Published on February 16, 2014
PROCEEDINGS National Symposium on Sustainability and the Built Environment: Searching for Synergies February 21-22, 2014, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, India Sustainable Planning through Introduction of Bicycle Facilities in Indian Cities Ar. Arun C Babu1, Dr. Sumana Gupta2 Abstract: This paper is particularly focused on implementation needs of bicycle as a sustainable commuting mode for Indian cities in near future. Traditionally bicycles are the primary mode of local transport in developing countries like India. As a non‐fuel consuming transport, it spares the users from noise, speed and air pollution. Usage of bicycles does not contribute to the environmental degradation resulting from fossil fuels. But in most Indian cities bicycles are used in the traditional non‐formalized way, exposing the bicyclists to dangers of accidents. Due to this, the general population tends to stay away from bicycles although it is an affordable mode for local movement. As a sustainable alternative, bicycles can replace or reduce the usage of automobile transport in small and medium towns and large metropolitan cores as has been practiced in Western countries. Literature review shows that Indian cities have introduced bicycle as a sustainable mode for local movement like in Delhi, Pondicherry, and Bangalore. In order to introduce a bicycle facility plan for a particular city, understanding city form, land use and its road network and demographic conditions are important along with improvisation of the bicycle itself in terms of speed and utility. Citizens’ willingness to use bicycle as a mode is also a crucial study. Transport management, improving the existing road and streets, capacity building is also important for the successful bicycle facility planning. City of Kochi was taken as a pilot study area where household survey and commuter survey was carried out. It shows that a large percentage of the respondents are willing to use bicycles if proper facilities are provided. 1. INTRODUCTION Reduce, reuse and recycle are the three key words to achieve ‘sustainability’ in whatever form imagined. To achieve sustainability in a country like ours having a population of over 1.23 billion (Census 2011) and the average family income is in the range of Rs. 3600 (Census 2011), we planners need to plan for a sustainable transport system that may help to reduce the carbon footprint. The concepts of Transit Oriented Development, smart growth, Bus Rapid Transit System, Mass Rapid Transit System are all focused either towards reduced movement or mass movement. The area which is not explored is the introduction of bicycle formally into the transport system. While so much effort and expense is invested in designing and building better roads for motor vehicles, the bicycle, which inflicts much less 1 harm to the environment, infrastructure, and other road users, is badly neglected in India. This paper looks into the feasibility of bicycle as a mode of choice in Indian cities. Since 1889 bicycles are a common mode of travel in much of India. With ten million cycles produced annually India is the second largest producer of bicycles in the world. In a low income country like India many of the people walk or use their own bicycles to commute to work which generally includes short and medium trips varying from 5 to 10 kilometers. Short and medium trips also includes commuting, going to school, delivering services and goods etc. Carrying one’s own bicycle for long distances in other modes or its unavailability at places desired like after alighting from a mass transit is the major limitation of this mode. However, in most of the cases, every journey by a mass transit is preceded MCP2nd year, Department of Architecture and Regional Planning, IIT Kharagpur, email:firstname.lastname@example.org Professor, Department of Architecture and Regional Planning, IIT Kharagpur, email@example.com 2 Assistant
Generally like the users of other modes of transport bicyclists also makes journey between same kinds of places for the same purposes. These trips are usually served by the existing roads which in most cases don’t have any dedicated lanes for bicycling and is crowded with motor vehicles. This makes the journey uncomfortable and dangerous for the cyclist and hence a need for dedicated lanes is required. At present few Indian metro cities and medium towns like Pondicherry, Bengaluru and Delhi are starting to introduce bicycle as a sustainable mode of transportation. 