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Published on January 14, 2009

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Slide 1: Engaging Youth – the Case for Civic Service Association For International Agriculture And Rural Development (AIARD) June 4, 2007 Paul Sully, Project Director, EQUIP3 Education Development Center EQUIP3 / Youth Trust : EQUIP3 / Youth Trust A project of the Education Development Center (EDC) www.edc.org Part of the Educational Quality Improvement Program (EQUIP) Alliance www.EQUIP123.net Clare Ignatowski, CTO EGAT/ ED USAID *** Started: May 2003 EQUIP3 Purpose : EQUIP3 Purpose To prepare and engage male and female children, youth and young adults for their roles within the world of work, civil society, and family life. Comments Today : Comments Today Present information Ask Questions Have a dialogue --------------------------------------------- Objective of presentation: To pique meeting participants’ interest in the utility of service. Why is Engaging Youth important? : Why is Engaging Youth important? With engaged youth you can get their support and contributions to: -Family life -World of work -Civil Society* Civic Service Defined : Civic Service Defined Civic service is a long-term, intensive form of volunteering. It is a contribution to the local, national or world community, recognized and valued by society with minimal monetary compensation to the participant. (Michael Sherraden) Civic service can be a tool for addressing a range of social issues – assist in disasters, tutoring children, preserving eco-systems … Defining characteristics- formal and through structured programs. McBride and Sherraden p New Book : New Book Civic Service Worldwide: Impacts and Inquiry Edited by Amanda Moore McBride and Michael Sherraden 2007 Global assessment : Global assessment In 2003, Sherraden did a global assessment of civic service, which identified 210 programs in 57 countries. Features of the programs: full time, up to 7 months, age of programs - a dozen years median average. Some up to 21 years. Observation: Highly varied and relatively recent Service-Learning Defined : Service-Learning Defined Pedagogical approach used in schools and non-formal educational settings that focuses on community service, instruction, and reflection. Shelley Billig (expanded her definition to include non-formal settings) McBride and Sherraden p Quick Census : Quick Census How many of you have performed civic service (an intense form of volunteering, through a structured program)? How many of you were involved in service-learning as an instructor or a recipient? Volunteered? Dialogue : Dialogue Talk to your neighbor for a few minutes – give one example of an experience with it that left an impression – good or bad. . . Slide 13: World Development Report 2007 – Development and the Next Generation. [also called “the Youth Report”] The World Bank Youth to Adult Transitions : Youth to Adult Transitions Decisions during five youth transitions have the biggest long-term impacts on how human capital is kept safe, developed, and deployed: 1. continuing to learn, 2. starting to work, 3. developing a healthful lifestyle, 4. beginning a family, and 5. exercising citizenship. Bank p2 Bank’s call for policy reform -1 : Bank’s call for policy reform -1 1. Opportunities. Broaden the opportunities for developing human capital by expanding access to and improving the quality of education and health services; by facilitating the start to a working life; and by giving young people a voice to articulate the kind of assistance they want and a chance to participate in delivering it. Bank p2 Bank’s call for policy reform -2 : Bank’s call for policy reform -2 2. Capabilities. Develop young people’s capabilities to choose well among these opportunities by recognizing them as decision-making agents and by helping ensure that their decisions are well informed, adequately resourced, and judicious. Bank p2 Bank’s call for policy reform -3 : Bank’s call for policy reform -3 3. Second chances. Provide an effective system of second chances through targeted programs that give young people the hope and the incentive to catch up from bad luck—or bad choices. Bank p2 Identity - point 1 : Identity - point 1 Youth is the period of acquiring an identity. Erik Erikson put the challenge of identity this way: “from among all the possible and imaginable relations, [a young person] must make a series of ever-narrowing selections of personal, occupational, sexual, and ideological commitments.” The older one gets, these move from family to the larger community. . . Bank p172 Identity - point 2 : Identity - point 2 A young person, viewed favorably, is more likely to feel invited to participate in public and economic life—social recognition promotes active citizenship. A longitudinal study of youth in Estonia found that a measure of a young person’s self-esteem predicted the likelihood of starting a business years later. Bank p172 Question : Question Who here has current political beliefs or does citizenship activities that were learned during their youth? ------------------------ Let’s hear from a few . . . New book : New book Service Without Guns By Donald Eberly & Reuven Gal, 2006 :  We are all teachers. We are all learners. End of First section presentation : End of First section presentation Slides that follows are “Bonus Materials” Not presented . . . Extra materials from the bank report : Extra materials from the bank report World Development Report 2007 – Development and the Next Generation. [also called “the Youth Report”] The World Bank Patterns of political participation : Patterns of political participation “Patterns of behavior endure: political participation in adulthood is largely determined by participation in youth. Young people learn political beliefs and behavior from those around them, and over time these orientations become habits, even if young people leave their socializing group behind.” Bank p164 Broaden Access to Opportunities : Broaden Access to Opportunities Active citizenship can broaden the access of previously excluded groups to opportunities for growth and higher living standards, most obviously in the empowerment of women. Bank p165 Facilitates Collective Action : Facilitates Collective Action Active citizenship also facilitates collective action, which can yield more effective and better targeted public services. Community involvement is particularly effective in managing such local public goods as water supply, sanitation, forests, roads, schools, and health clinics. Bank p166 Examples of strength of youth working together : Examples of strength of youth working together Young people have been crucial participants in China’s anti-imperialist and democratic movement that began in Beijing on