Published on December 31, 2013
Instrumentation in flour mills Solutions matching the requirements from the receiving to the flour silo
Operational challenges in grain milling Explosion protection: Who takes care of safety? Implementation of your country-specific directives • Endress+Hauser offers support to select the right measuring devices to ensure safe operation Inventory Control: How much is in which storage bin? • Endress+Hauser offers customized solutions for storage and logistics Traceability of material flows: Where from, where to? • Endress+Hauser provides solutions for silos based on level measurement which support the traceability through each step of the production from grain to flour Services: Who has time for maintenance? • Endress+Hauser offers professional support for startup and maintenance for safety and quality relevant measuring points One-stop-shopping: Optimization of process automation • Endress+Hauser offers the complete measurement instrumentation and additional system components for every area of a mill
Challenge #1: Explosion protection: Who takes care of safety? During processing grain and flour, dust is an inevitable by-product. It is generated from particles adhering to the grain kernel, by abrasion of the grain and by the end product flour itself. Dust is able to generate an explosive atmosphere that can result in devastating losses if not addressed. Endress+Hauser provides measuring devices according to ATEX, FM and CSA directives and supports in selecting the right instrumentation according to your area classification. Duties of facility operators and manufacturers of measuring devices are split according to the following overview: Duty for operator of facility • Hazard evaluation • Safety of working environment and equipment • Classification of areas • Explosion protection document • Inspection and maintenance • Training of employees Duty for manufacture of measuring devices • Safety of measuring devices • Categorisation of measuring devices • Declaration of conformity Explosive areas are divided into zones. The following table shows the Area Classification in different countries. Flammable Material Present Continuously Flammable Material Present Intermittently Flammable Material Present Abnormally IEC/EU Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 US NEC® 505 NEC® 500 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 CA CEC Section 18 CEC Annex J Zone 0 Division 1 Division 2 Zone 1 Division 1 Zone 2 Division 2
Challenge #2: How much is in which storage bin? Inventory Control Solutions for storage and logistics Manually, on foot and on paper… Who doesn’t have this experience: was the storage bin no. 2 empty or not? To insure yourself you take the lift to the top floor of your storage elevator and have a look in this bin. And how can you get this information if the silos are remotely located? ...this has to be a thing of the past Inventory Control by Endress+Hauser provides solutions to optimize your warehousing and supply chain. Around the clock, around the world: be informed The signal output of the transmitter e.g. Levelflex M is connected via Fieldgate FXA520 like a PC to the Intranet of your company or to the Internet. This offers a costeffective possibility to get local or remote informations about the actual levels and limits of your storage elevator. The right solution for visualisation is our system P View. Alarm limits can automatically be sent by mail or SMS to avoid production downtimes or to initiate a new material order. Warehouse with storage bins Ideal field of application for inventory Control Solutions Multiply your cost savings potentials together with your supplier or customer Allow your supplier access to your stock data or get access to the stock data of your customer by Fieldgate FXA520 and Internet. This opens up cost saving potentials by scheduling the delivery in adaptation to the actual consumption. Additional parameters like temperature can easily be integrated and by the software TOF-Tool you are able to do a quick and comfortable remote maintenance of your measuring devices. Checking every storage bin visually is a thing of the past 6x Levelflex: 4-20 mA/HART PCI card Remote monitoring via Internet Picture: Intranet drawing Fieldgate HART multiplexer FXA520 RS-485 Wireless LAN Access Point Ethernet Wireless LAN Access Point hub HART Inventory Control just by weighing and writing requires time consuming accounting 4