2. NEED AND NECESSITY OF BICYCLE FACILITY PLANNING IN INDIA In India cycling is a traditional mode of transport for a very long time. But in most of the Indian cities especially in large and medium towns number of bicycle users is reducing. This is due to the over congestion of motor vehicles and improper bicycle facilities which makes cycling difficult and dangerous. Figure 1 shows the percentage of existing and desired number of bicycle bicycles users in Indian cities according to the city size. The actual number of bicycle users is less than the desired percentage. And in most Indian cities the majority of the cycle users belongs to the economically weaker section, where cycling is the affordable non-motorized mode of transportation. The general population tends away from choosing bicycle as an option even for short distance travel. % of bicycle users Figure 1Existing and desirable 50 40 30 20 10 0 40 30 25.7 40 30 20.9 35 25 15.9 0.1 - 0.25 - 0.5 0.25 0.5 1.0 30 20 12.1 25 15.9 15 1.02.0 2.0 5.0 20 15 9.4 5.0 + city population in million existing bicycle users (%) minimum desirable bicycleusers (%) maximum desirable bicycle users (%) e percentage of bicycle users in Indian cities (Traffic and Transportation Policies and Strategies in Urban Areas in India. Final Report., 1998) A report by the National Crime Record Bureau in large and mega cities in India, shows that in 5 – 10 % of total road related fatalities, cyclists are involved. About 20 – 32 % of cyclists involved in accidents lead to serious injuries. Figure 2 and Figure 3 shows the percentage of bicycle related fatalities in large and mega cities in India. Except in the case of Ahmadabad all the cities show a decrease in fatality rate due to the decreasing number of cyclists and also due to the fact that these cities are taking some initiative to segregate bicyclists from the other mode of transport. 10 Bicycle fatalities(%) or followed by a para transit trip. Short automobile trips generate the most pollution per kilometer since a vehicle’s motor is not able reach optimal operating temperature. These are also the trips that are most amenable to bicycling, and so the bicycle’s potential to reduce air pollution is higher. The first city in India to have a dedicated bicycle lane was Pune, which was built as a part of 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. However, the presence of bicyclists is generally ignored by the planners in India. It is time for proper planning and policy guidelines for this unorganized mode of transport in the country. 8 6 4 2 0 Pune 2001 2002 Ahmedabad 2003 2004 Hydrabad 2005 Figure 2Bicycle related fatalities in large Indian cities (Accidental Deaths and suicides in India ( Annual report 2001 - 2006))
2003 2004 2006 Figure 3Bicycle related fatalities in mega cities (Accidental Deaths and suicides in India ( Annual report 2001 - 2006)) In most of these cities, bicycle users prefer cycling not because of choice but because they have no other viable option. In these large and medium cities 17 – 30 % of households have monthly income less than Rs. 5000. The average monthly transport expenditure is estimated to be 12 – 15 % in these cities which comes around Rs. 750/ family. An average daily trip distance of 6 km requires Rs 600 per person which is not affordable to these families and cycling remains as the only affordable option to them. In Indian cities motorized public and paratransit systems are accountable for 14 – 25 % of total vehicular trips. It causes congestion in traffic, delays due to intervention and increased chance of accidents. Providing proper bicycle facilities and dedicated bicycle lanes is becoming a necessity to reduce these adverse effects and to provide a better mobility for the public as also to reduce the non-motorized transport from road. To promote the use of bicycle some practiced methods are discussed in the following section. 3. CONCEPT OF BICYCLE SHARING AND BEST PRACTICES 3.1 Development of the Concept Bicycle sharing schemes enable the public to pick up the bicycle from any of the provided self-service docking stations, which can be returned to the same or any other available docking stations. This sharing scheme is ideal for point to point trips where the passenger do not 300000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 number of bicycles 2002 In many developed nations these bicycle sharing schemes are integral part of the public transport options. Best example of successful implementation of these schemes can be seen in large and complex cities like Paris and London. Today there are almost 375 bicycle sharing schemes operating in 33 countries almost every region of the world. Global growth rate of public bicycle sharing schemes is shown in Figure 4. Public bicycle sharing systems can be introduced in the core areas of Indian cities on a pilot basis. Based on the success of the pilots, they can be expanded to other areas of a city. Cities with shared bike system Bicycle fatalities(%) carry his own bicycle but can hire. This allows the public to use the bicycle on a rental basis or in some cases for free without the responsibilities of bicycle ownership. 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 Series 1 Series 2 Figure 4Growth in bicycle -sharing schemes and fleet 20002010 (Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas, 2-13 May 2011) In most of the developing countries town planners and policy makers are implementing these bicycle sharing schemes as a sustainable alternative for conventional motorized transports for short distance journeys. These countries include Italy, Spain and France where most of the cities are medium sized and in countries like china, which have large cities. The Figure 5 shows the growth trends of some selected countries.
