Published on February 27, 2014
PROJECT BRIEF The purpose of this project was to demonstrate an ability to apply research findings from emerging biomaterial studies to the design and development of a feasible product as a team, from concept to manufacture. The following pages illustrate the process our team executed throughout the ten weeks of product development. Emerging Biomaterials | 1
CLASS 3 CLASS 4 WEEKEND PRESENT. #1 CLASS 5 CLASS 6 WEEKEND CLASS 7 CLASS 8 WEEKEND CLASS 9 PRESENT. #2 CLASS 10 PRESENT. FINAL RESEARCH: BIOMATERIALS RESEARCH: CONCEPT CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT REFINEMENT CAD/SKETCH REFINEMENT/ PROCESS BOOK Emerging Biomaterials | 2
LINCOLN NEIGER MICHAEL NOTO CONSTANTINO PAPATSORIS MATERIALS: MATERIALS: MATERIALS: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Thermo-Hygro-Mechanically Compacted Wood (THM) • Cork Polymer Composites (CPC) • Almond Polymer Composites (APC) • Algae-Based Materials • Fungus-Based Materials • Natural Fiber Composites (NFC) Bioplastics Based on PLA Bioplastics Based on PHB Bioplastics Based on TPS Bioplastics Based on Cellulose Bioplastics Based on Vegetable Oils Lignin-Based Bioplastics Algae-Based Bioplastics Bark Cloth Materials Maise Cob Board (MCB) Bioplastics from Animal Sources Acrylic Glass Derived from Sugar Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) Coconut-Wood Composites Bamboo Heat-Treated Natural Woods RESPONSIBILITIES: RESPONSIBILITIES: RESPONSIBILITIES: • Project Manager • Process Book • Final Sketches • Bill of Materials • CAD Model • Renderings Emerging Biomaterials | 3
MATERIALS RESEARCH Emerging Biomaterials | 4
w Properties: • • • • • light weight shatterproof transparency UV resistant weatherproof Applications: • • • • acrylic glass protective goggles vehicle lights displays Suppliers: • currently in development based on natural raw materials/less energy consumption and waste during production than current methods ACRYLIC GLASS DERIVED FROM SUGAR A new process is in development that employs sugar, alcohol, and fatty acids to create a splinterless material, as clear as glass. This material could potentially replace acrylic glass. Processing of this material uses less energy and creates less waste than current options. Emerging Biomaterials | 5
w Properties: • • • • • high strength durability homogenous surface texture airtight thermoplastic processing properties • compostable • biodegradable • recycleable Applications: • • • • • furniture manufacturing material coatings building containers wall panels coffins Suppliers: • Duralmond® • mastAlmond® replaces wood with plant waste products/raw material grows quicker than wood/ biodegradable ALMOND POLYMER COMPOSITES (APC) Made of ground almond shells and a biodegradable resin, almond polymer composites (APCs) can be produced faster and easier on account of its renewable raw material. The almond shells are natural by-product on farms that produce and harvest consumer almonds. Emerging Biomaterials | 6
w Properties: • high elasticity • very high bending and tensile strength • 25% harder than oak • susceptible to moisture damage Applications: • • • • • • • scaffolding furniture construction flooring household goods fashion accessories bicycle frames Suppliers: • Conbam® • Moso® • Natural Bamboo highly renewable material/ biodegradable/light construction potential with high durability and stability/ may be used as an alternative to carbon fiber-reinforced plastics or aluminum BAMBOO Known for its rapid growth and strength:weight ratio, Bamboo has been used as a building material for centuries.The canes are smoked and heat-treated before use. Its hollow interior allows for the material to be flexible and light. When used outdoors, bamboo must be protected from moisture, insects, and fungal decay. Emerging Biomaterials | 7
w Properties: • beige to dark brown • individually adjustable qualities • waterproof • opaque • elastic • tearproof Applications: • • • • • light canopies partitions lampshades shoe design fashion accessories Suppliers: • Bark Bloth® • Barktex® based on renewable raw materials/harvested through small-scale farming in developing regions/ biodegradable BARK CLOTH MATERIALS Bark cloth is harvested from the additives used, the bark cloth can bark of the Mutubu fig tree with the employ different characteristics. help of Ugandan farmers. It is then sealed with additives to make it wear-resistant. Depending on the Emerging Biomaterials | 8
w Properties: • • • • • • stable under water biodegradable recycleable mold & bud resistant low density flame retardant Applications: • packaging • insulation • items in car interiors Suppliers: • Algix® • Cereplast® • Verpackungs Zentrum® based on highly renewable raw materials/emits no pollutants during processing/ can be naturally composted/ recycleable/more expensive to produce/products are said to maintain an algae smell BIOPLASTICS BASED ON ALGAE Discovered while researching opportunities for bio-fuels based on algaes, algae-based bioplastics offer a highly sustainable alternative to traditional foams and plastics. Researchers have produced and alginsulate foam which could potentially replace expanded polystyrene. Emerging Biomaterials | 9