Instrumentation in the grain receiving and grain elevator 1 Omnigrad M TR10 2 Levelflex M FMP40 6 Temperature sensor 5 Guided radar level measurement Nivector FTC968 3 Silopilot M FMM50 6 Capacitance limit switch Electromechanical system Soliphant T FTM20 4 Silopilot T FMM20 7 Single-rod vibronic sensor Electromechanical system Micropilot FMR250 Radar level measurement Soliswitch FTE30 Limit paddle switch Drying Monitoring of grain temperature with temperature sensor 1 Omnigrad M TR10. The modular sensor concept allows the adaption to any measuring application. Precleaning / batch-weighing Supply and overrun hopper are equipped with a high level alarm by capacitive limit switch 2 Nivector FTC968. Bucket elevator Accumulation indication of grain in the elevator boot: vibronic sensor 3 Soliphant FMT2x. Functional principle of sensor has no moving parts and guarantees maintenance free operation. Grain elevator – level indication Elevators up to 70m/20ft: Non-contact radar level measurement with 4 Micropilot M FMR250. Air purge allows long time operation without additional cleaning. Elevators up to 5m/115ft: Guided Radar 5 Levelflex M FMP40, factory adjusted for easy start-up, insensitive against build-up on rope-antenna. Alternatively: Electromechanical system 6 Silopilot M or T. Quick and easy startup procedure requires no adaptation to geometry of silo and no special technical know-how. Silopilot T FMM20 measures up to 2m/105ft and Silopilot M FMM50 measures up to 70m/20ft. 5 Flow rate weigher with Nivector FTC968 as high alarm Grain elevator/limit detection High level alarm: paddle switch 7 Siloswitch FTE30, simple operation by proven principle. Low-level alarm: vibronic sensor 3 Soliphant T FTM2x. The single-rod sensor allows reliable operation.
Instrumentation technology in purification and conditioning Receiving Precleaning Conveying / machine feeding Detecting overflows and blockage, the capacitive limit switch 2 Nivector FTC968 ensures a cost effective monitoring of your products. A protective cap is available for abrasive materials. Legend Silo elevator Furnace LA Limit detection, alarm LI Level indication FI Flow indication TI Temperature indication PI Conditioning Controlling the quantity of water by magnetic-inductive flow measuring system 9 Promag 50. Available from DN 2 up to DN 100, software options for batching and pulsating flow. Grain Storage Pressure indication PDI TI 1 LA 2 Chain conveyor 4 od. 5 od. 6 LA LI Bucket Elevator Differential pressure indication 7 Grain storage elevator Dryer TI 1 TI 1 Dust collector LA Fan 8 Precleaning separator 2 Nivector FTC968 With replaceable protector 9 Promag 50W Electromagnetic flow measuring system 10 Prosonic FMU90 LA 2 With FDU91 sensor Flow-rate weigher 2 LA LA Dumping pit LA 2 LA LA 3 2 Chain conveyor LA 3 Tempering bin – level indication Two ultrasonic sensors 10 FDU9x connected at one transmitter, Prosonic FMU90, allow the configuration of two different ranges, e.g. 0% to 100% for level indication and 50% to 70% for control of screw conveyor with corresponding relay configuration. Tampering bin – limit detection High-level alarm: low-price solution with the paddle switch 7 Siloswitch FTE30, sensor length from 70 up to 2000 mm. Low-level alarm: vibronic single-rod sensor FTM2x allows failure-free operation. 3 Soliphant T 3
Instrumentation technology for milling, sifting and flour storage Purification Conditioning Purification Conditioning 12 Dust collector Elevator Metal separator LA PDI 8 LA 2 LA Flour Storage Loadout+Package Fan Airjet filter Blending/Homogenization Scourer 2 2 LA Dust collector 2 Separator with aspiration channel LA 2 LA 2 LA 2 Nivector FTC968 Capacitance limit switch Aspirator 5 LA LI Flour storage 5 Levelflex FMP40 Guided radar device 11 Multicap DC16 Capacitance probe 8 Dry stoner 2 LA Roller stand LA 2 LA FI 2 + 11 LA Indented surface separator 2 9 Planswifter Dampener 2 LA 10 LI LA Bran centrifugal LA 2 13 PI 7 Nivector and Multicap – Roller mills 3 Pneumatic pressure conveying system LA LA Loadout Tempering bin Milling process Securing