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Published on December 4, 2007

Author: Laurie

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Religious Studies Summary:  Religious Studies Summary Most text quotes from Living Religions by Mary Fisher. Slides done by Bud Hollowell, Ph.D. The Religious Response:  The Religious Response Why are there religions? Modes of encountering Ultimate Reality Understanding Ultimate Reality Absolutist & liberal interpretations Science –vs- religion Women & the Godess in religions Goddess Myths that Survived:  Goddess Myths that Survived Isis Modonna Maya-Shakti-Devi Male Myths Dominate:  Male Myths Dominate Why are there religions?:  Why are there religions? Materialist perspective Functional perspective Faith perspective Materialist Perspective:  Materialist Perspective Freud described religion as a collective fantasy, a “universal obsessional neurosis”. Functional Perspective:  Functional Perspective Emile Durkheim saw religion as the glue that held society together. Religions phenomena were symbols and reinforcers of the social order. Emile Durkheim - 1917 French sociologist Considerations…:  Considerations… Some religions demand obedience to dogma and discourage critical thinking. Other religions demand critical thinking and discourage dogma. Considerations…:  Considerations… “Fundamentally it is the outsider who names a religious system… The participant is concerned with God; the observer has been concerned with religion.” Wilfred Smith, scholar Considerations…:  Considerations… Catholic monk, Father Bede Griffiths “In each tradition the one divine Reality, the one eternal Truth, is present, but it is hidden under symbols…” Swami Kriyananda:  Swami Kriyananda “There is a saying in India that it is often blessed to be born into a religion…but unfortunate to die in one.” The Power of Myth:  The Power of Myth “Read each other people’s myths, not those of your own religion, because you tend to interpret your own religion in terms of facts—but if you read the other ones, you begin to get the message.” Joseph Campbell, author & philosopher Absolutists & Fundamentalists:  Absolutists & Fundamentalists Orthodox – refers to those who stand by an historical form of their religion Fundamentalists – refers to those who tend to insist on certain traditions and apply violence to people of other religions. 17th to 19th Centuries:  17th to 19th Centuries Knowledge of nature became more secularized because scientist developed rational models of the universe. Considerations…:  Considerations… Today’s Hubble Telescope:  Today’s Hubble Telescope Native Sacred Ways:  Native Sacred Ways Barriers to understanding Cultural diversity Circle of right relationships Spiritual specialists Group observances Contemporary issues Slide18:  “Everything is alive.” Indigenous spirituality is a particular approach to life, not a separate experience like going to church. Hindu Teachings:  Hindu Teachings Harappan civilization & Vedic religion The Upanishads & the luminous self Reincarnation & karma Bhakti and the Puranas Krishna & The Bhagavad-Gita The Four Paths to God Major philosophical systems Slide20:  “Truth is one; sages call it by various names.” Rig Veda, 2,500 B.C. Arjuna Confused By Sorrow:  Arjuna Confused By Sorrow “I can find no means to drive away this grief which is drying up my senses. I will not be able to destroy it even if I win an unrivalled kingdom… I shall not fight.” Arjuna Asks For Teachings:  Arjuna Asks For Teachings Karma Yoga -- Work Bhakti Yoga -- Devotion Ghyana Yoga -- Study Raja Yoga -- Science The Guru:  The Guru Mantras:  Mantras The Jains:  The Jains Tirthankaras & ascetic orders Freeing the soul: ethic pillars Spiritual practices World Jainism Considerations…:  Considerations… The virtuous have no need for religion. Truth has many facets…:  Truth has many facets… Buddhist Teachings:  Buddhist Teachings From Prince Siddhartha to the Buddha The Four Noble Truths The Eight-Fold Path The Three Jewels The spread of Buddhism Prince Siddhartha:  Prince Siddhartha Who Became A Buddha… The Four Noble Truths:  The Four Noble Truths 1 - Life has pain & suffering 4 - The Eight-fold Path provides a way out of our karmic predicament of continuous re-births that result in continuous suffering 3 - Reducing desire reduces suffering 2 - Suffering is caused by ignorance & desire The Three Jewels:  The Three Jewels Buddha Dharma Sangha The Two Truths: The Question of Inherent Existence:  The Two Truths: The Question of Inherent Existence Ultimate Wisdom Conventional Wisdom Taoism & Confucianism:  Taoism & Confucianism The Unity of opposites Flowing with the Tao Tai