ ُ ﹸ ﹶ َ َﻨ َ َ ِ ﹺ ُ ْ ْ َﺑ ﹸ All the types of worship which Allah commanded – like Islam (submission and obedience to Allah), Eeman (true faith comprising belief of the heart, speech of the tongue and action of the limbs), and Ihsaan (perfection of worship), and from that is invocation/supplication (duaa), reverential fear (khawf), hope and longing (rajaa), trust and reliance (tawakkul), fervent desire (raghbah), dread (rahbah), reverence and humility (khushoo’), awe (khashyah), turning repentantly (inaabah), appealing for aid and assistance (isti’aanah), seeking refuge (isti’adhah), seeking deliverance and rescue (istighaathah), sacrificing (dhabh), vows (nadhr) and the rest of the types of worship commanded by Allah, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allah (swt). The proof for this is His (swt) saying: ‘And the places of prayer are for Allah alone, so do not invoke anyone along with Allah’ [Al‐Jinn; 71:18]. Anyone who directs any part of that to anything besides Allah, then he is a mushrik (polytheist), an unbeliever (kaafir), and the proof is His (swt) saying: ‘And whoever worships along with Allah any other object of worship and has no proof for that; his reckoning will be with his Lord, indeed the unbelievers will never prosper’ [Al‐Muminoon; 23:117]. In the hadeeth there occurs: “Invocation is the core of worship”, and the evidence for this is the saying of Allah (swt): ‘Your Lord says: O people, invoke Me and supplicate to Me making your worship sincerely for Me alone, and I will answer you; indeed those who disdain to worship me will enter the Hellfire in disgrace’ [Ghaafir; 40:60]. Types of worship • • After explaining that Allah (swt) alone is our Lord who is deserving of all worship, the Sheikh (ra) goes on to explain the different types of worship a servant may direct to Allah (swt), and that if any of these are directed to other than Allah (swt) then it constitutes shirk! The Sheikh (ra) uses the term ‘amara’ (ordered) which is consistent with the evidence used in Surat Al‐Baqarah, where Allah (swt) orders mankind to worship Him alone.
• • • The Sheikh (ra) mentions these types of worship as an example of some of the types of worship. They are by no means an exhaustive list! He commences by mentioning the levels of the deen, i.e. Islam, Iman and Ihsaan. We will Inshallah discuss these in more details when we cover the second principle, i.e. Knowledge of the Deen of Islam. In that lesson we will Inshallah come to know that Islam and Iman have ‘arkaan’ (pillars) and how Ihsan has a specific definition. The Sheikh (ra) mentions them here to indicate that no act of worship falls outside these three levels (Islam, Iman & Ihsaan) since they constitute the deen in its entirety. There are fourteen types of worship mentioned in the text (remember these are not the only ones) which we will Inshallah discuss in more detail in the upcoming weeks. By better understanding these acts of worship it will assist us greatly in worshipping Allah (swt) in the rightful manner which He deserves. Evidences • • The Sheikh (ra) gives evidences to show that those acts of worship mentioned, should only be directed to Allah (swt). Directing them to other than Allah (swt) is impermissible and constitutes shirk (like we now know). The first of these evidences is in Surat Al‐Jinn which we previously took when explaining that Allah (swt) is not pleased with shirk (T2, L1): ∩⊇∇∪ #Y‰tnr& «!$# yìtΒ (#θããô‰s? Ÿξsù ¬! y‰Éf≈|¡yϑø9$# ¨βr&uρ And the places of worship are for Allah (alone): so do not invoke any one along with Allah. [Al‐Jinn; 72:18] • • This verse is used as proof since Allah (swt) informs us that the ‘masaajid’ (i.e. places where sujood is made), or the limbs on which a person prostrates, are for Allah (swt) alone. Then as a consequence of that He (swt) forbids the worship or prostration of anything else alongside Him. ∩⊇⊇∠∪ tβρãÏ≈s3ø9$# ßxÎ=øãƒ Ÿω …çμ¯ΡÎ) 4 ÿ⎯ÏμÎn/u‘ y‰ΖÏã …çμç/$|¡Ïm $yϑ¯ΡÎ*sù ⎯ÏμÎ/ …çμs9 z⎯≈yδöç/ Ÿω tyz#u™ $·γ≈s9Î) «!$# yìtΒ äíô‰tƒ ⎯tΒuρ And whoever invokes (or worships), besides Allah, any other Ilaah (deity), of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is with his Lord. Surely! Al‐Kâfirûn (the disbelievers In Allah and in the Oneness of Allah) will not be successful. [Al‐Mu’minoon; 23:47] • • • This verse is used as proof since Allah (swt) explains that whoever supplicates and invokes something else besides Allah (swt), then he is a kaafir (disbeliever in the Oneness of Allah). Furthermore, the saying ‘... they have no proof for that’ indicates that it not possible for there to be proof supporting worship of other gods. It is not a ‘qualifying statement meant to exclude that which is supported by proof’, i.e. it does not mean that if a person has evidence then it is permissible to worship others besides Allah (swt), since it is not possible for there to be any proof allowing worship of anything along with Allah (swt)!
ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻋﺎ ﺪ ﺀ Supplication/Invocation ‐ • • • The first type of worship which the Sheikh (ra) mentions is ‘duaa’. We previously mentioned that the definition of worship is ‘all the sayings and actions loved by Allah (swt), both hidden and apparent’. Duaa fits this description as evidenced by the hadith used by the Sheikh. The hadeeth is the wording of At‐Tirmidhi which is considered weak (see textbook for details). The more correct wording is that which is reported by Imam Ahmad which is ‘Invocation is worship’. The evidence to show that duaa is worship is the verse in Surat Ghafir: ∩∉⊃∪ š⎥⎪ÌÅz#yŠ tΛ©⎝yγy_ tβθè=äzô‰u‹y™ ’ÎAyŠ$t6Ïã ô⎯tã tβρçÉ9õ3tGó¡o„ š⎥⎪Ï%©!$# ¨βÎ) 4 ö/ä3s9 ó=ÉftGó™r& þ’ÎΤθãã÷Š$# ãΝà6š/u‘ tΑ$s%uρ And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer): but those who are too arrogant to worship me will surely find themselves In Hell ‐ In humiliation!" [Ghafir; 40:60] • • • • • This verse proves that invocation/supplication (duaa) is worship, and if that were not the case it would not be said: ‘... but those who are too arrogant to worship me ...’. Also from this verse we learn that whoever calls upon anyone/anything besides Allah (swt), requesting something which none but Allah (swt) has the power to give is a mushrik (polytheist) and a kaafir (disbeliever), regardless if he called upon someone who was alive or dead. Requesting something from someone (living) which is within their capacity to perform (e.g. give me food/drink) is not considered as shirk, as there is not harm in that. Whoever asks the same thing of a dead person, then he is definitely a mushrik, since the deceased cannot answer. In this case, his duaa to them indicates that he believes they have some control over the creation. Duaa is one of the greatest acts of worship, and one of the greatest means of drawing closer to Allah (swt). Allah (swt) says: öΝßγ¯=yès9 ’Î1 (#θãΖÏΒ÷σã‹ø9uρ ’Í< (#θç6‹ÉftGó¡uŠù=sù ( Èβ$tãyŠ #sŒÎ) Æí#¤$!$# nοuθôãyŠ Ü=‹Å_é& ( ë=ƒÌs% ’ÎoΤÎ*sù ©Íh_tã “ÏŠ$t6Ïã y7s9r'y™ #sŒÎ)uρ ∩⊇∇∉∪ šχρß‰ä©ötƒ And when my slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning me, I am indeed near (to them by my knowledge), I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when He calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor), so let them obey me and believe in me, so that they may be led aright. [Al‐Baqarah; 2:186] • There is not a verse in the Quran where the Prophet (saw) is asked a question by the Sahabah ﻗ except that the answer comes from Allah starting with ( ﹸﻞsay O Muhammad), except in this • verse. Allah (swt) does not address the Prophet (saw), but addresses His servants directly, informing them that He answers the duaa of those who make it! Many people complain that they make sincere dua to Allah (swt), yet they do not see any change in their condition. It is essential to understand that the asbaab (means) must be implemented alongside the duaa. It is essential that you are obeying Allah’s commands and avoiding His prohibitions; that you fulfil the conditions of acceptance (e.g. you are not consuming haram wealth), then when these are in place, turn to Allah (swt) alone in duaa.