a consistent feed to the roller mill: LA 14 LA 2 2 Batch-weighing LA 3 LA 13 PI LA LA 3 2 PDI 12 2 Overfill protection at the filling spout with capacitance limit switch 2 Nivector FTC968. Level monitoring by capacitive probe 11 Multicap DC16. Selectable sensor length from 100 up to 4000 mm allows easy adaption to feeding container. Pneumatic mill stock conveying system Bag-packing station Pneumatic pressure conveying system Flour storage - level indication Level measurement by guided radar factory adjusted for easy start-up 5 Levelflex M FMP40, Flour storage - limit detection High-level alarm by 8 Minicap FTC260 or by extended cable-version FTC262. Active build-up compensation guarantees failure-free operation Low-level alarm: Vibronic sensor 3 Soliphant T FTM2x. Installation in any direction possible. Time-saving startup without any adjustments. When sensor is covered with material, the vibration is stopped to avoid expulsion of material. Levelflex M - Dust occuring during filling process has no influence on the operation of the instrument
Other applications in milling operations: aspiration, pneumatic conveying and loading 8 Minicap FTC260/262 12 13 Cerabar M PMC41 14 Soliphant M - Filling spout Pneumatic pressure conveying system Monitoring of operating pressure by pressure sensor 13 Cerabar M PMC41. Ceramic sensor membrane is stable against alternating loads and overload resistant. Deltabar S PMD70 Pressure device Capacitance limit switch Pressure sensor Soliphant M FTM50/52 Point level switch (vibronic) Outloading Overfill protection at the filling spout by 14 Soliphant M FTM5x. This vibronic sensor is available as a compact version with extension pipe up to 4m or with rope up to 20m, and therefore, can be installed in any position. Pneumatic mill stock conveying system Filter monitoring by differential pressure sensor 12 Deltabar S PMD70. Monitoring of functions from the measuring cell to the electronics ensures accurate and economical operation of your systems. Exhaust system Overrun alarm at the receiver or airjet filter by capacitive 8 Minicap FTC260. Accurate switch point even with heavy build-up on the probe guarantee high operational safety. Soliphant M - Outloading filling spout
Challenge #3: Traceability of material flows - Where from, where to? Actual situation The most important requirement regarding legislation is the consumer protection. Therefore, different laws, standards and guidelines are released to ensure the complete traceability of products along the food chain. Example: European Directive (EG) 178/2002 Starting the first of January 2005, every mill had to ensure that for every batch of flour being processed, it is possible at any time to trace back from which delivery of grain this product was made. The recipient of the batch has to be determined as well. Material flow traced back efficiently: we link your information Regarding the chain of traceability, the mill itself can be considered as a closed system. It is not necessary to reveal steps of processing and blending. Endress+Hauser offers solutions based on level measuring technology which is an economical tool for documentation. At the push of a button you get any information which is required to trace back your material flows. Remote I/O Delivery Ethernet PROFIBUS PA Segment coupler Blending PROFIBUS PA Intermediate storage Visualization Local PC Entry by operator: • Batch number • ID of supplier Printing of • Type of product receipt • Time/date • Destination storage bin PROFIBUS DP Segment coupler PROFIBUS PA Purification / Milling Reporting at a push of the button Endress+Hauser offers customized solutions. Starting with the connection by PROFIBUS, Foundation™ Fieldbus, HART® or Ethernet up to the visualization at your PC. The volume flow through each bin is calculated by the differences which occur during the • Entry of Batch • Receipt 4-20mA Weighment Storage Ethernet Fieldgate FXA 720 Monitoring PC Network switch SQL-Database Reporting • Volume flow • Tracking • Weights of deliveries transfers between source and destination bin. All data relating to the batch and the bin levels are stored in a SQL (Structured Query Language) relational database system. Using these linked informations you receive a standard reporting.