Chi The Practice of Virtue - Confucius Religion in China:  Religion in China A radical humanism with a desire to live in the world in harmony Humanity has no need for a savior since humans are not born in sin Humanity is basically good but needs proper education Yin & Yang:  Yin & Yang Yin is the dark receptive female aspect of chi, and yang is the bright assertive male aspect of chi. K’ung Fu-tzu :  K’ung Fu-tzu 6th century BC Lord on High Mandate from heaven Moral virtues Orderly society Shinto:  Shinto Kinship with nature Honoring the kami spirits Shrines & purification State Shinto Shinto & Buddhism:  Shinto & Buddhism Japanese go to Shinto for life-affirming activities, and Buddhist temples for death rites. The Sikhs:  The Sikhs A Celebration of one of my teachers Yogi Bhajan Slide40:  "It's not the life that matters…it's the courage that you bring to it." Judaism :  Judaism A Covenant with God Old Testament Timeline:  Old Testament Timeline 1250 B.C. – oral history of the conquest of the land of Caanan 1000 – united tribes under King David, stories written by J-author (Judah view) 900 – death of Solomon sees kingdom split into Judah & Israel (10 tribes north). The northern view written by E-author that emphasize Moses Slide43:  722 B.C. – Assyria conquers Israel and some flee back to southern Judah. Two versions combined into JE version document. Thus two creation stories, two Ten Commandments, etc. 650 – Temple rites given in P-document, most is in Torah today 609 – “lost” scroll of Moses found, called the D-document, book of Deuteronomy Slide44:  580 – Judah conquered by Babylon and exiled for 50 years. 450 – A “Redactor” with lots of cuts and pastes, combines JE, P, and D into one smooth flowing narrative. The five books of Moses are assembled. There have been no more changes since that time. Two Creation Stories:  Two Creation Stories Genesis 1 – poetic account of creation in seven days, man & woman placed as masters of the earth (Priestly source) Genesis 2 – Earlier version, supreme male diety, woman is offshoot and cause for man’s trouble (Yahwist source) Abraham:  Abraham Born Ten generations after Noah, Has son with Eqyptian slave woman Hagar – Ishmael isArab ancestor that gives birth to the Arab world and Islam Wife Sarah has son when 90 – Isasac , father of Jacob, who gives birth to Judaism and eventually Christianity Zoroastrianism:  Zoroastrianism Satan, hierarchy of angels, reward or punishment in an afterlife, final resurrection of the body, and the Day of Judgment influence Judaism Ruth:  Ruth Ruth acted in the highest standards of the Jewish Torah by caring for her mother-in-law. Ruth eventually re-married and had a son Obed. Obed had a son Jessie………the father of the future King David. (David was not full-blooded Jew!) “…for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God…” (Ruth 1:16) Jesus was born:  Jesus was born The Jews are dispersed again:  The Jews are dispersed again Judaism could have died then Many turn to the rabbis and the Torah Some turn to Jesus as the Jewish answer to the Messiah Both groups build on the Hebrew Bible The Holy Kabbalah:  The Holy Kabbalah Crown Wisdom Mercy Glory Under-standing Strength Power Beauty Intuition The World Outward & Return Journey:  Outward & Return Journey Christianity :  Christianity “Jesus Christ is Lord” Primary Tenents:  Primary Tenents Born in Original Sin (430 CE) Jesus is the Son of God who paid for this Original Sin Everyone must go through Jesus to get to God Everyone must go through the Church to get to Jesus Radical Ethics:  Radical Ethics Jesus touched lepers and bleeding women He ate with tax collectors and prostitutes Sermon on the Mount taught love and forgiveness not revenge Key Event: Fall of Jerusalem - 70 CE:  Key Event: Fall of Jerusalem - 70 CE A Jewish Movement:  A Jewish Movement Christianity was a Jewish movement until 70 CE when Romans destroyed the Temple Jews lost their physical center Scattered Jews used the law for a focal point for next 1900 years Christian Jews used Jesus for a focal point The Split – 90CE:  The Split – 90CE Jews created new prayer called “Shemoneh Esreh” to curse new Christian heretics Jews blamed Jesus followers for subverting Judaism and brining forth God’s anger by the Romans Gospel of John encouraged Jews to follow Jesus Bible Scholarship:  Bible Scholarship Matthew, Mark, and Luke together are called the Synoptic Gospels There was a “Q” document that was the source of all of them Only Matthew and John of the Gospels ever knew Jesus Paul, Mark, and Luke never met Jesus Paul:  Paul Kicked out of early Church twice Roman citizen and thought a spy Self-mutilator, women