Summer Forages in the Southeast

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Information about Summer Forages in the Southeast
Education

Published on January 29, 2014

Author: ssell9889

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Summer Forage options for Beef Cattle in the Southeastern US

Summer Forages Scott Sell – Area Livestock Agent Science. Service. Solutions.©

Classes of Summer Forages Perennials Annuals

Summer Grazing in SC • Permanent Summer Perennials – Hybrid Bermudas • • • • Tift 85 Coastal Russell Tift 44/Tift 78/Alecia – By gone – poor performers – Bahia • Pensacola – Most common • Tifton 9 • Tift Quik

Grass Quality Table 1. Typical fertilizer and lime recommendations, and the approximate forage quality, carrying capacity, and stocker gains that can be expected when recommended varieties of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and tall fescue are used as the primary pasture species. Fertilizer Recommendations1 N P2O5 K2O Annual Lime Needed — (lbs/acre) — (tons/acre) Typical Forage Quality2 Range in Forage Quality — (RFQ)— Carrying Capacity Average Daily Gains Stocker Cattle (AU3/acre/yr) (lbs/head/day) Bahiagrass 75-175 40 40 0.3-0.5 85-90 75-110 0.75-1.25 0.7-1.0 Bermudagrass 150-250 30 65 0.3-0.5 90-100 80-140 1.00-1.50 1.5-1.8 1 Assumes medium levels of phosphorus and potassium in the soil test. The forage quality values here are estimated based on NDF and digestibility estimates in the published literature. (RFQ = Relative Forage Quality) AU = Animal Unit. One animal unit is equivalent to 1,000 lbs. 4 Tall fescue is not recommended for pastures in the Coastal Plain. Approximations for animal performance for tall fescue in this table assume the use of a recommended novel-endophyte infected variety. 2 3

Tifton 9 Vs. Pensacola • 3 Year Side by Side Comparison – Tifton 9 – 47% more Forage – Tifton 9 – 17% more days of grazing – Same inputs Burton; Gates and Hill - 2000

Tifton 9 Vs. TifQuik • Tifton 9—This cultivar was developed and released by the University of Georgia and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1989 by Glenn Burton. Tifton 9 is a selection from Pensacola that was found to have superior yields in early spring and late fall. Tifton 9 is estimated to occupy 10% of the bahiagrass acreage in Florida. • TifQuik—This cultivar, recently released by the USDA and the University of Georgia, has fewer hard seeds and results in a more rapid or "quick" stand establishment. In the spring, it grows faster than Tifton 9 or Pensacola because of increased seedling emergence. Newman et al. 2008, University of Florida

TifQuik • Variant/Descendant of Tifton-9 Seeding Rates Bahia Grass Seeding Rates (lb/acre) • Superior seedling vigor and quicker stand formation • Yield Pensacola potential and other characteristics of TifQuik are 20–30 essentially the same as Tifton-9 Argentine 20–30 • Seeding rate Tifton-9 and TifQuik Tifton 9 15–20 • Around $185 - $200/40 lb Bag • Use UF-Riata as a peanut rotation 15–20 TifQuik 15-20 Adapted from data from Newman et al. 2008, University of Florida

Tifton 9 And Tift Quik Establishment • Have your soil tested. • Apply 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen plus adequate phosphorous and potassium. • Prepare a firm weed-free seed bed. • Plant seed 1/2 inch deep with a grain drill or grass seeder. • Plant in early spring to give a full summer season for establishment. • Pack the soil after planting with a very heavy roller or the tractor to keep soil moist around the seed or use a Cultipacker – Very Important • Control weeds with mowing or limited grazing to keep them down close to the top bahiagrass leaves. • An application of 2,4-D will control broad leaf weeds – When a minimum of 6 inches tall. Burton; Gates and Hill - 2000

Bahia Planting Rates Bahiagrass Seeding Rates Seeding Rates (lb/acre) Pensacola 20–30 Argentine 20–30 Tifton 9 15–20 UF-Riata 15–20 TifQuik 15-20 Adapted from data from Newman et al. 2008, University of Florida

