Published on February 23, 2014
Syntactic-category membership of the compound itself or syntactic-category label of its constituents. 1. Compound nouns 2. Compound verbs 3. Compound adjectives 4. Compound adverbs 5. Other form-classes
Most productive pattern of nominal compounding book industry Chess champion Bank balance sheets Machine gun America often the meaning of a N+N compound is ambiguous ->when the context is not supplied
„America with machine gun(s)” „the dangers posed by the easy availability of machine guns”
Two nouns reversed in a compound wall-paper vs. paper wall sugar cane vs. cane sugar leather shoe vs. shoe leather Two identical nouns Jack blew all his money on a suit. Did he buy a new súit suit or a leisure suit?
V+N Drawbridge Hangman Mincemeat Pushbutton N+V Arms control Book review Bus stop Haircut
Blackbird Bluefish High school Quicksand Strongman Software Real time
Afterthought Background By-lane Downtown Outlaw Oversleeve Throughway
Backset Downfall Income Outburst Outcome *to backset (set back) *to downfall (fall down) *to income (come in) *to outburst (burst out) *to outcome (come out)
We can add nominal compounds involving phrases or whole sentence: An up-to-the-minute fashion A never-to-be-forgotten occasion A four-thousand-a-year job
Labelled brackets: [[[war]n [time]n]n [circular]n]n [[morning]n [[news]n [paper]n]n]n
Modifier + head construction - >endocentric having the same synctactic function in the sentence as one of its immediate constituents. Cold water is an endocentric construction, since it functions as would the noun water. Greenhouse is an endocentric compound, since it is a noun as is its head house.
An endocentric construction is a construction that contains: a head, which is the single obligatory element in the construction (except in coordinate constructions, which have multiple heads), and one or more optional elements subordinate to the head. Examples: In the following sentence, the noun phrase wet paint is an endocentric construction. The word paint is the obligatory head and may stand alone in its position in the clause. The word wet is an optional subordinate element. There is wet paint on the bench.
Endocentric nominal compounds are characterized by recursiveness. Vacuum cleaner Vacuum cleaner repair Vacuum cleaner repair shop Vacuum cleaner repair shop supplies, etc. Volume feeding management success formula award -> ”the award given for discovering a formula for succeeding at managing the feeding of people in large volumes” For example: Doghouse -> where house is the head and dog is the modifier, is understood as a house intended for a dog.
Exocentric (bahuvrihi): not having the same syntactic function in the sentence as any one of its immediate constituents. In the garden is an exocentric construction, since it does not function in the same way as the noun garden. The noun bittersweet is an exocentric compound, since it is a noun but its elements are both adjectives. denoting or being a construction which has no explicit head, for example John slept. A bahuvrihi compound is one whose nature is expressed by neither of the words: thus a white-collar person is neither white nor a collar (the collar's colour is a metaphor for socioeconomic status).
Exocentric compounds are hyponyms of some unexpressed semantic head (e.g. a person, a plant, an animal...), and their meaning often cannot be transparently guessed from its constituent parts. An exocentric construction is a construction that does not contain any head element that is capable of being a syntactically adequate substitution for the whole construction. „Someone or something marked by what is expressex in the composite determinant” (Marchand)
Appositional compounds: a compound of the form [[a][i]], the meaning of which can be characterized as 'a AS WELL AS i'. Appositional compounds refer to lexemes that have two (contrary) attributes which classify the compound. Example: Player-coach (someone who is a player as well as a coach) Boy servant Girl friend Girl slave <-> reversible slave girl
Dvandva compound [N+N] a class of compound words having two immediate constituents that are equal in rank and related to each other as if joined by and : a compound word belonging to this class (as bittersweet, secretary-treasurer, sociopolitical) a class of compound words consisting of two elements having a coordinate relationship as if connected by and a compound word of this type, such as Austro-Hungarian, tragicomic. Austria-Hungary fighter-bomber sofa-bed
Nominal compounds are divided into synthetic and primary ones. They’re defined as „derivatives based on word groups or syntactic constructions and they incorporate a derivational suffix in their rightmost constituent”. If it’s rightmost consituent is verbal compound.
Here, compounding and affixation are mutually interrelated. For example: truckdriver
Bibliography Adrian Akmajian et al., Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. MIT Press, 2001 Bogdan Szymanek, Introduction to Morphological Analysis. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2012 The Oxford Handbook of Compounding, eds. Lieber, Rochelle & Pavol Štekauer, 2009. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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