inferior, admitted self-loathing, anti-flesh His Christ offered unconditional love and forgiveness Slide61:  1551 – Matthew Bible by Rogers 1569 – Great Bible by Cromwell 1560 – Geneva Bible 1606 – Bishop’s Bible 1611 – King James Bible 1718 – Catholic English version 1815 – Catholic Bible Society NT 1870 – idea of papal infallibility From the Hebrews to the Christians:  From the Hebrews to the Christians “Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and dreadful day of the Lord.” Malachi 4:5 Jesus states ten times in the New Testament that John the Baptist is the reincarnation of Elijah. The Gnostics Teachings:  The Gnostics Teachings Jesus had a secret doctrine. In Mark 4:11 he says, “Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the Kingdom of God; but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables.” Gnostic Christians – 200 A.D.:  Gnostic Christians – 200 A.D. “To become enlightened… Remove physical desires, Reduce chaos in the mind, Open to internal visions, Ponder what is seen, Become troubled, Go into isolation in the desert, And receive the messenger of the light.” Emperor Constantine:  Emperor Constantine United what was left of the Roman Empire in 315 A.D. Made Christianity the state religion. Chose the books that would be included in the Bible. Blavatsky on Constantine:  Blavatsky on Constantine Constantine, “…who drowned his wife in boiling water, butchered his little nephew, murdered with his own pious hand two of his brothers-in-law, killed his own son Crispus, bled to death several men and women, and smothered in a well an old monk. However, we are told by Eusebius that this Christian Emperor was rewarded by a vision of Christ himself…” Isis Unveiled, page 304 Emperor Justinian:  Emperor Justinian Eight years Pope Vigilus his prisoner and finally murdered. The Dark Ages:  The Dark Ages Paramahansa Yogananda:  Paramahansa Yogananda “It is true that Christ lived in India during most of the eighteen unaccounted for years of his life…” The Outward & Return Journey:  The Outward & Return Journey OutwardReturn Islam:  Islam There is no God but God Slide72:  One-fifth of the world now belongs to the religion of Islam. Their creed is simple… “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his Messenger.” The Five Pillars:  The Five Pillars Belief & Witness – (the Shahadah) Daily prayers – five times Almsgiving – percentage to the poor Fasting – daylight during Ramadan Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca Slide74:  “The Qu’ran taught that the Jews and Christians had distorted the pure monotheism of Abraham; Muhammad had been sent to restore and supplement the teachings of the apostles and prophets.” Ancient Baghdad:  Ancient Baghdad Science Philosophy Medicine Art Literature Freedom The Crusades:  The Crusades Sufism:  Sufism Meher Baba:  Meher Baba Slide81:  electron + photon - photon gamma photon Photon polarity has positive & negative states. States are unknown until one is measured. State of other photon revealed instantaneously! Quantum Physics & Consciousness Slide82:  At this point… There is definitely something beyond space-time. The universe appears interconnected. The universe may be a product of consciousness. Energy Follows Thought :  Energy Follows Thought Slide84:  In quantum physics, objects are seen as possibility waves. What converts possibilities into actuality? Consciousness “Dying is a time when the deeper levels of mind manifest themselves.”- The Dalai Lama:  “Dying is a time when the deeper levels of mind manifest themselves.”- The Dalai Lama Slide86:  Quantum Bliss Body Quantum Theme Body Quantum Mental Body Energy Body Physical Body The Five Bodies The Clear Light of Death:  The Clear Light of Death The Future :  The Future “Some day, after mastering the winds, the waves, the tides, and gravity, we shall harness for God the energies of love. And then, for the second time in the history of the world, man will have discovered fire.” Teilhard de Chardin Notes:  Notes These slides are designed to accompany an oral presentation that compliments the book “Living Religions” written by Mary Pat Fisher and published by Prentice-Hall. The serious student would benefit greatly by using this book as an excellent additional source of information. Anyone duplicating this free presentation by One World Insight for educational purposes should be aware of copyright laws protecting some of the words and pictures and perform due diligence to use them appropriately. Please keep our URL at the bottom of the slides so the serious student can go to our web site to do additional research.

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