Peanut/Cotton/Bahia Rotation Peanut yield for two crop rotations in FL during 2003 and 2004. 2003 2004 Rotation lbs/acre Bahiagrass-BahiagrassPeanut-Cotton 2783 3281 Peanut-Cotton-Cotton 1958 2415

Hybrid Bermuda Grasses Adaptation Grown in all areas except in mountains. Varieties differ in cold hardiness. Best adapted on sandy soils but will do well on clay soils. Hybrids are higher yielding, deeper rooted, and more drought tolerant than common bermudagrass. Tolerant of close grazing. Not tolerant of poor drainage. Establishment Seeded types - 5 to 10 lb/A in spring. Hybrids - March-April with sprigs at 10 bu/A Varieties Sprigged: Tifton 85, Russell. Seeded types/blends: Cheyenne II, Ranchero Frio, Sungrazer

Varieties by Area Table 1b. Summary of the characteristics of the primary vegetatively propagated (sprigged) bermudagrasses in Georgia. Recommended for: Mountain Upper Piedmont Midlands Coastal Plain Alicia (Alecia) X X X X Coastal X YES YES YES Coastcross II ND* YES YES YES Russell YES YES YES YES Tifton 44 X X X X Tifton 78 X X X X YES YES YES Variety Tifton 85 * Insufficient data exists to accurately estimate these parameters. Coastcross II remains a relatively new variety and has not yet been evaluated as rigorously as other hybrids. Hancock Et. Al., UGA, 2012

Bermuda Grass Performance Table 1a. Summary of the characteristics of the primary vegetatively propagated (sprigged) bermudagrasses in Georgia. Overall Rating Yield* Digestibility** Winter Hardiness Persistence Leaf Spot Resistance Alicia (Alecia) tt3 100 P G P P Coastal ttt3 100 F G G E Coastcross II tttt3 135 E G ND*** ND Russell tttt3 130 G E E G Tifton 44 tttt 90 G E G E Tifton 78 ttt 120 E F F E Tifton 85 ttttt 135 E F E E Variety Ratings: E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, P = Poor. * Yields are expressed as a percent of yields from Coastal. ** Based on in vitro dry matter digestibility. *** Insufficient data exists to accurately estimate these parameters. Coastcross II remains a relatively new variety and has not yet been evaluated as rigorously as other hybrids. Hancock Et. Al., UGA 2012

Yield Comparison – Vs. Coastal Yield/Ac Based on % of Coastal Yield 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Alicia (Alecia) Coastal Coastcross Russell II Hancock Et. Al., UGA, 2012 Tifton 44 Tifton 78 Tifton 85

Seeded Bermudas Table 3a. Summary of the characteristics of the primary seeded bermudagrasses in Georgia. Variety Overall Rating Yield* Winter Hardiness Persistence Giant (NK37) 3 55 P P Cheyenne** ttt 60 G E CD90160 ttt 60 G E KF-194 ttt 60 G E Wrangler t3 55 E F Common t 50 G G Ratings: E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, P = Poor. *Yields are expressed as a percent of yields from Coastal. **The original Cheyenne is no longer being sold. Cheyenne II, a variant of Cheyenne (selected for higher seed yield), is currently being marketed. Cheyenne II is expected to have characteristics similar to Cheyenne.

Yield Comparison – Vs. Coastal Seeded Vs. Sprigged Yield/Ac Based on % of Coastal Yield 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Sprigged Varieties Hancock Et. Al., UGA, 2012 Seeded Varieties

Establishment • Hybrid bermudagrasses: – (a) dormant rhizomes - December to early March – (b) Rhizomes with green tops – spring (after last freeze) to early August – (c) Tops/Green stems - Early June to August

Establishment Cont. • 10 Bu/Acre – Approx • Weed Control – Chemical – New Alternatives – • Prowl H2O • Pastora – Grazing/Mowing

2 Months After Planting 2nd year after discing

Bermuda Grass Stem Maggot • • • • • • Atherigona reversura Native to Japan, Indonesia, India, and Hawaii First found in GA – 2010 First record of this species in North America Death of Top Leaves to Growing point Cutting/harvest management only option right now • Insecticides – Unsuccessful w/o multiple treatments – Karate Etc. D. Hancock, UGA