Challenge #4: Services - Professional support for your security and quality relevant measuring points Start-up in explosive areas Endress+Hauser provides a safe start-up in explosive areas, e.g. storage elevators, carried out by our special skilled service people. You receive a professional service report for your documentation. Services for special measuring devices Start-up in explosive areas Start-up to get more value from your money To reach the full performance range of ultrasonic and radar measuring devices for storage elevators it is necessary to select the right instrument, the optimal installation place and a start-up adjusted to the conditions of your process environment. We support you step by step. Increase the availability of your facility Which effort of maintenance do you need and how often? We ascertain a maintenance concept which matches the requirements of your facility. With it you master your costs at a maximum availability of your facility. We offer 4 different maintenance levels. Concepts for maintenance You select between 4 maintenance levels Standard Functional checks Start-up* Travel & l abor costs** Options • • • • • Phone support Calibration services • • • • • • • • • • • • Total service Consumables • Extended service Wear parts*** • Preventative service Spare parts Tailor-made service • “It is your choice!” “It is your choice!” *for new instruments added within the term of the contract **for on-site repairs ***annual exchange of wear parts for instruments like automatic pH measurment system... Training: extend your know-how Organized on your site or at one of our training centers: take the opportunity to increase the independence of your technicians handling your measuring devices by transfer of knowledge. Helpdesk/W@M-Card Questions related to technical problems can be addressed to our specialists during our working hours. Owning the W@M-Card you are able to do this around the clock 365 days a year. 10 Training Know-how-transfer for your service people On-site response time •
System components Completing your measuring point System components Innovative and modern system components which link plant to control room are at the top of any forward thinking Process Engineer’s wish list. Whether he wants to visualize measured values, protect his sensors, or use signals directly for process control, Endress+Hauser will offer the simplest solution. • Limit switch and relays • Isolated switch amplifiers • Universal transmitters • Recording devices and dataloggers RMA422 process transmitter The RMA422 receives and processes measurement signals. Its modular concept makes it the perfect process measurement transmitter e.g. as temperature transmitter, contactor or signal converter. Using the two input process values, server values can be calculated. RN221N active galvanic barrier The RN221N provides galvanic isolation of 4-20mA signal cables. It is used for the intrinsically safe operation of two-wire transmitters and to eliminate earthing problems. RIA452 process display The digital RIA452, with 7-digit bright multi-colored LC display and pump control functions, receives measurement signals from most field devices and can be installed in control rooms or in panels throughout the plant. HAW562 spike or overvoltage protection The HAW562 protects 0/4-20mA, PROFIBUS-PA and PFM signal lines. RIA141 field display The RIA141 digital display in pressure sealed metal enclosure (explosionproof to EEx-d) is designed for installation in to a 4-20mA power circuit and to makeyour process more visible and plant much safer. 11
Endress+Hauser’s product portfolio Level Pressure Flow • Capacitance (RF) • Conductive • Mechanical • Vibration • Ultrasonic • Radar • Guided radar (TDR) • Hydrostatic • Gauge/absolute • Differential pressure • Hydrostatic • Electromagnetic • Vortex shedding • Coriolis mass flow • Ultrasonic • Open channel • D/P flow • Thermal mass flow Temperature Liquid Analysis Recorders • Temperature transmitters • RTDs/thermocouples • Sensors • Conductivity • pH/ORP • Chlorine • Dissolved oxygen • Turbidity • Chemical analyzers • Nitrate/organic sensors • Sludge level • Paperless recorders • Visual data managers • Safety data managers Components Service • Displays • Energy managers • Density calculations • Switch over control • Start-up • Training • Calibration • Maintenance contracts • Instrument Management Solutions 12.0/I.I. Instruments International Endress+Hauser Instruments International AG Kaegenstrasse 2 415 Reinach Switzerland Tel. +41 1 715 1 00 Fax +41 1 715 25 00 http://www.endress.com firstname.lastname@example.org SO 004B/24/ae/0.07 710445 Straub/INDD CS2
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ASSESSMENT OF TARGET PURITY DIFFERENCE FOR A LOUISIANA SUGAR MILL A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and