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Published on August 11, 2007

Author: WoodRock

Source: authorstream.com

Sexualities:  Sexualities History, Society, Culture Key theories:  Key theories Biological/Evolutionary Social Psychological Psychodynamic Cultural Psychology Post-structuralism and Critical Psychology History and (p)rogression:  History and (p)rogression Ancient Greece (3-400 BC) and Early Christianity AD The enlightenment period (16th Century) Victorian Age and the repression hypothesis (19th Century) The science of sex and psychoanalysis (20th Century) From reproduction to pleasure (1950s onwards) Liberalising sexuality The subversion of heterosexuality Michel Foucault (1987) The History of Sexuality: P 11:  Michel Foucault (1987) The History of Sexuality: P 11 The central issue, then is not to determine whether one says yes or no to sex, whether one formulates prohibitions or permissions, whether one asserts its importance or denies its effects, or whether one refines the words one uses to designate it; but to account for the fact that it is spoken about, to discover who does the speaking, the positions and viewpoints from which they speak, the institutions which prompt people to speak about it and which store and distribute the things that are said…[and in that, to] locate the forms of power. Classical Antiquity and the Higher Male Order:  Classical Antiquity and the Higher Male Order Femininity and irrationality Masculine reason and homosexuality Danger and morality (expulsions of fluid and intellectual distress) Sex and the ‘Care of the Self’ The appropriate uses of pleasure – passivity was condemned. Active self control was promoted Monogamy was increasingly applauded, but pure love was still not considered to exist between a male and female, but procreation became a key focus in Christian doctrine Social origins of sex categories:  Social origins of sex categories Christian – demonising desire and personal surveillance Abstinence was the only protection Women represented the biggest threat to reason Medieval period: One sex (internal and external) (Laquer, 1990) External signified completeness 19th Century: the beginning of ‘sexuality’:  19th Century: the beginning of ‘sexuality’ Sexuality was something you had, with a clear cut boundary Anxieties about unregulated sexual desire 1860 – invention of the term ‘homosexual’ 1861 – removal of death penalty for sodomy The repressive hypothesis and the work of Michel Foucault The effects of industrialisation and modernity The birth of psychoanalysis (Freud) 19th Century:  19th Century Categorization of sexuality (heterosexual and homosexual) Mid 19th Century – Moral, health and hygiene issues Late 19th Century – Anxieties over prostitution and the corruption of children Twentieth century: Psychoanalysis and the unconscious:  Twentieth century: Psychoanalysis and the unconscious Identity and the secularization of the confessional Polymorphous potentials Oedipus and Electra complexes Civilization and constraint and the repression of desire The basis of neurosis and more general psychopathologies Early sexology – the liberalization thesis? Or, from danger to dysfunction…:  Early sexology – the liberalization thesis? Or, from danger to dysfunction… Late 19th Century – concerns with public health, worked up through concerns about industrialisation and urban settings Krafft-Ebing (1897) Empirical studies of sex and the differentiation between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ Havelock Ellis (1913) Nature, biological imperatives and the heterosexual norm Alfred Kinsey (1948; 1952) The measurement of frequency and the dispersal of morals Masters andamp; Johnson (1966; 1972) Human Sexual Response Cycle (HSRC) Move away from morals to choices From reproduction to pleasure:  From reproduction to pleasure Contraception first introduced in the late 19th Century – State planning, eugenics and health Gradual promotion and acknowledgement of sexual pleasure – Marie Stopes (1918) Married Love Anxiety over promiscuity, threat to family life and the release of female sexuality Late 1930s – medical profession intervened and ‘family planning’ became the dictum Ideological emphasis on female sexual identity and motherhood. Pleasure was ultimately contained within the promotion of married heterosexual coitus Pleasure and plasticity:  Pleasure and plasticity Premarital sex – rose from 19% of those born before 1904 to 36% of those born between 1904 and 1914 (Weeks, 1989) Promotion of guilt and shame free sex – orgasm and skill became the buzz words of the early to mid 20th century. Division of labour – with males perceived as the ‘skilled worker’ (Tiefer, 1995). Women’s failure to enskill came at a price The Shere Hite report (1976) – importance of clitoral stimulation, fantasy and foreplay Plastic sexuality (Giddens, 1991) Sexual identities and the liberalisation of sex– 1960s onwards:  Sexual identities and the liberalisation of sex– 1960s onwards Uncoupling sex – consumer sex Personal is Political (Feminist dictum) Sex as lifestyle and the reflexive project of the self (Giddens, 1991) – freed from phallocentrism Foucault – self surveillance and the psy-complex Mary McIntosh and the homosexual role De-gendering and de-centring sex:  De-gendering and de-centring sex Reflexivity and Mobility and the decline in the significance of social structures (Adkins, 2002) Release from gender roles (Urry, 2000) Gender and performativity (Butler, 1993) Transgender and transgressive boundaries De-centralising heterosexual matrix Current psychological theories:  Current psychological theories Evolutionary and biological models – drive, hormones, mating strategies, jealousy, instinctive desire Cognitive Psychology: differences in sexual cognitions Social Psychology (attributions, attitudes, roles, identity, group behaviour) Feminist Psychology (gender, language, attitudes, meanings given, context, power) Key tensions:  Key tensions Essentialism Versus Constructionism Biology Versus Culture Cognition Versus Language Personality Versus Interpersonalism Structure Versus Individualism Sexual History Calendar (of the crudest kind!):  Sexual History Calendar (of the crudest kind!) 300-400 BC – Ancient Greece 16-17th C 19th C Early – Mid 20th C Late 20th C Reason and Rationality Class and pleasure, Morality Public health, sexology and industrialisation Birth control, pleasure, enskilling and marriage Choice, intimacy, plasticity, liberalism

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