May 4, 1919; The 1942 Quit India movement; the pro-democracy movement in South Africa following the Soweto uprising in 1976; and the resistance youth movement in the former Yugoslavia between 1998 and 2000. Bank p167 Service inserts youth into learning and understanding the world : Service inserts youth into learning and understanding the world As young people encounter their society’s main social institutions, they learn the privileges and protections their communities provide, the tasks their communities require, and what they can do to improve those institutions. Bank p167 Question : Question Can some one here briefly recollect a time and a place during their youth where it occurred to them their personal actions could change a social outcome? ----------------------------- Let’s hear from some . . . Alternatives to military service : Alternatives to military service Some countries, such as Brazil, France, Germany, and Israel, offer young people service programs as alternatives to voluntary or required military duty. In other countries, among them Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, South Africa, and a number in Latin America, governments have required skilled young people, such as newly educated physicians or university graduates, to perform national service. Bank p172 Service can be Gov or NGO and youth-led : Service can be Gov or NGO and youth-led In some cases, NGOs sponsor voluntary service programs (Servicio País in Chile), and in others the government contributes fi nancing (Green Corps in Australia). The Mathare Youth Sports Association in Nairobi, Kenya, and the Cambodian Volunteers for Community Development were both established by young people. Bank p173 Finding- Youth Input Important : Finding- Youth Input Important Service programs to promote civic engagement are more effective when young people have choices about the activities they want to participate in and are involved in their design. -political leaders can misuse them Bank p170 Analysis- Risk to service programs : Analysis- Risk to service programs One risk for service programs is that mandates applied to young people can become mandates for institutions, such as schools, to produce services (in this case opportunities for civic engagement), with many of the general problems associated with the delivery of public services. Bank p172 Service learning-studies have shown: : Service learning-studies have shown: Increase awareness needs of others Effective ways to learn values Reduces school violence Increases levels of personal and social responsibility More positive attitudes toward adults and others whom they worked Increased willingness to be active in one’s community *From National Youth Leadership Council Program Examples of Service : Program Examples of Service From EQUIP3 LCEP – Afghanistan Ruwwad – West Bank and Gaza Afghanistan Literacy and Community Empowerment Program (LCEP) : Afghanistan Literacy and Community Empowerment Program (LCEP) One story -- Since the formation of the Youth Group not only has the condition of Bek Moh’d Khil improved but so has that of 8 other neighboring villages. The Headmaster reports that a group of 36 village youth have taken to holding regular daily meetings to discuss and plan ways to improve their environments. “The youth are really enthusiastic and have taken the attitude that: “This is our village and we have to build it”! The Bek Moh’d Khill youth have completed 3 to 4 self-initiated social and economic development projects including the cleaning of a 6 kilometer long canal and its water damaged service road which is used by several neighboring villages. LCEP – Afghanistan – The Social Audit : LCEP – Afghanistan – The Social Audit The Social Audit exercise is the governance tool for the promotion of transparency. It demands that the Community Development Councils present regular reports to the community in all the affairs of the community - thus assuring accountability.   Youth, self-help groups, literacy learners and teachers can actively organize and present a program. LCEP - Afghanistan : LCEP - Afghanistan The following major activities have been conducted by youth committees: Cleaning a 4,800 cubic meter canal Garbage collection around a village Construction of a road Establishment of a female course Construction of a boundary wall around the village school completed in 45 days Village street extension made possible by donated land in 6 villages Establishment of a “Youth Savings Box” to collect finances to support self-initiated youth activities. Construction of a village Mosque. Estimated cost of Afs.35,000/-. Bridge repair in three villages. Estimated cost of Afs.25,000/-. Establishment of English course. . Eight kilometers of road construction and stream renovation in three villages Assistance to local farmers with harvest collecting. Assist with the collection of herbal medicine . Ruwwad - Youth Volunteers for Community Assistance Program : Ruwwad - Youth Volunteers for Community Assistance Program Engaging youth in positive political and social processes: Focus groups Dialogue and discussion Social and civic engagement Anti smoking campaign Environmental clean up Needs assessments Deliver humanitarian assistance to their local communities. Awareness campaign on the election process Sports and recreational activities Ruwwad - Youth Volunteers for Community Assistance Program : Ruwwad - Youth Volunteers for Community Assistance Program Provide young Palestinians with self-respect and sense of belonging Help youth to see the conflict as a challenge to be managed and not as an obstacle Provide youth with hope that they can change their situation into a better one - They expressed their excitement to be part of being agent for positive change. Ruwwad Youth Forum: A model of grassroots youth empowerment. : Ruwwad Youth Forum: A model of grassroots youth empowerment. “If you spend hours lecturing youth and encouraging them to be positive, they will never do so... Accordingly, Ruwwad launched a grassroots body of 350 young Palestinian leaders and engage them in discussions and dialogues to identify "themselves" their needs and act to meet these needs. This is the real empowerment and this is where the change starts... Adults should understand that their role is only a facilitator and not a decision maker... Empowering youth and coaching them are the best approach to lead them toward positive change. Imposing new ideas and aggressive political agenda will never lead them any where... These are not theories, these are practical activities that Ruwwad team is experiencing everyday... The efforts are small, but the impact will be huge...” - Hisham Jabi – Chief of Party :  We are all teachers. We are all learners.

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