Summer Assignment PowerPoint

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Information about Summer Assignment PowerPoint

Published on May 25, 2010

Author: PUNNisher05


Slide 1: My goals as your teacher: Enable you to become a master communicator Help you earn college credit for this class You should be a learner, not just a student: Set personal goals Be self motivated to learn Participate in discussion Seek enrichment and study opportunities such as: 11 AP English Willoughby South High Facebook page Become an active reader (of news, novels, essays, etc.) Getting the Most Out of AP Slide 2: For the summer assignment, you will need to: Read and study the rhetorical strategies in slides 3-27 of this PowerPoint. (You might print these slides and use them as flashcards.) Read 1984 by George Orwell. Write 8 paragraphs (explained in slides 28-30 of this PowerPoint). 1984 Summer Assignment Slide 3: Since AP English Language and Composition aims to hone your reading and writing skills, we will be: Studying the rhetorical strategies writers use, and Analyzing how authors use these strategies to achieve their own specific purposes or create desired effects. Rhetorical Strategies Slide 4: A stated comparison between two unlike things Example: “A sea of troubles” Metaphor Slide 5: A direct comparison between two unlike things with the use of “like” or “as” Example: “I’m as tired as a dog” Simile Slide 6: Attributing human qualities to an inanimate object Example: “The tired chair” Personification Slide 7: Specific details that appeal to the five senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell; allows the reader to more fully participate in the work with images and experiences that they can tie to directly or indirectly; engages emotions Imagery Slide 8: A play on the meaning of words Example: “mender of soles” (shoes’ soles/ people’s souls) Julius Caesar Pun Slide 9: Deliberate, extreme exaggeration for emphasis Example: “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse” Hyperbole Slide 10: Two contradictory terms used together “Parting is such sweet sorrow” and “Jumbo Shrimp” Example: “Parting is such sweet sorrow” Jumbo shrimp Oxymoron Slide 11: The use of words whose sound reinforces their meaning Example: “cackle” and “Bang” Onomatopoeia Slide 12: Repetition of the same sound at the beginning of successive words; usual effect: to increase memory retention, add emphasis and/or to create a rhythm Example: “Peter Piper picked a peck of picked peppers.” Alliteration Slide 13: A set of similarly structured words, phrases, or clauses Example: “He walked to the store; he walked to the library; he walked to the apartment.” Parallelism Slide 14: A part is used to represent the whole Example: “All hands on deck” (Hands means people helping) Synecdoche Slide 15: One thing is designated by something closely associated with it. Example: “a committee chair” “the crown of England” (the king) Metonymy Slide 16: An inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or harsh Example: “Passed on” (died) “pleasantly plump” (fat) Euphemism Slide 17: Intensifies an idea by negating the opposite “was not a little excited” (means was very excited) Example: “Was not a little excited” (was very excited) Litotes Slide 18: A statement that appears to be contradictory but, in fact, has some truth Examples: “He worked hard at being lazy.” “Absolute seriousness is never without a dash of humor.” Paradox Slide 19: A grammatical structure in which the first clause or phrase is reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words. Reversing the syntactical order emphasizes the reversal in meaning and thus reinforces the contrast. Such a device is useful in writing to emphasize differences or contrast in meaning Example: “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” Chiasmus Slide 20: The placing of contrasting settings, characters, or other literary elements next to each other to highlight an intended disparity. Example: placing a comfortable setting immediately before the most uncomfortable setting in a novel in order to make the uncomfortable setting feel even more. Juxtaposition Slide 21: Placing opposing or contrasting ideas/words in parallel structure within the same sentence or close together to emphasize their disparity Example: “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.” Antithesis Slide 22: Conjunctions are omitted, producing fast-paced and rapid prose to speed up the reader so as to have the reader experience the events along with the persona in a rapid succession Example: “I woke up, got out of bed, pulled on my clothes, rushed out the door.” (The conjunction “and” is omitted.) Asyndeton Slide 23: The use of many conjunctions has the opposite effect of asyndeton; it slows the pace of the reader but the effect is to possibly overwhelm the reader with details thus connecting the reader and the persona to the same experience. Example: “My mother cooked roast turkey and cornbread stuffing and sweet potatoes and peas and apple pie.” Polysyndeton Slide 24: A form of a regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or strategically placed paragraphs Example: “I have a dream...” (This is repeated at the beginning of paragraphs.) Anaphora Slide 25: Placing the subject at the end of a long sentence (which emphasizes the subject, not the verb or action) Example: “Walking down the street in the middle of the night while clutching my cane, I saw the cat.” Periodic Sentence Slide 26: The opposite of a periodic sentence. The subject is at the beginning, and emphasis is on the action of the sentence instead of on the subject. Example: “I saw the cat while I was walking down the street in the middle of the night while clutching my cane.” Cumulative Sentence Slide 27: Because tone radiates from the author, through a speaker or narrator and then to the reader, a tone shift indicates a shift in attitude about the subject. A tone shift may be the result of a change in speaker, subject, audience, or intention. The shift may indicate irony, a deeper and more complex understanding of the topic, a new way of addressing the topic, etc. Notice how and why the tone shift occurs and use two contrasting tone words to express the change and its effect. Tone Shift Slide 28: Each paragraph will: Analyze how Orwell uses a different rhetorical strategy to achieve a purpose or create an effect Have a clear topic sentence Include short quotations from 1984 that exemplify the strategy, and explain how each supports the stated purpose or effect Be 1/2 to 2/3 of a page typed, double spaced, Times New Roman, size 12, 1” margins Writing 8 Paragraphs Slide 29: The following paragraph (written about a different novel) would earn an “A.” In The Count of Monte Cristo, Alexander Dumas uses anaphora primarily to highlight characters’ inner turmoil when they are on the brink of irreversible change. When contemplating killing himself to atone for his loss of honor, Monsieur Morrel says, “If I live, everything changes; I become only a man who did not honor his own word, who failed to meet his obligations. But if I die, my body will be that of an unfortunate but honorable man. If I live, you’ll be ashamed to bear my name; if I die, you’ll hold your head high” (128). The repetition of “if I live” and “if I die” illustrates both the difficulty of deciding whether or not to kill himself and the finality of his decision. Monsieur Morrel’s son similarly uses antithesis when he is tempted to commit suicide after he sees that his beloved Valentine is dead. He says, “Tell them I was her fiancé….Tell them she was my only love in this world! Tell them this corpse belongs to me!” (433). Here, repetition emphasizes his desperation immediately before he contemplates suicide. The Morrel family is not alone in their anaphoric speech patterns; Edmond also speaks in anaphora when Mercedes asks him to spare Albert’s life after Edmond has spent so many years plotting revenge. As he determines whether to give up his goals and appease her, Edmond repeatedly says her name at the beginning of his thoughts (377-378). This shows that his decision hinges upon his affection for her. Clearly, Dumas uses anaphora to emphasize his characters’ conflicted thoughts when they are at a “point of no return.” Example Paragraph Slide 30: The following rubric will be used to grade each rhetorical strategy paragraph. The score received from this rubric will be doubled, making the assignment worth 80 points. 5- SPECIFICALLY refers (using quotes) to examples in the novel, SPECIFICALLY and insightfully analyzes how Orwell used the strategy to achieve a specific purpose or effect. Demonstrates particularly impressive control of language.   4-Adequately analyzes how Orwell used the strategy to achieve a specific purpose or effect. Refers to examples from the novel and tells what purpose or effect they achieve, but discussion or examples may be less apt or less specific. The writing may contain occasional lapses in diction (word choice) or syntax (sentence structure), but generally the writing is clear.   3-Analyzes the use of the strategy, but provides an inconsistent analysis of what overall purpose the strategy achieved or of how each example shows the purpose or effect achieved. Explanation and analysis may be superficial in parts. While the writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, it usually conveys ideas adequately.   2-Inadequately analyzes how Orwell used the strategy to achieve a purpose or effect. May misrepresent the strategy through incorrect examples or explanations, or misinterpret the purpose or effect achieved. May offer little discussion of how examples achieve a purpose or effect. The prose generally conveys the writer's ideas but may suggest immature control of writing.   1-Demonstrates little success in analyzing how Orwell used the strategy to achieve a purpose or effect. May offer vague generalizations or substitute simpler tasks such as summarizing passages or defining the strategy. May demonstrate consistent weakness in writing. Rubric for Grading Paragraphs

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