Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0

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Information about Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and...

Published on November 23, 2007

Author: ullrich

Source: slideshare.net

Description

At lecture for fresh(wo)men on learning theories, learning theories and language learning, using Twitter for language learning, building a personal learning environment in 10 minutes, building a personal learning environment in 10 seconds, Artificial Intelligence for learning support.

Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0 Kerstin Borau Carsten Ullrich Photo by Lutz-R. Frank

Kerstin Borau/ Carsten Ullrich Kerstin Borau Master degree in Applied English Linguistic Certified foreign language teacher. English/German teacher at SJTU Network Education College Research interests: Computer Assisted Foreign Language Learning, new technologies and approaches in Language Learning Carsten Ullrich PhD in Computer Science at Saarland University 2004-2007 researcher at the DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence), one of the largest AI research institutes worldwide Now researcher at E-Learning Lab of SJTU About 50 publications in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Education Research interests: Artificial Intelligence, technology- enhanced learning, Semantic Web, Web 2.0 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Overview Learning Theories Learning Theories and Language Learning Tools for Active Learning Artificial Intelligence for Learner Support 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Learning Theories 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Timeline of Learning Theories By Serhat Kurt 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Behaviorism (1910) How do you react? Stimulus-Response coupling Psychology should deal with objective, observable subject matter behavior Skinner (1904-1990) The Technology of Learning (1968) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Behaviorism: Programmed Instruction (1950) Principles: Positively reinforced behavior will reoccur “Praise is good for learning!” Break down complex skills in small bits Teach each bit separately Knowledge is given and absolute 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Programmed Instruction: Example The important parts of a flashlight are the battery and the bulb. When we quot;turn onquot; a flashlight, we close a switch which connects the battery with the _______ . bulb When we turn on a flashlight, an electric current flows through the fine wire in the _______ and causes it to grow hot. bulb When the hot wire glows brightly, we say that it gives off or sends out heat and ________ . light 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Test The scientistyou like to learn this way?the fathers _______ is one of Would of Behaviorism. For what subject matters is this appropriate? Skinner The educational technology ________ is based on Behaviorism. Programmed Instruction It is based on ______ correct answers and ____ incorrect answers. Rewarding, punishing 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Behaviorism: Summary No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental processes Learner merely responds to the quot;demandsquot; of the environment Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Learning Theory: Cognitivism What happens in your head? Mental processes are primary object of study Goal: discover and model the mental processes Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Teaching should respect the mental processes 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Learning Theories: Constructivism Behaviorism/Cognitivism get something in the head of the learners Constructivists create opportunities to discover! knowledge: result of individual learning; cannot be transmitted, must be (re)constructed exploration/discovery/group-learning Learner is in control / Teacher is moderator Learning in context and collaboration Solve realistic and meaningful problems 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Learning Theories: Summary Behaviorism How do you react? Cognitivism What happens in your head? Constructivism Create opportunities to learn & discover! 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Behaviorism and language learning Audio-lingual method and audiovisual method focuses on spoken language for everyday communication content: everyday dialogues level: simple exercises: pattern drill 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Behaviorism and language learning Sample Dialoges: 谢谢你! 不用谢! Vielen Dank! Keine Ursache! 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Behaviorism and language learning Advantages: • Enables speaking without learning complicated grammar Disadvantages: • Pattern drills are boring • Restricted language use 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Constructivism and language learning focus: Everything that interests the • learners, e.g., own projects • content: Everything that interests the learners • level: broad level, determined by the topics and the level of the learners 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Constructivism and language learning Advantages: • Prepares learners for “real” interaction • Disadvantages: None 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Constructivism and language learning How did he learn to play basketball? • 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知 之,知之不若行之。 荀子 quot;Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“ Xun Zi 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Communicative competence Linguistic aspects • Phonology and orthography (pronunciation & spelling) • Grammar (syntax) • Vocabulary (words) • Discourse (comprehending texts) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Communicative competence Pragmatic aspects • Functions (communication purposes ) • Variations (different styles/appropriate social meaning ) • Interactional skills (knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations ) • Cultural framework (to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Lots of exposure to language you can understand o A chance to negotiate meaning with speakers of the language o A chance to observe and participate in a variety of real communication situations o A chance to get to know what people who speak the language think and believe 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Base structured work on events you participate in such as a shared meal, or working with somebody in the field. o Build basic vocabulary using action-based approaches and games. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Use your social skills to make relationships. o Spend lots of time doing things with people. o Find creative ways to practice using the language. o Use a lot of communicative activities. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Tools for Learning: Twitter Twitter: a constructivist approach to acquire communicative competence 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Web 2.0 Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application Web 2.0 applications take full advantage of the network nature of the Web encourage participation inherently social and open Example: Amazon 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Web 2.0: Some Examples 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning Photo by vincos

Web 2.0 & Learning Web 1.0 Learning: Learning Management Systems Administered learning Teacher/Institution centered Web 2.0 Learning: Student centered Student contribute/communicate Teacher moderates/creates learning opportunities 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Personal Learning Environment Use Web 2.0 applications to create your own learning environment for language learning In 10 minutes! Done 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

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22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

