Sudden Illnesses 9

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Information about Sudden Illnesses 9

Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Simeone


Sudden Illnesses:  Sudden Illnesses Anthrax Smallpox Heart Problems Stroke Asthma COPD Hyperventilation Fainting Sudden Illnesses #2:  Sudden Illnesses #2 Seizures Diabetes Abdominal distress Various other problems Anthrax:  Anthrax Most commonly occurs in hoofed animals Bacteria spores can live in the soil years Can infect humans Three Serious Forms of Anthrax / Transmission:  Three Serious Forms of Anthrax / Transmission Inhalation (breathing spores) Cutaneous (skin) Intestinal (spread by eating undercooked meat from infected animals) Historically, rare in the U.S. Anthrax Symptoms:  Anthrax Symptoms Inhaled: Severe cold / flu/ progress to breathing problems and shock Usually fatal Cutaneous Anthrax:  Cutaneous Anthrax Resembles insect bite Raised itchy bumps Develops black (necrotic) area in center 20% untreated cases result in death Intestinal Anthrax:  Intestinal Anthrax Nausea, vomiting Loss of appetite Fever Abdominal pain, vomiting blood, severe diahrrhea 25%-60% die Vaccine For Anthrax:  Vaccine For Anthrax Vaccine has been licensed for humans 93% effective Recommended for people who work in fields where contact is highly likely Military personnel Mild reactions in 30% Suspicious Mail:  Suspicious Mail Do not open Place in a bag Prevent spills of powder substance Call authorities Wash hands Cautions with aerosol sprays Smallpox:  Smallpox Incubation: 12 days High fever, fatigue, head and back aches Rash: predominately on face, arms, legs in 2-3 days Flat red lesions Become pus filled, crusts and scabs Falls off in 3-4 weeks. 30% death rate Spread of Smallpox:  Spread of Smallpox Infected saliva droplets Vaccination: some risks George Washington Ricin:  Ricin Poison made from waste left over in processing castor beans Forms: powder, mist, pellet or dissolved in water or weak acid Accidental exposure highly unlikely As little as 500 micrograms injected (pin head size) could kill Larger amounts required if inhaled or swallowed Ricin:  Ricin Poisoned victims are not contagious Was possibly used in the Iran-Iraq war in the 80’s Ricin found in Al Qaeda caves in Afghanistan Blocks cells from making proteins Ricin Signs and Symptoms:  Ricin Signs and Symptoms Inhalation: Coughing, tightness in chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, aching muscles Quickly, lungs become inflamed, lung fluids build, skin may turn blue Ricin Signs and Symptoms:  Ricin Signs and Symptoms Injestion Internal bleeding of stomach and intestines Leads to bloody vomit and diarrhea Liver, spleen, kidneys may stop functioning May lead to death Ricin Signs and Symptoms:  Ricin Signs and Symptoms Injection All previously cited signs and symptoms may occur Ricin: Death:  Ricin: Death May occur in 36-48 hours – no matter the type of exposure If one lives longer than 5 days w/o complications, they will probably survive Ricin Treatment:  Ricin Treatment NONE No widely available, reliable test to confirm exposure Information Regarding Terrorist Related Emergencies:  Information Regarding Terrorist Related Emergencies The Cardiovascular System and Disease Prevention:  The Cardiovascular System and Disease Prevention 42% of all deaths in the U.S. are related to heart disease Cardiovascular Disease:  Cardiovascular Disease 1 million deaths each year 275 billion dollars Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States. Coronary Artery Disease:  Coronary Artery Disease Primary form of heart disease A disease involving waxy plaque build-up in the arteries Coronary Artery Disease:  Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Risk Factors:  Coronary Risk Factors Primary Risk Factors: Factors that have been definitively associated with or directly cause coronary artery disease. Secondary Risk Factors: Factors believed to contribute to or advance the severity of atheroschlerosis and CAD. Primary Risk Factors (Alterable):  Primary Risk Factors (Alterable) Smoking Hypertension (high blood pressure) High serum cholesterol Physical inactivity Diabetes mellitus Obesity Family History Secondary Risk Factors:  Secondary Risk Factors Stress Age Gender (male vs. female) Heart Attack and Partial Blockages:  Heart Attack and Partial Blockages Angina:  Angina Chest pain usually brought on by: Physical exertion, exposure to cold Emotional stress Due to ischemia (reduced oxygen to part of the heart muscle) Duration of pain: less