w Properties: • styptic • antibacterial • soluble in water and alkaline solutions • impermeable to oxygen Applications: • • • • • • • filtration wound-dressing surgical thread toothpaste food packaging wood preservative binding & smoothing agents for paper production Suppliers: • Animpol® • Eastern Bioplastics® • N-chitopack® based on natural raw materials/biodegradable/can be poured to create a film/can be processed into foams and fibers BIOPLASTICS BASED ON ANIMAL SOURCES Chitin, the main component in the exoskeletons of spiders and crabs, is extracted and produced into chitosan. Chitin is the most notable renewable resource from animals sources in the production of bioplastics. The inherent properties of these bioplastics make it suitable for use in medical products and biotechnology. Emerging Biomaterials | 10
w Properties: • • • • • good mechanical properties optical transparancy self-polishing good thermal resistance normally requires a softener for processing Applications: • • • • • • • • • writing utensils umbrella handles spectacle frames cigarette filters giving goggles steering wheel covers lampshades toys tool handles Suppliers: • • • • • • AgriPlast® Arboform® Biograde® Moniflex® Tencel® Zelfo® based on renewable resources/can be recycled/ mixing cellulose with other plastics can produce unique polymer blends/can achieve various levels of permeability/ ideal for injection molding and extruding BIOPLASTICS BASED ON CELLULOSE Found in the cell walls of every plant, cellulose is the most common organic compound in the world. Cellulose is ideally suited to producing thermoplastic bioplastics for translucent components. The most common bioplastics based on cellulose are cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA). Emerging Biomaterials | 11
w Properties: • • • • good mechanical properties high degree of rigidity brownish coloring duroplastic qualities Applications: • • • • • • construction materials vehicle dashboards buttons toys disposable cutlery packaging Suppliers: • Biome Bioplastic® derived from renewable raw materials/processing qualities are compared to that of wood/ can be welded together at high temperatures without the need for adhesives BIOPLASTICS BASED ON LIGNIN Comprising 30% of a tree, lignin is the second most common biopolymer found in nature after cellulose. Lignin is extracted from wood shavings and fibers in a boiling process and then combined with products like methanol and hydrochloric acid to form a resinlike substance, which is then made directly into a duroplastic. Emerging Biomaterials | 12
w Properties: • • • • • • • similar property profile to PP low oxygen diffusion UV stability biocompatibility high fracture susceptibility non-transparent tensile strength Applications: • • • • • consumer goods packaging adhesives hard rubbers automotive industry Suppliers: • • • • • • Biocycle® Biomer® Enmat® Metabolix® Natureplast® Nodax® based on renewable sources/ biodegradable/can be processed using traditional plastics processing/rapid transitions from fluid to solid, resulting in rapid processing/ will likely replace PP in coming years BIOPLASTICS BASED ON POLYHYDROXYBUTRIC ACID (PHB) PLA’s popularity is due to its comparability to PP. The most important representative in polyhydroxyalcanoates polyester, can be found in almost every living organism. PHB is often mixed with other substances to produce more appropriate blends to negate PHB’s high fracture susceptibility. Emerging Biomaterials | 13
w Properties: • • • • • • similar property profile of PET low permeability of gases water-repellent surface transparent shiny relatively low heat stability of just over 60C Applications: • • • • • yogurt containers food foils geo-textiles cosmetic injections automotive, entertainment, agriculture, landscaping industries Suppliers: • • • • • Natureworks® Polymer Ecovio® Bioflex® Ecoghr®PLA Ingeo® based on renewable resources/recyclable/ compostable under certain circumstances/ideal for lightweight application/ manufacture produces high CO2 emissions/ mechanical resistance and biodegradability is dependent on the material composition BIOPLASTICS BASED ON POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) Polylactic Acid (PLA) is often the center of sustainability discussions as the most popular bio crude plastic due to its potential to replace PET. PLA must be mixed with aggregates through compounding to suit specific needs. It is produced primarily through the fermentation of sugar syrups and starches. Emerging Biomaterials | 14
