Published on February 4, 2014
PowerPoint Presentation: Supporting learning PowerPoint Presentation: This presentation begins with a task – straight in at the deep end ! Before we go any further we would like you to read the following article : http://www.factworld.info/journal/issue06/f6-clegg.pdf As you do so, think about which areas pupils need most support with in a CLIL lesson . PowerPoint Presentation: How easy did you find the article to understand ? Now you’ve read the article , think about the following questions : Go on , give yourself a mark out of 10! How can you test how well you understood it ? When you’ve thought about the answers to these questions , go on to the next slide . PowerPoint Presentation: a) I understood every word and feel I have a deep understanding of the areas in which children need most support . b) I didn’t find the language problematic and I’ve probably understood the general idea, but I still don’t feel I understand everything the article had to say . c) I didn’t find the language too problematic but I feel bombarded by so much text . There was really too much for me to take in all at once. d) I found the language difficult . I don’t feel I understand the contents of the article at all . So which of these statements would best sum up how you feel ? I understood every word and feel I have a deep understanding of the areas in which children need most support . I didn’t find the language problematic and I’ve probably understood the general idea, but I still don’t feel I understand everything the article had to say . c) I didn’t find the language too problematic but I feel bombarded by so much text . There was really too much for me to take in all at once. d) I found the language difficult . I don’t feel I understand the contents of the article at all . PowerPoint Presentation: How can you test how well you understood it ? How much do you think you could recount to somebody else from memory ? Do you feel that you could at least answer the initial question ( ie which areas pupils need most support with in a CLIL lesson ) in detail ? How much of the content do you think you could recall if you were to write it down ? How much of the content do you think you’ll be able to recall in, say , a month , six months or a year ? PowerPoint Presentation: What aspects of the text did you find most challenging ? Do you agree or disagree with these ? Difficult language ? Too dense? Organisation of information ? Too much information ? Too long ? New topic area ? PowerPoint Presentation: If you feel you understood and could successfully recall most of this text , then congratulations ! If not , don’t panic ! The topic area may well have been new to you ( or at least a lot of the ideas within it ) so there was a lot of new content to digest . Also , it was written in fairly academic native-level English . There were no visuals , just plain text . As for the ‘ task ’ question we asked you , the text was full of examples of areas pupils need support with in a CLIL lesson ! We would need to break these down and categorise them , to avoid reciting a long list of disconnected ideas. They were not easy to ‘ digest ’ all at once. So how could we make the content more digestable ? PowerPoint Presentation: As we’ve already pointed out , there is a lot of content in this article . Let’s strip it down to the main points , starting with the first section as an example : First , identify the title of the text . Then identify the main message of this section . Have a think about this and then click . The article basically suggests WHY there is the need for language support : in the CLIL classroom pupils are working harder cognitively , so they need more help . As a result , the teacher can either simplify the concepts (not a good idea) or the language . PowerPoint Presentation: The section concludes by asking how and when we should provide help and support . Now we’ve stripped this section down to its bare essentials , how can we represent this information more visually ? PowerPoint Presentation: Mind map tool courtesy of Title Questions raised Answers proposed Rationale PowerPoint Presentation: We hardly need to ask the question ‘ which format would make the content more accessible to a non- native learner ?’! We now have a clearer idea of what to expect from the rest of the article , as it raises the ‘ when ’ and ‘ how ’ questions . PowerPoint Presentation: We can look out for this information as we continue to read , as the essence of the article (and thus , in a classroom scenario , the contents of what we wish to transmit ) takes shape in our mind . Where : Examples are then listed in order to provide a clearer idea of the options available to slot into different stages of the lesson . For example : signalling , visuals and questioning at the presentation stage to check understanding and convey meaning; inputting new vocabulary, using translation if necessary to help the flow of the lesson; supporting students’ understanding by asking questions; using charts and other visual (graphic) organisers ; supporting students’ discussion in L2 by putting key words and phrases on the board to help them; allowing students to discuss in L1 and report back in L2 