PLE: Too Much Work? 10 minutes ok But let’s do it in 10 seconds Done 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

PLE: Additional Support PLE may be confusing for new learners how to master the tools when to use which tool what tools are available That is where the teacher comes in has knowledge of tools and how to use them Artificial Intelligence implement this knowledge in the computer 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Learning Supported by Artificial Intelligence 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Traditional Adapt learning books/courses: materials (course) one size fits all with respect to non-adaptive individual variables (learning goals, ignores your knowledge, knowledge & goals emotions, …) context (location, device, …) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Artificial Intelligence Extract human expert knowledge Formalize it Apply it 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

AI Supported Learning What does the computer need to know? Domain/Content Model Teaching/Pedagogical User Model Model 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Course Generation: Motivation Eva wants to learn about calculus: “derivative” Web-search: Google 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Motivation: Results of Web-Search too many results all kinds of resources not adapted to individual capabilities and goals 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Motivation: Course Generation (CG) “derivation” Repository 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Motivation: Course Generation “derivation” Course Generator Repository 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Resources from Several Repositories “derivation” Course Generator Repositories 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Integration of Learning- Supporting Tools “derivation” Course Generator Repositories Tool Tool Tools 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

CG as a Service “derivation” Course Generator Repositories Tool Tool Tools 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Modeling of Pedagogical Knowledge / Adaptivity “derivation” Course Generator Repositories •Discover “derivation” •Train Competencies “derivation” •Exam Simulation “derivation” •Illustrate “derivation” •Motivate “derivation” Tool Tool Tools 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Course Generation: Pedagogical Knowledge 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Course Generation: Framework AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert systems (HTN) planning: Goal directed Hierarchical approach easily understandable Efficient 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Basics of Hierarchical Task Network Planning How it plans: • methods decompose tasks • down to primitive tasks performed by operators 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Basic Knowledge Inserting references to educational resources tools Generating structure Accessing information about educational resources the learner About 70 rules 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Example / Exercise Selection About 60 methods Take into account competency level educational level fields of interest novelty motivation & anxiety 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Exercise Selection Selecting an exercise, high motivation (learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) (>= ?m 4) (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) Selecting an exercise, adequate competence level (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent ?cl ?ex_cl) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Exercise Selection (:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c) ((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) (>= ?m 4) (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) (assign ?unsortedExercises (call GetResources ((class Exercise) (relation isFor ?c) (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasCompetencyLevel ?ex_cl) (property hasField ?field)))) (sortByAlreadySeen ?exercises ?unsortedExercises) (assignIterator ?exercise ?exercises)) ((insertWithVariantsIfReady! ?exercise ?c))) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Formalized CG Knowledge: Scenarios Moderate constructivist scenarios: Discover Rehearse Connect Train Intensively Train Competencies Exam Simulation Based on guidelines of instructional design Guided Tour ≈ 300 methods and operators 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Scenario “Discover” (discover deriv) Introduce (:method (discover ?f) () ((!startSection Discover ?f) (descriptionScenarioSection ?f) (learnFundamentalsDiscover ?f) Develop (reflect ?f) (!endSection))) Prove (:method (learnFundamentalDiscover ?c) () ((!startSection Title (?c)) (introduceWithPrereqSection ?c) (developFundamental ?c) Practice (proveSection ?c) (practiceSection ?c) (showConnectionsSection ?c) (!endSection))) Connect 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Scenario “Discover” (introduceWithPrereqSection! deriv) Motivate Introduce (:method (introduceWithPrereqSection! ?c) () Develop ((introduceWithSection! ?c) Problem (learnPrerequisitesFundamentalsShort ?c))) Prove (:method (introduceWithSection! ?c) Practice () Illustrate ((!startSection Introduction (?c)) Connect (text Introduction (?c)) (motivate! ?c) (problem ?c) Prerequisites (insertIntroductionExample ?c) (!endSection))) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Scenario Discover (:method (motivate! ?c) Motivate ((learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) Introduce (learnerProperty hasAnxiety ?c ?an) Problem Develop (?an <= 2) Illustrate (GetElement Practice ((class Exercise) Prerequisites Connect (class Introduction) (relation isFor ?c) Reflect (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasDifficulty very_easy)))) ((insertAuxOnceIfReady! ?element))) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Course Generation: Results Average time for course generation (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion): 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Course Generation: Results 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

AI-Supported Learning: Summary Artificial Intelligence to select learning objects to select tools Does not replace teacher but helps him/her Current research question: How to use AI for Web 2.0 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

Summary Learning Theories Learning Theories and Language Learning Tools for Personalized Learning How AI supports your Learning 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

How to Continue Contact us for any question: ullrich_c@sjtu.edu.cn kerstin_borau@web.de Use the personal learning environment we created during the lecture: http://www.google.com/ig/sharetab?hl=en&source=stb&stid=112236995 533256220287916fa6930de17d7449a322608f0e32e3 Even better: visit iGoogle and build your personal learning environment http://www.google.com/ig?hl=en Read and comment the slides: http://www.slideshare.net/ullrich/ Create an account on Twitter http://twitter.com our Twitter names: kerstinlaoshi & ullrich 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

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