w Properties: • • • • liquid absorption good value for money excellent gas barrier energy-efficient production Applications: • • • • • • medication capsules packaging foils yogurt cartons disposable cutlery plastic bags coated cardboard Suppliers: • • • • Biomax® TPS BioPar® BioplastTPS® Sorona® based on renewable resources/excellent biodegradable quality/ energy-efficient production/ must be combined with a biodegradable polymer in order to introduce insoluble qualities BIOPLASTICS BASED ON THERMOPLASTIC STARCH The majority (80%) of global bioplastic production is made up of polymers based on thermoplastic starch. They provide good value for money due to their ubiquity, as they are sourced from corn, grains, and potatoes. Thermoplastic starch is often just one component of plastics production. Emerging Biomaterials | 15
w Properties: • bio-based polyamides thermoformable additives can add new properties • bio-based foams flexible light weight hard or soft • bio-based resins similar to synthetic resins biodegradable Applications: • mattresses • foams of various densities Suppliers: • • • • • Akromid® S Envirez® Lupranol® Rubex® NaWaRo Vestamid Terra® based on renewable resource/ not always biodegradable/ can compete with petroleumbased polyamides/have a more favorable CO2 footprint than alternatives BIOPLASTICS BASED ON VEGETABLE OILS Vegetable oils can provide the for technical products and resins raw materials required to produce for fiber compounds or foams. bioplastics, enabling the bio-based production of polyamides Emerging Biomaterials | 16
w Properties: • • • • • minimal shrinkage & swelling very hard, dense outer layer no growth rings dimensional stability high bending strength Applications: • • • • • • • furniture parquet flooring wall panels lamps vases dishes fashion accessories Suppliers: • Ekobe® • Kokoshout® based on natural raw materials/biodegradable/ conventional timber processing technologies are applicable/oils can be used for intense coloring COCONUT-WOOD COMPOSITES Often used in place of exotic woods, Coconut wood composites have a coconut wood has no annual rings, 12-18 mm MDF-core, to which the rendering the dense, outer five harvested coconut wood is applied. centimeters of the trunk the most useful in composite production. Emerging Biomaterials | 17
w Properties: • unique tactile qualities • adjustable flexibility • thermoplastic processing qualities • rot-resistant • water-impermeable • noise and vibration absorption Applications: • • • • • • • medical devices sport products orthopedic products furniture lamps vases bike handles Suppliers: • • • • • Amorim® Lifecork® Subertres® Thermofix® Vinnex® based on renewable raw materials/biodegradable/ recyclable/may employ traditional thermoplastic and wood processing methods CORK POLYMER COMPOSITES (CPC) Cork polymer composites (CPCs) are comprised of cork particles suspended within a plastic matrix. The cork particles can range in size from .5-2mm, depending on the required material flexibility. The combination of these materials creates a material impermeable to water as well and thermoformable. Emerging Biomaterials | 18
w Properties: • • • • • durable antibacterial nonslip takes pigment well sensitive to moisture Applications: • • • • flooring tabletops surface coverings high hygienic rooms Suppliers: • Armstrong® • Forbo® • The Natural Abode® based on renewable raw materials/compostable/ production produces no waste LINOLEUM Originally introduced to the market in the early 1800s, linoleum has gained recent attention as it is comprised from linseed oil, lime powder, and sawdust. It is mostly used for surfacing interiors. The material is sensitive to moisture and should not be used in areas that get wet for long periods of time. Emerging Biomaterials | 19
w Properties: • • • • aesthetic transparency available worldwide flame retardant rapid growth Applications: • wall panels • building containers Suppliers: • unknown based on a rapidly renewable raw material/replaces conventional reinforcing fibers/decomposes when natural resin matrix is used MATERIALS BASED ON ALGAE Algae based materials are formed through the incorporation of a algae into a resin matrix. Over 200 types of algae are in use in the development of algae-based materials. Because algae does not require a high level of maintenance in its cultivation, good supple is often readily available. Emerging Biomaterials | 20
w Properties: • heat insulating • sound & shock absorbent • compostable Applications: • • • • packaging insulation panelling table tops Suppliers: • EcoCradle® • Ecovative® based on a natural waste material/energy-efficient manufacturing process/ compostable/the growth process takes place in the dark MATERIALS BASED ON FUNGUS Fungus-based materials employ a production method that allows them to grow naturally. The base of the material can be anything from husks of rice to wheat. A fungus is introduced, growing a network of threads to bring the base material together. The material is dehydrated to stop the growing process. Emerging Biomaterials | 21