Cities with Shared Bike Systems 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 year China France Italy Germany Spain Figure 5Growth in bicycle -sharing schemes in selected countries 2005 -2010 (Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas, 2-13 May 2011) Bicycle sharing schemes were first introduced in Amsterdam in 1965. Since then the idea spread across the as sustainable alternative transport. The evolution of bicycle sharing schemes and different alternative operational mechanism practiced are described inFigure 6. Figure 6The evolution of bicycle -sharing programs (Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas, 2-13 May 2011) In terms of trip length and cost bicycle sharing systems can act as an important mode of urban transportation. Generally people are willing to cycle for a distance of 1 – 5 km if proper facilities are provided. It promotes the sustainable travel behavior of public and helps in smooth interchange between different modes of transport thus reducing travel time. Figure 7shows the role of bicycle sharing systems in urban mobility. Figure 7The role of bicycle -sharing systems in urban mobility (Quay Communications Inc. 2008.Trans Link Public Bike System Feasibility Study. Vancouver.) There are mainly two types of public bicycle sharing systems. One is manual system and the other one is automated system. In a manual bicycle sharing system the entire system is supervised by staffs. There will be people assigned in the bicycle docking stations to supervise the transactions related to taking out and returning bicycle. In some cases information technology is used for keeping track of the use of bicycles. If there are multiple pick up and drop points for bicycles a computerized tracking system is used. In an automated bicycle sharing system the transactions in the docking points are unsupervised. In this system bicycles are equipped with electronically controlled locks or bicycles are locked to electronically controlled docks. These electronic locks can be unlocked by a password given to the user of by the use of smart cards or coins. This system heavily relies on information technology. 3.2 Development of bicycle In almost every country in the world bicycling is an integral part of transportation. The life style and culture of the people in these countries greatly influence the way in which bicycles are used and also the design of bicycle itself. From the initial design of bicycle which was human propelled bicycle (known as velocipede) and consisting of wooden wheels bicycles undergone regular transformation depending
upon the need and necessity of user. Figure 8shows the variation in Bicycle design in different contexts and Figure 9 shows the evolution of bicycle design from the initial 1818 design to the modern day bicycle. Figure 8variation in Bicycle design in different contexts. (Wittink, 2011) c) Road network and Feasibility of Bicycle lanes For the successful implementation of bicycle sharing plan cyclists should be allowed to move around city easily and safely through designated lanes. It is very difficult for a cyclist to move along with the motorized transport in heavy traffic. Dedicated bicycle lanes are necessary to ensure safety of cyclists. In an informal narrow road system the entire road may be dedicated for bicycle and pedestrian whereas for formal wide roads lanes can be planned. In most of the cities with a successful bicycle sharing schemes, they adopted policies which promotes cycling and limit car use. 3.4 Benefits of Bicycle sharing System Figure 9 Evolution of bicycle design http://www.bikeeurope.org/ 3.3 Factors influencing bicycle- sharing system planning a) City size and service population In Europe, bicycle sharing policy recommendations suggest that a minimum of 200,000 is required to implement an automated bicycle sharing program whereas for population below 50,000 it can be manually controlled. b) Topography, and Climate If slopes are under 4% topography does not affect the cycling. But for slopes more than 8 % cyclists will go down the slope and will refuse to go up. For a city with slopes more than 8% redistribution vehicles are necessary to continuously take bicycles from low lying station to uphill stations. Cyclists tend to avoid riding bicycles