Suffrage and Electoral System

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Information about Suffrage and Electoral System

Published on March 20, 2014

Author: Lawkneu


Suffrage and Electoral System Danyleiko Anastasia Dubyhvist Kateryna Marina Sadova Group 1, year 3, CEF

Elections is a method of forming a public authority, local authority or empowerment of the officer by a vote unauthorised persons and determining the results of the voting established by a majority vote of those persons, provided that the obtaining of each mandate are eligible to run for two or more candidates Alternative requirement is important because not only defines the democratic character of the elections, but also allows you to separate the election of appointment exercised a collective body.

The social purpose of elections Elections are the basic tenets of the state mechanism and local government Elections is the means of legitimizing power. It allows people determine their representatives in government and local government, gives them a mandate to carry out in a constitutional limits of their sovereign rights Elections play a decisive role in shaping the political elite of society

Suffrage Unbiased suffrage Subjective suffrage

Unbiased suffrage is an institution of constitutional law, made ​​up of law by which regulated social relations associated with the election of state and local governments • principles of electoral law; requirements of voters and candidates; procedure of the formation and activities of the election administration; procedure of nomination and registration of candidates, voter status and other participants in the electoral process; procedure campaigning and voting; procedure for determining the election results and more. Standards Institute suffrage set:

Sources suffrage as an institution of constitutional law are: 1. The Constitution of Ukraine, in particular its Chapter III, "Elections. Referendum, "and other relevant provisions of the section devoted to the procedure of elections of the President of Ukraine and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. 2. Laws of Ukraine: "On the Election of the President of Ukraine" as amended by Law of 18.03.2004 № 1630-IV; "On elections" from 07.07.2005 № 2777-IV; "On the Central Election Commission" from 30.06.2004 № 1932- IV. 3. Decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine regarding the interpretation of the election laws of Ukraine and determine its constitutionality, for example, on 03.07.2003 in the case of time to appeal violations during the vote count and tabulation, Judgment of 30.01.2002 in the case of election pledge and others.

4. Subordinate regulations. Feature of suffrage of the Ukraine is that the bulk of its provisions is fixed at the level of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, and regulations governed only procedural matters of the organization and conduct of elections. Such regulations may, for example, include the Guidelines on the procedure for collecting signatures in support of a candidate for President of Ukraine, approved by the Central Election Commission of 06.07.2004 № 145. 5. International treaties that set standards on generally accepted principles of citizen participation in elections and ratified by the government of Ukraine. Thus, the general principles of citizen participation in elections are fixed in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966., European standards elections of local self- government - the European Charter of Local Self-Government 1985. and so on.

Subjective suffrage - is enshrined in the Constitution and state-guaranteed right of citizens to freely elect and be elected to elective bodies of state power and local self- government Active - the right to vote Passive - the right to be elected Citizens under the Constitution who are in active suffrage, called electors, and the set of voters within the constituency or Ukraine is electorate (voters)

Type the electorate (voters) legal set of registered voters (included in the voter list) actual set of voters who voted in the election potential Registered as a set, and because of any reason unregistered voters.

Basic principles of electoral law enshrined in Article 71 of the Constitution of Ukraine. These principles are: principle of free elections principle of universal suffrage principle of equal suffrage principle of direct suffrage principle of secret ballot

Basic principles of electoral law 1) the principle of free elections means that each voter independently without any outside influence decide - to take him to participate in the elections or not, and how to do this. The principle of compulsory vote (legal obligation of voters to vote) in Ukraine does not apply in determining the election results do not take into account that some voters took part in the vote - elections shall be deemed to have occurred if at least one vote voter;

2) the principle of universal suffrage provides voting rights to all citizens of Ukraine and the lack of legal requirements that would restrict participation in the election of any public groups. However, universal suffrage does not mean that the voting rights available to all residents of Ukraine. The Constitution and laws set specific franchise, that special conditions required to obtain subjective suffrage. By franchise include: requirement of citizenship - voting rights are given only to citizens of Ukraine , foreigners and stateless persons residing in Ukraine ; age limit - active suffrage become citizens of Ukraine who on election day at least eighteen years of age; limit capacity - have the right to vote and to be elected citizens declared incompetent by a court ; residency requirement provided for in the local elections - to vote in local elections, citizens of Ukraine residing on the territory of the villages, cities, districts in cities;

3) the principle of equal suffrage, which means ensuring equal to each voter to influence the outcome of elections. This principle follows from the more general constitutional principle of equality, applies to both active and passive suffrage in; 4) the principle of direct suffrage, which means that MPs and other elected representatives are elected directly by the voters; 5) The principle of the secret ballot, which is the prohibition of off-site surveillance will of the voters in any form.

O In a broad sense, the electoral system meant the system of social relationships that develop in connection with the election of public authorities and determine the order of their formation. These relations are governed by constitutional and legal norms, which together form a constitutional-legal institution suffrage. O The electoral system in the narrow sense - a certain way of allocating seats among the candidates according to the results of the elections or other authorized persons.

Three main types of electoral systems that vary the order of voting tabulation: majority by which elected considered candidates with the most votes in the electoral district in which they ran. Depending on how determined majority needed to elect the candidate distinguished: • majoritarian system of absolute majority; • majority system of relative majority; • majority system of qualified majority; proportional, in which the distribution of seats among parties that nominated their candidates for the representative body shall be subject to them received the number of votes; mixed, which involves a combination of the first two systems: one of the deputies elected under the majority system is carried out, ie the constituencies, the other - on party lists.

Basic principles of parliamentary election in Ukraine: 1. People's Deputies of Ukraine shall be elected by the citizens of Ukraine on the basis of universal , equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Deputy may be a citizen of Ukraine who on election day reached twenty-one years shall be entitled to vote and living in Ukraine for the past five years. 2. The size of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is 450 members. 3. Elections are carried out by a mixed ( proportional- majoritarian ) system : 1) 225 members are elected by proportional representation in multi -member constituency for the election list of candidates of political parties; 2) 225 members are elected by plurality in single-member constituencies.

O The announcement of the beginning of the election campaign by the Central Election Commission. Elections to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine held on the last Sunday of October in the fifth year of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine . Special elections to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine shall be appointed by the President of Ukraine and held within sixty days from the date of publication of the decision to dissolve the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine . O Elections of the President of Ukraine held on the last Sunday in March of the fifth year of the term of the President of Ukraine . In the event of early termination of powers of the President of Ukraine presidential elections in Ukraine held within ninety days after the termination of office.

O Counting is done exclusively members of the election commission at its meeting. The Commission calculates the number of votes cast for each candidate and for each list of candidates of political parties and election blocks. The candidate for deputy, who received the most votes of voters who vote against other candidates who ran in this constituency.

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