• • • The Prophet (saw) is on the battlefield in the battle of Badr having implemented all the means, then he turns to Allah (swt) asking and begging his for assistance and victory! So if the people are immersed in haram (e.g. consuming interest, persistent in the disobedience of Allah), then turn to Allah (swt) in duaa, how do they expect their duaa to be accepted?! It is also important to understand that a person must not become impatient because they do not see any forthcoming results from their duaa. A person must be very careful in this situation as this is one of the traps of Shaytaan. It has been reported by Imam Ahmad on the authority of of Sa’eed Al‐Khudri (ra) that the Prophet (saw) said: ُ ﻣَﺎ ﻣﻦ ُﺴﻠﻢ َﻳﺪ ُﻮ ﹶﻟْﻴﺲ ﹺﺑﺈﹾﺛﻢ ﻭَﻻ ﻗﻄِﻴﻌﺔ ﺭﺣﻢ ﺇﹺﻻ ﹶﺃﻋﻄﹶﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺇﺣﺪَﻯ ﺛﹶﻼﺙ: ﹺﺇ ﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻥ ُﻌﺠﻞ ﹶﻟ ٍ ﻣ ﹾ ﻳَ ﱢ ﹶ ﻪ ْ ُ ُ ْ ِ ْ ﻣ ِْ ﹴ ْﻋ َ ﹺ ﹴ ﹶ َ ِ َ ِ ﹴ ﺩﻋﻮَﺗ ُ ﻭﹺﺇ ﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻥ ُﻳﺪﺧﺮﻫَﺎ ﹶﻟ ُ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻭﹺﺇ ﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻥ َﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻋَﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻮﺀ ﻣﹾﺜﻠﻬَﺎ ِ َ ِ َ ﻣ ﹾ َﹶ َ ْ ِ ْ ﺴ ِ ِ ﹶ َ َْﻪ َﻣ ﹾ َ ﱢْ ﻪ No Muslim who makes a supplication, so long as he does not supplicate for a sinful thing or for something that would cut off the ties of kinship, except that Allah will give him one of three things: Either he will hasten the response (i.e. give it to him immediately), preserve it for him for the Hereafter, or He will avert off him any intended harm equivalent to the supplication. [Musnad Imam Ahmad] • So do not despair if Allah (swt) does not respond immediately. If Allah (swt) does responds immediately then this is a bounty from Him. If He preserves it for you for the Hereafter then this is better than this first one. If He averts harm off you equal to the duaa then this is also a great bounty from Him. Two types of duaa • There are two types of duaa: o o • • • – ﺩﻋَﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﹶﺔSupplication of request. ُ ُ ﹶ ْﹶ – ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓSupplication of worship. َ َِ ُ َ ُ Supplication of request is a request for the fulfilment of various needs. It is worship when it is made by the servant to His Lord, because it comprises needing Allah (swt). It is done out of the belief that Allah (swt) is most capable, most generous and full of bounty and mercy, otherwise why would you ask Him (swt)? It is permissible for a servant to make a request to others like him from the creation, as long as the one being called upon understands the request and is able to answer it. Supplication of worship is when the person worships the One being called upon, seeking His reward and fearing His punishment. This type of duaa is not correct for anyone other than Allah, and whoever directs this to other than Allah then they have committed major shirk which expels them from the religion. Such a person falls under the threat in the verse: ∩∉⊃∪ š⎥⎪ÌÅz#yŠ tΛ©⎝yγy_ tβθè=äzô‰u‹y™ ’ÎAyŠ$t6Ïã ô⎯tã tβρçÉ9õ3tGó¡o„ š⎥⎪Ï%©!$# ¨βÎ) “ ... but those who are too arrogant to worship me will surely find themselves In Hell ‐ In humiliation!" [Ghafir; 40:60] • Usually when the word duaa appears in verses of the Quran, it refers to both meanings, because they are interconnected. So everyone who asks of Allah verbally is worshipping Him, because
duaa is worship, and every worshipper who prays to Allah, fasts or does Hajj is doing that hoping for reward from Allah and to attain Paradise and to be saved from punishment. A gem to remember • Ibrahim Ibn Adham (ra), a third century scholar was asked about the saying of Allah: 4 ö/ä3s9 ó=ÉftGó™r& þ’ÎΤθãã÷Š$# ãΝà6š/u‘ tΑ$s%uρ And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer) ..." [Ghafir; 40:60] • • “We supplicate and we are not answered”. So he said to them: o You know Allah, yet you do not obey Him. o You recite the Quran, yet you do not act according to it. o You know Shaytaan, yet you have agreed with him. o You proclaim to love the Prophet (saw) yet you abandon his Sunnah. o You claim to love Paradise, yet you do not act to gain it. o You claim to fear the fire, yet you do not prevent yourselves from sins. o You says ‘Indeed death is true’, yet you have not prepared for it. o You engage yourself in finding fault with others, yet you do not look at your faults. o You eat that which Allah (swt) has provided, yet you do not thank Him. o You bury your dead, yet you do not take a lesson from it. Increase your duaa in Ramadan (and outside of Ramadan), particularly in the last ten days. Review questions 1. To familiarise yourself with the fourteen acts of worship mentioned in the text, write them down in Arabic, then write down their translation. It doesn't matter if you do not know them in detail at this stage. 2. What is the correct meaning of the part of the verse '... and they have no proof for that' in Surat Al‐Muminoon? What is the incorrect meaning? 3. Explain how the hadith ‘Invocation is worship’ is supported in the Quran. 4. What are the three ways Allah (swt) can answer the duaa of a servant? 5. List and explain the two types of duaa.
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