in a cold climate and in a rainy season. In these cases special design strategies like covered bicycle lanes, improvising design of bicycle itself is necessary. a) Environmental benefit The greatest problem faced by all developing and developed countries is the overcrowded roads due to heavy traffic. On the other hand, Bike riding uses minimum amount of fossil fuel. It reduces the need to manufacture, service and disposal of cars. Riding a bicycle for 10 km reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by 1500 kg which includes gases like CO2, CH4, N2O etc. Apart from the reduction in fossil fuel usage, riding bicycles can reduce the greenhouse emissions by further reducing the traffic delays and interruptions in the traffic flow. b) Health benefits Riding bicycle also has health benefit by improving the cardiovascular system. At least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity each day is recommended by the health professionals. Riding bicycle to the workplace, school or to the nearest neighborhood is a convenient and practical to incorporate regular exercise in to the busy life. c) Social and economic benefits Cycling is an affordable travel option for the economically weaker sections of the society. It offers increased mobility for those sections of the society with low rates of car ownership. Cycling also increases the social interactions among people. Dedicated streets for bicycles provide less congested streets and are safer to children. d) Transport benefits Implementing bicycle planning in the congested urban environment reduces the traffic
congestion and traffic delays. Bicycles does less damage to roads compared to cars and other motorized vehicles. In most of the Indian cities schools and working place are within walking distance from the main transit points. Cycling or walking these trips reduces the congestion in the road. 4. CASE STUDY OF KOCHI 4.1 Overview of Kochi City Kochi, the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala, is one of the fast growing cities in India with a population of 601, 574 (source: censes 2011), a decadal growth rate 7.83% and a population density of 6340/ km2. The Kochi city has a 95 sqkm area with a comparatively flat terrain Kochi has a tropical climate with intense solar radiation and abundant precipitation, and the annual temperature in the city varies from 220C to 320C (source: CDP). Kochi experiences mainly two seasons namely the dry season and the wet season. The wet season is associated with the months in which north – east monsoon, from June to September and south-west monsoon, from October to November occur. The maximum average annual rainfall is 3000mm. The city has a disintegrated urban form which spreads along the major traffic corridors. The roads inside the city are laid in an incremental manner to cater the increased traffic demand. The city has a road density of 1.03 km per 1000 population. Figure 10 shows the distribution of road network according to the type of road and Figure 11 shows the distribution of roads according to right of way available. In Kochi city 64 % of roads are local streets and 53 % of roads have below 5m right of way. From the reconnaissance survey conducted inside the city, it is found out that it is possible to convert few of these local streets to pedestrian and bicycle only lanes. Distribution of road network 3% 8% Arterial road 25% 64% Sub-arterial road Figure 10 Distribution of road network according to type of road in Kochi city (City Developement Plan, Kochi city, 2006) Distribution of road network in kochi city according to right-of-way 8% 3% 1% <5m 5m - 10 m 35% 53% 10m - 20 m 20 m - 30 m >40 m Figure 11Distribution of road network according right of way inside the city (City Developement Plan, Kochi city, 2006) In recent years Kochi city witnessed heavy investments in IT sector, transportation, shipping industry etc. thus making the city one of the fastest growing second tier metro cities in India. The major business sectors which influence the city economy includes construction, manufacturing, IT sector, ship building, banking, transportation and shipping, tourism, sea food and spices export and health services. 