w Properties: • low density • high durability along axial direction • similar qualities to particle board • heat insulation • noise absorption Applications: • • • • furniture surfaces panelling insulation doors Suppliers: • currently in development uses agricultural byproducts/50% lighter than particle board/exceptional noise absorption MAIZE COB BOARD (MCB) Maize cob board employs the use is currently in development and at of the natural waste from farms, present is confined to panelling. corn cobs. The cobs are sliced and sandwiched between two boards of various materials. The material Emerging Biomaterials | 22
w Properties: • • • • • light weight flame retardant good mechanical strength rapid growth available worldwide Applications: • protective helmets • molded parts for cars Suppliers: • • • • • Arbofill® Biofiber® Wheat Cellucomp® Greenline® NaBasCo® based on renewable raw materials/can replace current reinforcement fibers/ lighter than current fibers/ compostable NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES (NFC) Natural fiber composites are comprised of a combination of fibrous materials found in nature (hemp, flax, coconut) and a synthetic resin. The resin allows the material to be processed using typical thermoplastic processing procedures. Different combination of materials give these composites various properties. Emerging Biomaterials | 23
w Properties: • • • • • lower water absorption high dimensional stability dark coloring fungal resistance good acoustic properties Applications: • • • • • facade cladding solid timber flooring toys playground equipment decking Suppliers: allows local species to replace exotic, tropical woods/less energy consumed in procurement/can be processed through normal manufacturing techniques • Accoya® • Admonter® • OHT Wood® HEAT-TREATED NATURAL WOODS Heat-treated natural woods allow for an increased quality of lower-grade lumber in order to make it suitable for outdoor use. Applying heat, pressure, and acetic anhydride to less-durable woods through the process of acetylation reduces the wood’s water absorption rate, making it more suitable for outdoor use. Emerging Biomaterials | 24
w Properties: • • • • • • high degree of elasticity very resilient amber color sticky when wet becomes brittle with age susceptible to fungi Applications: • • • • • • balloons condoms tires rubber springs engine mountings & seals hoses & cable coatings Suppliers: • Linatex® • Yokohama® • Bedell Kraus® based on renewable materials/biodegradable/ tackiness when wet allows it to be used as an adhesive/only turpentine or petroleum can dissolve it/rubber trees are currently under attack by a resilient fungus; scientists are working toward an alternative source NATURAL RUBBER Natural rubber is extracted from the sap of a rubber tree to form a latex. It consists of natural caoutchouc, water, and sulfur. Its properties make it desirable for applications requiring elasticity (it can be stretched up to 10 times its size) and resiliency. Natural caoutchouc is used in 40% of all industrial rubber production. Emerging Biomaterials | 25
w Properties: • even property distribution • low shrinkage • high rigidity & bending strength • low thermal expansion • high resistance to moisture Applications: • • • • • • • casings for electronics handles furniture outdoor ground surfaces building components fashion accessories bio-urns Suppliers: • • • • • Fasal® Megawood® Kupilka® Fibrolon® Werzalit® based on renewable materials/crude, oil-free matrix materials are biodegradable/maximum processing temperature should not exceed 200C WOOD POLYMER COMPOSITES (WPC) Wood Polymer Composites (WPCs) are formed from wood fibers, a plastic matrix, and various additives. Often referred to as ‘liquid wood’, WPCs can be processed using most traditional thermoplastic processes. Its properties make it particularly desirable for the manufacture of precision components. Emerging Biomaterials | 26
w Properties: • increased rigidity • weather resistant • 80% less material waste Applications: • building materials • wooden tubes • heavy packaging Suppliers: • unknown saves materials compared with round wood/requires less energy that the manufacture of wood fibers/process can be reversed and shaped THERMO-HYGRO-MECHANICALLY COMPACTED WOOD (THM) THM is wood that has been compacted to increase the material’s density. In the heating process, the wood’s biological resistance is increased while the cell structures remain intact. Processing may be completed with our without mechanical force and his temperature steam. Emerging Biomaterials | 27