where appropriate; providing writing frame and key pointers to help students write in L2. PowerPoint Presentation: The techniques suggested in Section 3 of the article are expanded upon to show how the teacher might apply them . How : PowerPoint Presentation: Cognitive demands Students listen to the teacher introduce a new topic , starting with an oral presentation . Students read quite a complex text in L2 about the topic . Students work in groups to classify the new concepts . Students write a short piece in L2 on the new concepts . Language demands Students listen to the oral presentation and follow the sequence of ideas . Students follow the sequence of ideas in the reading text . Students talk to each other ( using the new vocabulary ). Students write using the new vocabulary and phrases . What other ways could we use to express content visually ? Let’s look at the cognitive and language demands of the lesson , as described on page 4 of the article . Before moving on , take a moment to think about these 4 areas and what they imply for students on a linguistic level . What do they need to do and understand in terms of the language at each level ? Refer back the article if you need to . PowerPoint Presentation: Cognitive process taking place Decoding and understanding input through listening and observation Decoding and understanding input through navigating linguistic markers Classifying key concepts through communicating the using new words and phrases Expressing understanding through using linguistic marker, new words and phrases Language skill required Support needed Signaling and visuals Connectors / vocab Key phrases / vocab Connectors / key phrases / vocab Listening Reading Speaking Writing It may be more fruitful to combine them in order to see the bigger picture , for example in a flow chart : Of course , the text is still useful to provide more detail , but this is likely to be more meaningful once we have a clear idea of the rationale , which the flow chart provides . PowerPoint Presentation: Apart from breaking down and decoding the information for our pupils so that the meaning is clear and easier for them to understand and commit to memory , they help us as teachers to have the focus clear in our own heads so that we can package the content as purposefully as possible for our pupils . This will help us decide what language we need to use. Organising material in a visual way is called using a ‘ graphic organiser ’. So what are the advantages of using ‘ graphic organisers ’ such as mind maps , topic webs and flow charts? Can you represent the above paragraph as a mind map ? PowerPoint Presentation: Break down and decode information Graphic organizers Helps us decide what language to use Pupils : makes content easier to break down and remember Teachers : helps us have content clear in our minds Title Reason Results Consequence Think about how you might express the information here . Click on the back arrow at any time to re- read the paragraph . Once you’ve noted some ideas, click to continue . You will find some clues to help you complete the task . Click again to find our answer . PowerPoint Presentation: Before moving on to the next slide , would you agree that this is a good way to decode and organise information ? PowerPoint Presentation: Thinking about everything that you have learnt about so far in this presentation, we’d now like you to go back to the original article and organise all of the key ideas into a simple graphic organiser . Your graphic organiser needs to answer the following question, based on the contents of the article: In what areas will pupils need most support in a CLIL lesson ? You can use any graphic organiser that you like. For ideas, click to move on to the next slide of this presentation. You may also wish to visit www.enchantedlearning.com for more ideas. PowerPoint Presentation: Star – useful for brainstorming ideas around a specific topic Venn diagram – useful for comparing/contrasting and establishing things in common Cycle – useful for events that are cyclical and repeat themselves, eg the lifecycle of a plant, the water cycle, the food chain, etc Tree – useful for sub-dividing and organizing ideas that spring out of the same root Pyramid – useful for organizing hierarchical information Star, Venn diagram, cycle and tree taken from www.enchantedlearning.com PowerPoint Presentation: When you’ve completed the task, think about the process you have gone through. Note down two or three thoughts that you have about using graphic organisers in general. Do they help you organise your ideas on both a conceptual and linguistic level? Can you see any disadvantages to using graphic organisers in class or do you think they will support your teaching? Give two or three reasons why. You can find our suggestion for a possible graphic organiser in the PDF file titled ‘Providing language support in CLIL – mind map’. Please also read the pdf titled ‘A summary’ and keep your thoughts and reflections on using graphic organisers to hand. You will need to refer back to these for possible inclusion in your ‘Reflective journal’ at the end of this block. PowerPoint Presentation: Thank you for watching this PowerPoint presentation .