4.2 Analysis of Primary Survey Data A household and commuter survey was conducted inside the city of Kochi to find out the travel behavior of people and their willingness to use shared bicycle facilities if provided. Major commuter points inside the city are selected for the commuter survey which includes all the major bus stations, railway stations and boat jetties. At present there are no dedicated lanes for bicycles inside the city. The city population mainly relies on the feeder services to reach the destinations from the commuter points. Figure12 shows the people’s choice of mode of transportation inside Kochi city and Figure 13 shows the percentage distribution of people’s purpose of trip inside city of Kochi. Only 7% of
people prefer bicycle as a transport option. Comparing the results with the economic background of respondents shows that a large percent of people preferring bicycles belongs to the economically weaker sections of the society. 36% of trips are work related, 10 % trips for education purpose, 22% trips are for shopping purposes, 5% is for change of mode of transportation, and 24 % of trips are related to leisure purposes. Most of these trips are short distance trips falling within 3 -5 km. bicycle others 7% 1% auto/ taxi 18% walking 18% private car 16% two wheeler 15% city bus 25% walking private car two wheeler city bus auto/ taxi bicycle others Figure 12Choice of mode of transportation inside the city (Author’s own survey in Kochi city area- Nov 2013) pleasure 24% change of mode 5% shopping 22% work others 3% work 36% educatio n 10% education shopping change of mode pleasure others Figure 13Trip purpose of people (Author’s own survey in Kochi city area- Nov 2013) When asked whether they are willing to use bicycle facilities if proper facilities are provided 79 % responded positively. Out of this 79%, 85 % of people are willing to pay for the bicycle facilities where 15 % wants the service for free. Figure 14 and Figure 15 summarizes the results. Willingness to use no 21% yes 79% no yes Figure 14Willingness to use bicycle facilities (Author’s own survey in Kochi city area- Nov 2013) Willingness to pay no 15% yes yes 85% no Figure 15Willing ness to pay for bicycle facilities (Author’s own survey in Kochi city area- Nov 2013) Out of this 85% of respondents who are willing to pay for bicycle facilities, 38 % of people are willing to pay Rs 5- 10 daily. 20 % of people are ready to pay less than Rs 5 daily. 27% of people are ready to pay Rs 10 – 20, 13 % of people are ready to pay Rs 20 – 50. 2 % of respondents are ready to pay more than Rs 50. It is noticed that the people’s preference of rent is influenced by their respective income. Considering the fact that most of the existing bicycle sharing schemes in the similar sized cities in India cost only around Rs 2 – 10, it can be concluded that bicycle sharing schemes if implemented will be affordable to more than 80% of respondents. More than 50 % of people are ready to ride bicycle for 1- 5 km. 28 % willing to ride for more than 5 km. Comparing results with work purpose of the respondent shows that most of these trips are work related or for educational purposes. They make the same kind of journey between same kinds of places. Travel destinations of most of the respondents fall within 3 km range, which suggests that more than 85 % of people are willing to use bicycles as a primary transport option inside the city for reaching their destinations. Figure 16shows the people’s
preference of rent in rupees and Figure 17 shows people’s preferred riding distance. 20 - 50 rs 13% 50 rs + 2% 10 - 20 rs 27% <5 5 - 10 rs 10 - 20 rs <5 20% 5 - 10 rs 38% 20 - 50 rs 50 rs + Figure 16People’s preference of rent in rupees per day for shared bicycle facilities (Author’s own survey in Kochi city area- Nov 2013) 5 - 10 km 18% 10 + km 10% won't use 11% 0 - 1 km 6% 1- 3 km 30% 3 - 5 km 25% won't use 0 - 1 km 1- 3 km 3 - 5 km 5 - 10 km 10 + km Figure 17Preferred distance of bicycling by the users s (Author’s own survey in Kochi city area- Nov 2013) 4.3 Analysis of Environmental and Economic Benefits A bus terminal survey( source : CDP) conducted at 5 bus terminals inside the city shows that 15 % of these bus trips are below 5km, 13% is between 5 – 10km, 11 % between 10 – 15 km, 27 % between 15 – 20 km, and 25 % between 20 – 50 km. which suggest that