Bermuda Grass Stem Maggot T. Wilson, UF Extension

Summer Grazing in SC • Summer Annuals – Millet – Sorghum-Sudan Type – Cow Peas – Forage Soybeans

Millets/Soghums/Sudans – Planting Times and Rates Planting dates and seeding rates for selected warm season annual grasses. Seeding Rate Drilled Pearl Millet April 15 – July 15 April 1 – August 1 UP May 1 – July 15 MDLS April 15 – August 1 CP April 1 – August 15 UP May 1 – July 1 MDLS April 15 – July 15 CP April 1 – August 1 UP April 25 – May 15 MDLS April 15 – May 15 CP Forage Sorghum May 1 – July 1 CP Sudangrass UP MDLS Sorghum x Sudan Hybrids April 15 – June 1 * UP Upstate; MDLS = MidLands; CP = Coastal Plain Region. Hancock, UGA —— lbs. of PLS/acre —— Planting Dates* Species Broadcast 10–15 25–30 15–20 20–25 20–25 30–40 15–20 20–25

Variety Trials Tifton

Forage Sorghum Tif-Leaf 3 Sorghum-Sudan

Cow Peas for Forage

• Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. ssp.) unguiculata • Once widely grown in North Florida as a hay or green manure • Well adapted to sandy, and low fertility soils. • It is now used in mixtures with pearl millet or sorghum-sudangrass for late summer/early fall grazing and for wildlife feed plots.

• Establishment: • Very tolerant to drought, shade, and low fertility and acid soils • Cowpea can be broadcast at rates of 100 to 120 lb/ac between April 1 and July 31 • cover with light disking or drilled at rates of 30 to 40 lbs/ac to a depth of 11.5 inches. • Fertilization: • N is not required. • At least 27 lb P/acre and 40 lb K/acre. • Grazing/Hay Management: • Yields ranging from 2 to 3.5 tons/ac. • Cowpea can also be used for the production of high quality hay or silage, when mixed with crops such as corn or sorghum, or it can be used for rotational grazing. • Forage Quality: • Protein (20 to 25%) • Varieties/Cultivars: • Mississippi Pinkeye Purple • Colossus • Freezegreen • Alabama Giant Blackeye.

Forage Soybeans • Early season forage tested 16-22% protein • Silage made from plants harvested later ranged from 21 to 28% protein. • Yields ranged from 3.2 to 3.5 tons/acre dry matter. • Two new forage soybean varieties have the potential to produce more than 9 tons of dry matter per acre with up to 28% protein, university research has shown. • The Roundup Ready varieties — Large Lad and Big Fellow

RR Varieties – For Hay

Days of age Growth stage %DM lb/acre %DM 75 50% bloom 24 3664 82 75% bloom 27 89 95% bloom 96 Dry matter yield Crude protein Fat NDF lb/acre %DM %DM %DM lb/acre 17.8 64/ 2.1 54.5 59.0 2162 4000 17.0 675 2.2 53.9 58.2 2328 27 4501 16.7 749 2.4 56.7 59.8 2692 Pods .5 full 26 5216 18.4 960 2.9 50.8 60.3 3145 103 Pods .66 full 26 5061 19.4 982 3.7 50.2 61.4 3107 110 Pods .75 full 26 5520 20.8 1147 5.4 48.9 60.2 3323 117 Pods .90 full 27 7105 20.9 1483 6.2 46.6 60.8 4320 124 30% leaf drop 29 6129 21.3 1307 7.4 43.0 61.0 3738 131 85% leaf drop 35 5789 22.3 1293 8.5 43.9 60.3 3490 138 100% leaf drop 56 4357 24.6 1072 9.2 41.9 60.0 2614 *The in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM) was determined by artificial rumen technique. Bragg variety soybeans planted June 6, Tifton, GA. Data from: J.C. Johnson, Jr., et. al., Tifton, GA. IVDOM*

Credits • • • • • UGA Extension – Dr. Dennis Hancock UGA Crop & Soil Sciences Mississippi State Extension University of Florida Extension Clemson Extension

Contact info • Scott Sell – Area Livestock Agent – Edisto EREC – Cell 803-450-0995 – Email: gsell@clemson.edu – Bull Test Facebook: • https://www.facebook.com/edistobulltest

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