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Surficial Geology, Ring of Fire Area, Ontario, Canada

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Information about Surficial Geology, Ring of Fire Area, Ontario, Canada
Science-Technology

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: andyfyon

Source: authorstream.com

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Surficial Geology and Till Sampling in the McFaulds Lake (Ring of Fire) Area, James Bay Lowland : Surficial Geology and Till Sampling in the McFaulds  Lake (Ring of Fire) Area, James Bay Lowland Cunhai (George) Gao, Ph.D., P.Geo . Ontario Geological Survey g eorge.gao@ontario.ca Project Objectives: Project Objectives To understand the Quaternary stratigraphy and history in this region in order to better interpret the indicator mineral and geochemical data obtained To sample till and stream sediments for indicator minerals and geochemical data to assist the mineral exploration efforts and environmental studies in this region Recent Geological History, James Bay Lowland: Recent Geological History, James Bay Lowland T errestrial process and deposition started to dominate this region at least in Jurassic. A subtropical to warm temperate climate probably prevailed from Jurassic to late Tertiary The region was glaciated in the mid-Pliocene 3.5 Ma ago. After the glaciation, broadleaved Carolinian and boreal forests grew in response to an oscillating postglacial climate from 3.5 to 3 Ma Multiple glaciations likely occurred over the past 2.6 Ma during the Pleistocene. But their records are rarely preserved except those of the Late Pleistocene, e.g., the Late Wisconsinan This region was deglaciated about 8000 years ago following the Late Wisconsinan cold stage. Presently, it is a swampy lowland with a boreal forest dominated by spruce and larch, with jack pine in areas with well-drained sandy soil Ring of Fire area, James Bay Lowland: Ring of Fire area, James Bay Lowland The boreal forest is dominated by spruce and larch: The boreal forest is dominated by spruce and larch PowerPoint Presentation: Modern deciduous forests in SE USA include most of the tree types growing in James Bay Lowland in the mid-Pliocene, e.g., oak , hickory, chestnut , and sweet gum, as well as cypress in swampy areas (Photo courtesy of Tom Ayger , US Geological Survey) PowerPoint Presentation: Recent Quaternary History (Dyke and Prest 1986) 18 000 14 C years BP (Dyke 2004) RoF Cordilleran Ice Sheet Laurentide Ice Sheet Greenland Ice Sheet PowerPoint Presentation: Lake Agassiz Champlain Sea Lake Ojibway 8 500 14 C years BP RoF (Dyke and Prest 1986) (Dyke 2004) PowerPoint Presentation: Lake Agassiz Lake Ojibway (Dyke and Prest 1986) 7 700 14 C years BP (Dyke 2004) ? PowerPoint Presentation: Isostatic rebound Paleo -shoreline (Present shoreline) (Dyke and Prest 1986) 7 600 14 C years BP (Dyke 2004) Tyrrell Sea PowerPoint Presentation: (Present shoreline) (Dyke and Prest 1986) Paleo -shoreline 5 000 14 C years BP (Dyke 2004) Late-Pleistocene stratigraphy in RoF and adjacent areas: Late-Pleistocene stratigraphy in RoF and adjacent areas (Based on a site on Winisk River) (Not on scale) Late-Pleistocene stratigraphy in RoF and adjacent areas: Late-Pleistocene stratigraphy in RoF and adjacent areas (Based on a site on Winisk River) (Not on scale) Surficial sediments below the peat Silty to clayey, with low permeability, acting as potential regional aquitards Calcareous, with rich carbonate material Locally, glaciofluvial sand and gravel exist in eskers and kames, acting as local aquifers Surficial geology of 3 representative sites, James Bay Lowland: Marine beach deposits Surficial geology of 3 representative sites, James Bay Lowland (80 m asl ) (125 m asl ) Winisk River Site Victor Mine Cliffs Esker Camp (175 m asl ) PowerPoint Presentation: Till units above the interglacial peat and silt, Winisk River (1) (2) (4) (3) (5) (5) Glaciomarine silt, clay and sand of the Tyrrell Sea (4) Glaciolacustrine silt and clay of Lake Ojibway (3) Upper till (clayey, silty ) (2) Middle till ( silty ) (1) Lower till ( silty , sandy) Macoma calcarea Hiatella arctica Marine shells in the silt and clay of Tyrrell sea (arrow indicates drop stones from icebergs): Marine shells in the silt and clay of Tyrrell sea ( arrow indicates drop stones from icebergs) F oraminifera PowerPoint Presentation: L ower till up to 10 m thick, clayey to sandy, very compact, with low permeability, one of the major regional aquitards , the primary material for sampling PowerPoint Presentation: L acustrine p eat and silt up to 9 m thick below till deposits, Winisk River ( Last Interglacial c. 125 ka ?) PowerPoint Presentation: T he upper till (Cochrane Till?) Silty clay of proglacial Lake Ojibway , containing abundant drop stones RoF area is covered by clayey material (>0.5 m thick) of proglacial Lake Ojibway which drained about 7600 14 C years ago PowerPoint Presentation: Cliffs Esker Camp Iceberg keel marks of Lake Ojibway PowerPoint Presentation: An iceberg keel mark of Lake Ojibway (>3.5 km long by 70 m wide) Dispersal train or fan: Dispersal train or fan Till Sampling for Indicator M inerals PowerPoint Presentation: Stream sediments not far-travelled from the tills the source material PowerPoint Presentation: (Crabtree 2003) Ice flow Ring of Fire Victor mine Summary: Summary I n the RoF and adjacent areas, several tills occur, which are overlain by the clayey material of proglacial Lake Ojibway and the Tyrrell Sea. The ice flows associated with tills are southward T he subsurface materials below the recent peat are, in general, calcareous, clayey and silty with low permeability. They act as potential regional aquitards . About 200 till and stream sediment samples have been collected in the field. They are being processed for indicator minerals and geochemistry (ICP and INAA) for 0.25-2 mm and < 0.063 mm fraction materials, respectively, in order to support the mineral exploration efforts and environmental studies A thorough understanding of the surficial geology and stratigraphy is critical for better interpretation of the indicator mineral and geochemical data obtained

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