almost 55000 passenger trips are under 5 km. a) Economic benefits If we can convert 20% of these short distance bus trips to bicycle trips, then the number of short distance bus trips will be reduced by a factor of 11000. By assuming average occupancy rate of a bus is 42 (source: CDP) and bus fare for journey up to 5 km is Rs.6 (minimum bus fare in Kochi city), a cost savings analysis is carried out. If 20% of short distance intra-city passenger trips are replaced by bicycles it will reduce the number of intra city bus services by a factor of 261 trips. Assuming the average travelling distance of a short distance passenger is 3 km, total trip length reduction will be almost 780 Km. Assuming the average mileage of city buses are 5 km/liter, on a daily basis 156 liter of diesel can be saved. Considering price of diesel in Kochi as Rs.59 (as of February 2014), total amount of money saved on fuel will be around Rs.10000 per day. Money saved on bus fare will be Rs.66000 per day. The draft development plan prepared for Kochi city by the department of town and country planning shows that there are 6500 taxis and 5000 auto rickshaws are operating inside the Kochi city on a daily basis. An analysis of the distance operated by these IPT modes shows that on average auto rickshaws inside the city operates for 63 km daily and taxis operates for 74 km daily ( source: draft development plan for Kochi – economic review). A survey is conducted among the auto rickshaw drivers in Kochi city area as a part of this study, which shows that each auto rickshaw drivers makes an average number of 10 trips between 3 to 5 km on a daily. Considering on average 40 km of short distance travel (3 – 5 km) is carried out by the auto rickshaws in the city, a total of 2, 00000 km of combined short distance journey is made by these auto rickshaws daily. If 25 % these trips can be replaced by introducing bicycle, then 50,000 km of auto rickshaw journey can be reduced. Assuming Rs.7/ km is the fare for auto rickshaws in Kochi, Rs.3, 50000 can be saved daily. Considering average mileage of auto rickshaw as 25km / liter and cost of diesel as Rs.59, then daily then an amount of Rs.1, 18000 can be saved by the reduction of fuel. Table 1 money savings by the introduction of bicycle system in Kochi city Mode of transport Economic benefits by fuel saving (in Rs) Economic benefit by savings in fare ( in Rs) City bus service 10, 000 (/day) 66, 000 Auto rickshaw 1, 18,000 (/day) 3, 50, 000 Total savings / day 1, 28, 000 4, 16, 000 Total savings / month 38, 40, 000 1, 24, 80, 000
Total amount of money saved by reducing fuel usage and also savings in fare is summarized in Table 2. The calculations are done by assuming that 20% of short distance city bus passenger traffic and 25 5 of short distance auto rickshaw passenger traffic are replaced by the shared bicycle system inside Kochi city. b) Environmental benefits Reduction in the greenhouse emissions by the introduction of bicycles in Kochi city is calculated by assuming that auto rickshaws and city buses as light duty diesel vehicles with moderate emission control. Then, 2.663 kg CO2, 6.8x10-5 kg of CH4 and 2.1 x10-4 kg of N2O is produced for 1 liter of diesel burned (source: National inventory report 1990 – 2009, Canada). The results of the calculation are summarized in the Table 3 Even if the reduction in greenhouse gases are not in a substantial amount but if the all the cities in the country follows the similar scheme the cumulative reduction in greenhouse emission from the transportation sector will be enormous. Apart from these direct reductions emission of these gases will be further reduced since the usage of bicycle will reduce the congestion and traffic delays in the urban areas. Table 2 reduction in greenhouse emissions by the introduction of bicycles in Kochi city Mode of transport CO2 ( kg) CH4 (kg) N2O (kg) City bus 2078 (/day) 0.53 (/day) 0.164 (/day) Auto rickshaw 133150 (/day) 3.4 (/day) 10.5 (/day) Total/ day 135228 3.93 10.664 4056840 117.9 319.92 Total month / (Authors own estimate) 4.1 Current practices in Kochi A bicycle club operates with 50 bicycles in the Info park campus in Kochi city. But the cycle usage is limited within the campus. Athi bicycle club, a private venture is planning to start a shared bicycle scheme in Kochi city with 14 docking stations and SMS monitoring technology. But without proper facilities the chances of successful implementation is very difficult. 