summary of warfare to date

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Information about summary of warfare to date

Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Ariane


Summary of Warfare to Date:  Summary of Warfare to Date Development of the sophistication of the art of war. Tactical systems result from adaptations in: Geographical, political, economic and technical Rarely effect the genius of one man Hannibal Alexander Caesar Land Warfare Tactics:  Land Warfare Tactics Try to achieve strength against weakness Typically a more powerful weapon system Javelin throwing light infantry against heavy infantry Normally had to rely on moving against the flank or the rear of the enemy than having a better weapon Heavy infantry was too heavy to do that Very hard to communicate the maneuver Alexander mastered sophisticated tactics, strategy and logistics was unable to articulate or communicate well enough to function as an overall commander. Just dimly saw the importance of the use of the reserve to exploit an enemy weakness or to counter a strength Land Warfare Tactics:  Land Warfare Tactics Cavalry was weak in shock action but fast moving and could make rapid flank movements. Cost was higher than infantry Better mobility decided most battles! Caesar defeated Calvary by bringing his 4th line up (Heavy Infantry) at the right time and place at the battle of Pharsalus. (Superior weapon system) Land Warfare Strategy:  Land Warfare Strategy Same concept as tactics. Pit your strength against his weakness. Win with least amount of effort Center of gravity versus critical vulnerability Logistical Strategy and Combat strategy Caesar preferred the logistical strategy “conquering the enemy by hunger than by steel Battle of Issus: Alexander against Darius Logistical strategy of hunger to force Darius out of his positions. Latter he used a combat strategy on terrain that was less favorable to Persian Cavalry Land Warfare Strategy:  Land Warfare Strategy Military strategy was the servant of political objective. Parthians versus Rome Their choice: Logistical Strategy by depriving them of food and water or combat strategy of virtual annihilation of the Roman army. Politically combat strategy was better. Political factors also give significance to military success. Sentiments of the people in lack of organized government. Tactics: Offense v Defense:  Tactics: Offense v Defense If you have the same weapons, which is better? Topographically strong position, entrenchments Strategic Defense v Tactical Defense Caesar Ilerda Campaign When to go on the Offense? Interior lines/Exterior lines Nero and Hasdrubal in Italy Avoiding battle Again Politics and Tactics/Strategy:  Again Politics and Tactics/Strategy Military success compared to Political Goal Size of the force compared to the political goal After a victory could you continue on to occupy Defensive Strategy and avoiding battle would not work against a persistent Leader who could command political support in the invaded land and goal was territorial occupation. Defense with good political backing can work. Rome against Hannibal. Hannibal driven to “raiding” Defense and Politics:  Defense and Politics Persistent Defensive Strategy Resist without battle but do not have the required fortifications. Raiding. Hit isolated detachments Hit supplies Hit weaknesses Hit supply convoys Hit foragers Logistics and well as combat strategy Defense and Politics:  Defense and Politics Raiding Offensive was more powerful than a persisting strategy if you did not have all the tools for a persisting defensive strategy. Hit and run Strategy:  Strategy Alexander v Darius: Persisting Combat Strategy Vercingetorix v Alexander: Defensive logistics strategy Strategy:  Strategy Persian Plataea campaign: Raiding Logistics strategy from both the offense and defense Romans against Hannibal Vercingertorix against Caesar Greeks against defenders (burn crops) Hannibal against Rome Guals Tactical offensive with defensive retreat Took Rome over 200 year to Control England and Wales because of this strategy Naval Warfare:  Naval Warfare Shock Action Boarding Parties with spear, sword and shield Bows, javelins would proceed this action Shock action between the ships Ramming (under the water line) and sinking the other ship Military ships different from Merchant ships Narrow, light ships with oarsmen vice sails. Faster 80 feet by 10 feet; 25 oars on each side No dependency on wind, but oars could maneuver and overtake other ships and ram them Naval Warfare:  Naval Warfare Ships would attack on line abreast Bow to Bow, Ram to Ram Skill of Capt and Oarsmen was critical Boarding parties settled the battle mostly Very similar to land battles Flanking movements, envelopments and reserve Greeks and Persians at Cape Artemesium 480 B. C. Greek reserve saved the day Latter Greeks rolled up the Persian Flank (Salamis) Naval Warfare:  Naval Warfare Ships like Cavalry Defense was not superior to Offense Logistics: Base of Supply Close to shore and forage (limited) Strategy: Control the sea and your commerce Blockades of weaker fleets Convoy troop transports Raids Marathon and the use of the sea Logistics to Land Warfare

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