RESEARCH & OPPORTUNITIES With sustainability as our primary goal, processing of its materials and its highest we set out to research the current context point of environmental impact occurs of the electric toothbrush. We found that during the toothbrush’s daily use. the electric toothbrush’s highest point of energy consumption occurs during the Given the nature of the course and our consumption associated with daily use, project timeline, we chose to focus on and the facilitation of proper product increasing the electric toothbrush’s disposal. sustainability through our choice of materials, the reduction of energy Emerging Biomaterials | 28
Energy Usage Over Product Lifecycle Highest Point of Energy Consumption Highest Point of Environmental Impact Material Production Daily Production & Distribution Use Opportunity Opportunity EOL Opportunity Change the materials used in the production of an electric toothbrush... Reduce the amount of energy consumption during the electric toothbrush’s daily use... Provide avenues for proper disposal... Which materials might offer the highest benefit in terms of resources, recyclability, and energy consumption during production/processing? How might we provide a solution to the energy loss associated with vampire energy? How might we enable the user to dispose of their toothbrush properly? Emerging Biomaterials | 29
w PRODUCT LIFECYCLE Due to our design opportunities spanning the entire length of the electric toothbrush’s product lifecycle, it quickly became apparent that we must first set out the lifecycle of our toothbrush before focusing on its form. Following is an explanation of the lifecycle we set forth for our product. Emerging Biomaterials | 30
Company Actions Production Company Actions Distribution Receive & Dispose User Actions Purchase Use Charge Separate Parts Package & Send Non-Recyclables Material Disposal Properly Dispose Parts Recycle Remaining Parts Replace Head Emerging Biomaterials | 31
MATERIAL SELECTION Bioplastics Based on Cellulose: We chose to use this material due to its availability, sustainability and recyclability. Cork Polymer Composites: We chose this material due to its impermeability to water, natural gripping texture, and absorption of vibration. Natural Rubber: We chose to use this material due to its natural tactile qualities. It is also a more sustainable alternative to industrial rubbers. Acrylic Glass Derived from Sugar: We chose this material due to its transparant qualities. It is also a more sustainable alternative to traditional acrylics. Emerging Biomaterials | 32
w IDEATION With a clear understanding of our potential materials and a vision set forth for the lifecycle of our product, we moved forward as a team in ideating product form. Through a series of sketches, we came to a concensus on the direction of the toothbrush’s physical concept and aesthetics. Emerging Biomaterials | 33
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w CONCEPT REFINEMENT We continued to refine our sketches and explore the toothbrush’s form, taking the human factors and industry standards into account, until we arrived at a final concept. Emerging Biomaterials | 35
FINAL CONCEPT Emerging Biomaterials | 36
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5 5 2” 7 8 8 1 2 3 9 9” 2” 10 4 6 Emerging Biomaterials | 38
Part Number: Part Name: Material/Spec: MFG Process: Mat. Supplier: 1 Handle Shell Cellulose Plastic 3001D TDS Injection Molding NatureWorksLLS Ellisville, MO, USA 636.238.2111 2 2 Handle Grip Cork Polymer Composite VibrationControl Injection Molding Amorim Mozelos, Portugal +351.227.475.300 1 3 Power Button Natural Rubber SVR 20 - TSR Injection Molding The Standard Rubber Binh Doung, Vietnam +84.974.800.805 1 Injection Molding University of Duisburg-Essen and the Helholts Centre for Environmental Research 1 Sourced Alibaba Shenzhen, Guangdon, China +86.755.835.6771 1 Injection Molding NatureWorksLLS Ellisville, MO, USA 636.238.2111 1 Injection Molding NatureWorksLLS Ellisville, MO, USA 636.238.2111 1 Injection Molding Enco Fernley, NV, USA 800.873.3626 1 Sourced Kingly Moto Co. Ltd Yuandog, Guangdong, China +86.752.333.5066 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Display Screen Acrylic Glass from Sugar Brush Bristles Nylon TB-1003 Bottom Cap Cellulose Plastic 3001D TDS Brush Head Cellulose Plastic 3001D TDS Gears Nylon TB-1003 Motor Aluminum SH Micro DC Motor Lithium Ion Battery 3.7V: 800mAh; Li-ion Sourced Quanitity: HQPR-US 1 Injection Molding University of Duisburg-Essen and the Helholts Centre for Environmental Research 1 1 1 Charging Glass Acrylic Glass from Sugar Charging Base Cellulose Plastic 3001D TDS Injection Molding NatureWorksLLS Ellisville, MO, USA 636.238.2111 Charging Grip Cork Polymer Composite VibrationControl Injection Molding Amorim Mozelos, Portugal +351.227.475.300 Emerging Biomaterials | 39
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