5. CONCLUSION From the study it is observed that there is a need for formalizing bicycle, the left out mode, into individual city transport system in India. It should be considered as an integral component of the city’s Comprehensive Mobility Plan as mentioned in the Draft Toolkit, prepared by Urban Development Department. Feasibility studies for individual cities are required before implementation. International models for bike sharing are also to be adopted with modifications to our country’s context like city size, land use, existing city transport system and road network. Transport Demand Management strategies, route planning, providing bicycle related facilities, promotion, capacity building and enforcement are other important points to be followed to make it a success story. The environmental and economic benefits were worked out for Kochi city which also highlights the sustainability issues, presently the major concern for urban development. 6. Bibliography (2006). Accidental Deaths and suicides in India ( Annual report 2001 - 2006). National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB), Ministry of Home affairs. (1980). Bicycle transportation for energy conservation. Denver: mountain bicyclists association. Bikes in Europe. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.bikeeurope.org/ (2011). Census of India. Ministery of Home Affairs, Govt of India. (2006). City Developement Plan, Kochi city. Kochi: Corporation of Cochin. Clarke, A. (2000). Bicycling, pathway to the future. TRB Millennium papers: committee on bicycling. (2006). Draft Developement Plan for Kochi city, 2031. Kochi: Departement of town and country planning, kerala.
(2007). Guide on the implementation of public bicycle systems in Spain. John Pucher, Jennifer Dill, Susan Handy. (January 2010). Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Preventive Medicine , Volume 50, S106–S125. Midgley, P. (2-13 May 2011). Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas. New York: Commission on Sustainable Development. (2009). National inventory report 1990 – 2009. Canada. Proposed docking stations by Athi's club. (2013). Retrieved from Athis Bicycle club: http://www.athirup.com/ Shreya Gadepalli, Christopher Kost, Bradley Schroeder. (2012). Toolkit for public cycle sharing systems. Institute for Transportation and Developement Policy. (1998). Traffic and Transportation Policies and Strategies in Urban Areas in India. Final Report. New Delhi.: Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. (2008). Trans Link Public Bike System Feasibility Study. Vancouver: Quay Communications Inc. (2007). Valuing the benefits of cycling. Cycling England. Wilkinson, B. (1997). Nonmotorized transportation: the forgotten modes. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 87–93. Wittink, R. (2011). Cycling for sustainable devolopement. Dutch Cycling Embassy.
The field of industrial ecology is sometimes used in planning these cities. ... sustainable. Ideally, a sustainable city ... through the introduction ...
Sustainable transport; ... marked a change in direction for transport planning in the UK. In the introduction to the ... Introduction to Sustainable ...
Recommendations of Working Group on Urban Transport for ... 8.2 Sustainable Planning ... well including pedestrian and bicycle facilities is Rs. 1,67 ...
... Lessons for Sustainable Transport Planning and Policy ... In many Chinese cities, bicycle ownership rates are one bicycle ... The Indian Planning ...
Cities in developing ... sustainable transportation. Introduction ... important for better planning of facilities are presented. Sustainable ...
... the Partnership for Sustainable Communities was ... by States and Metropolitan Planning Organizations through ... and bicycle facilities, ...
Urban transportation planning. ... All Indian cities face a crisis of ... in these cities has meant reducing pedestrian and bicycle facilities, ...
Pursuing Equity in Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning ... and bicycle facilities, ... be achieved through pedestrian and bicycle planning efforts ...