sustainable development part1

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Information about sustainable development part1

Published on March 26, 2008

Author: Belly


PLANET EARTH:  PLANET EARTH HISTORY OF EARTH:  HISTORY OF EARTH Slide5:  SOME EFFECTS OF MAN ON THE ENVIRONMENT SOME PAST ENVIRONMENTS :  SOME PAST ENVIRONMENTS Gin Lane by Hogarth (1750) Legacy of industrial revolution by Lowry LONDON SMOG OF 1952:  LONDON SMOG OF 1952 THE 20th CENTURY:  THE 20th CENTURY Environmental change is as old as the planet Man has continually altered the environment, but there has never been anything like the 20th century SOME MEASURES OF 20TH CENTURY:  SOME MEASURES OF 20TH CENTURY LATTER HALF OF 20th CENTURY:  LATTER HALF OF 20th CENTURY 1950 1997 Population (bln) 2.5 5.8 Life expectancy at birth 47 67 Megacities (> 8 mln) 2 25 Food (avg cal/capita) 1980 2770 Fish catch (mln tons) 19 91 Water use (bln cu m) 1300 4200 Rain forest cover index 100 70 CO2 emissions (bln t C) 1.6 7.0 CFC in atmosphere (ppb) <1 3.0 Source:World Resources Institute, 1996 IMPROVED LOT OF MANKIND:  IMPROVED LOT OF MANKIND By many indicators the lot of mankind has vastly improved. For example: Prosperity Life expectancy Education However this does not mean that things are good enough Lomborg, 2001 Also there are threats and unknowns ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The good news is good: never before have so many experienced so rapid an improvement in their standards of living The bad news is appalling: a large number of desperately poor countries are falling further behind Wolf, Financial Times, 2003 Question: are there environmental implications of the good news? Slide13:  DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT: SCHEMATIC Industrialisation problems, e.g SO2 and other toxic industrial and transport related emissions greenhouse gas emissions total consumption of water, energy and other non renewable resources waste urbanisation child labour Scope: local, regional and global Poverty problems, e.g Malnutrition lack of clean water lack of sanitation smoke from cooking pressure on local resources e.g. wood for fires child labour Scope: local Affluence problems: many industrialisation problems plus concerns over, e.g. GM foods chemicals in environment nuclear energy destruction of countryside pressure on wildlife transport: roads, airports Economic development (GDP) MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:  MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Include: Greenhouse gases and global warming Use of non renewable resources Fresh water availability and quality Food availability and distribution Pollution and waste Biodiversity loss Deforestation OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS:  Include: OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS YEARS OF LOST LIFE CAUSED BY SOME MAJOR RISK FACTORS:  YEARS OF LOST LIFE CAUSED BY SOME MAJOR RISK FACTORS Years of life lost % Malnutrition Water & Sanitation Unsafe sex Tobacco Physical inactivity Slide17:  MAGNITUDE OF SOME ISSUES AND COST TO ALLEVIATE COMPARISON OF THREE MAJOR ISSUES:  COMPARISON OF THREE MAJOR ISSUES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT x x FACTOR FOUR:  FACTOR FOUR If the world population and average wealth doubles, then for there to be no increase in environmental impact the third term will have to improve by dramatic factor of 4 This is merely to maintain the ‘status quo’. To reduce environmental impact, higher values are required. For example to halve greenhouse gas emissions an improvement factor of 8 would be needed ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS:  ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS If the entire world lived like North Americans, it would take three planet Earths to support the present world population Energy is the main component of this POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: SCHEMATIC:  POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: SCHEMATIC Adapted from an FoE publication 2100 9 billion people 2000 6 billion people Developing countries if resource consumption and emission figures increase to those of developed countries Developed countries Global environmental impact in terms of resource depletion and major emissions Year and global population MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES:  MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES 1.2 billion people living in poverty on less than 1 US dollar a day Potential impact of industrialising countries like China and India, e.g. in generation of greenhouse gases Disproportionate impact of developed countries, e.g. in generation of greenhouse gases ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN HAPPINESS:  ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN HAPPINESS In economically developed countries the link between economic growth and human happiness is breaking Something is missing! Slide25:  MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL food, water, shelter, warmth SAFETY security, stability, freedom from fear BELONGING, LOVE friends, family, spouse SELF-ESTEEM achievement, mastery, recognition, respect SELF-ACTUALISATION pursue inner talent, creativity, fulfilment GEOGRAPHICAL IMPACT OF OUR ACTIONS:  GEOGRAPHICAL IMPACT OF OUR ACTIONS Some things we do impact locally, e.g. waste generation Some things we do impact locally and globally, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions SOME ISSUES TO CONSIDER:  SOME ISSUES TO CONSIDER Consider: What effect our actions have on our local environment What effect our actions have on the global environment What example are we setting to less developed countries Some reasons for an individual’s position on the environment:  Some reasons for an individual’s position on the environment Personal values Societal ‘norms’ Laws Available Options

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