than 10 minutes Usually relieved by nitroglycerin About Nitroglycerine:  About Nitroglycerine Give one dose approximately every 3 to 5 minutes (3 dosages in 10 minutes) Transport if 3 dosages are necessary Dosage amounts vary Available in tablets, spray, ointment, patch Victim should be sitting or lying down Reduces blood pressure Reduces work for the heart (dilates arteries which increases blood flow) Heart Attack:  Heart Attack Blood supply to a portion of heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms:  Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms Chest pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain Pain lasts longer than 10 minutes Radiating pain Light-headedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath Indigestion?? (neighbor) Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms #2:  Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms #2 May occur during rest or activity Pain not relieved by nitroglycerin Not all signs are always present Victim will be in denial Get help immediately Other Causes of Chest Pain:  Other Causes of Chest Pain Rib injury Pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy Lung injury Indigestion Nerve impingement Chest Pain: Heart Attack / What To Do:  Chest Pain: Heart Attack / What To Do Call EMS or transport Monitor ABC’s / give CPR if necessary Place victim in least painful position (Usually in half sitting position, knees bent) Loosen tight clothing around neck and mid-section Maintain composure / reassure Determine if there is a history of heart disease Check for medications Nitroglycerine / give one aspirin if not allergic Stroke: Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) “Brain Attack”:  Stroke: Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) “Brain Attack” Occurs as a result of: Clot (80%) Ruptured vessel (20%) Lack of oxygen to brain: cells die Third largest cause of death in U.S. Major cause of disability Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA’s):  Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA’s) Mini-strokes Precursor to major stroke May last a few minutes to several hours Function normally returns Stroke Risk Factors:  Stroke Risk Factors >50 years of age Birth control pills and > 30 years old Overweight Hypertension High cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease Sickle cell disease Substance abuse (esp. crack) Family history Stroke: Signs and Symptoms:  Stroke: Signs and Symptoms Sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm, leg, on one side of the body (Strokes are usually unilateral) Loss of speech, difficulty speaking, difficulty understanding speech Blurred or decreased vision (one side) Deviation of PEARL Unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness, loss of balance Sudden severe headache Stroke: What To Do:  Stroke: What To Do Check ABC’s Call EMS Victim conscious? Have victim lay down with upper body and head slightly elevated Unresponsive but breathing? Recovery position Chin extended to keep airway open Do not give liquids or food (throat may be paralyzed) Asthma:  Asthma Chronic, inflammatory lung disease Air passages narrow Difficulty exhaling Tends to resolve with age What Triggers Asthma Attacks?:  What Triggers Asthma Attacks? Respiratory tract infection Extreme temperatures, especially cold Strong odors, perfumes, dust, fumes, smoke, allergens, air pollution Certain drugs (aspirin, beta blockers) Exercise Emotional stress Signs of Asthma Attack:  Signs of Asthma Attack Coughing Wheezing or whistling sound Flared nostrils Cyanosis (blue) Difficulty speaking Blue lips / fingertips These symptoms may also indicate other health problems such as pneumonia, cystic fibrosis Asthma: What To Do:  Asthma: What To Do Sit in upright position, leaning slightly forward Pursed lip breathing Inhaler or other medications (Child at YMCA / show inhaler / hold 10 sec.) Monitor ABC’s if necessary Asthma: What To Do:  Asthma: What To Do Determine cause of attack - remove victim from causative environment Abrupt change in outdoor temperature, dust, feathers, animals, tobacco smoke, paint, etc. Keep conversations brief Seek medical attention if necessary Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: COPD:  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: COPD Primary cause: SMOKING Primarily includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema Chronic bronchitis Affects bronchioles (become thickened) Caused by chronic infections and irritations such as cigarette smoke Symptoms: “Cigarette cough, breathing difficulty, increased sputum and severe coughing COPD – Emphysema:  COPD – Emphysema Destruction of alveoli Loss of lung elasticity Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath May become dependent on oxygen COPD: What To Do:  COPD: What To Do Sitting position Usually have their own medications Encourage fluid intake In acute distress? Get medical assistance Hyperventilation:  Hyperventilation Usually brought on by emotional stress Shortness of breath Characterized by extremely fast breathing Dizziness Numbness Tingling of hands and feet Hyperventilation: What To Do:  Hyperventilation: What To Do Encourage slow deep breathing Inhale through nose and hold for several seconds Exhale slowly through pursed lips Calm and reassure the victim Do not place a paper bag over the head Fainting:  Fainting A sudden, brief loss of consciousness unassociated with a head injury Occurs when the brain’s blood flow in interrupted Often occurs when standing for prolonged periods of time (results in blood pooling) which may result in a drop in blood pressure Can be brought on by hypoglycemia, dehydration, anemia, heat exhaustion, slow heart rate, anxiety and emotional stress Fainting:  Fainting Look for: Dizziness Weakness Seeing spots Visual blurring Nausea Pale skin Sweating Fainting: What To Do:  Fainting: What To Do Prevent from falling Have victim lie down on back Elevate feet 8-12 inches Loosen tight clothing After recovery, Give fluid with sugar Fresh air / cool cloth Fainting: When To Seek Medical Attention:  Fainting: When To Seek Medical Attention Over 40 years of age Repeated attacks Loses consciousness while sitting or lying down Does not quickly regain consciousness (is out > 4 to 5 minutes) Faints for no apparent reason Seizures:  Seizures Results from abnormal stimulation of brain cells Exact cause is usually not known Medications are available yet are not easily controlled Conditions That May Lead To Seizures:  Conditions That May Lead To Seizures Epilepsy Heatstroke Poisoning Electric shock Hypoglycemia High fever in children (fever convulsions) Brain injury, tumor, stroke Alcohol withdrawal, drug abuse / overdose Major Classifications of Seizures:  Major Classifications of Seizures Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Grand mal Absence Seizures Blank stare Complex partial Seizures Part of brain involved Dazed, may mumble or wobble Febrile Seizures High fever (cool body / wet cloth) Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Grand mal :  Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Grand mal Often associated with epilepsy May experience a “sensation” prior to seizure Loss of consciousness Stiff, then jerking motion Duration: 2 to 5 minutes Muscle contraction, perhaps tongue biting Is usually followed by a period of coma or drowsiness, headache, muscle soreness First Aid Procedures For Seizures and Convulsions:  First Aid Procedures For Seizures and Convulsions If possible: Cushion head Remove items that victim may bump into Loosen tight neckwear Place on left side Medical-alert tag As seizure ends, offer help First Aid For Seizures #2:  First Aid For Seizures #2 Call 911??? Definitely call if: If seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes If not known to have epilepsy or seizure ID Slow recovery A second seizure Difficulty breathing Pregnancy or other medical conditions (ID) Signs of injury or illness DO NOT’S For Seizure Victims:  DO NOT’S For Seizure Victims Do not give food or drink Do not restrain victim Do not put anything between victim’s teeth Do not move to another place (unless to protect from injury) Status Epilepticus:  Status Epilepticus Two or more seizures with no period of consciousness Call 911 – This is an emergency Diabetes Mellitus:  Diabetes Mellitus A condition in which glucose is unable to enter the cells A disease associated with problems in controlling blood glucose or blood sugar The disease results when the pancreas has problems producing insulin or the body can no longer use insulin properly Insulin is the “taxi” that carries sugar from the blood to the cells Types of Diabetes:  Types of Diabetes Type I Insulin dependent or juvenile onset Congenital Type II: maturity or adult onset 90% of all cases are this type Usually non-insulin dependent Results from obesity and inactivity Gestational onset Normal Blood Sugar Levels:  Normal Blood Sugar Levels Normal blood sugar levels: 65-110 Hypoglycemia:  Hypoglycemia Low levels of blood sugar Some may experience hypoglycemia but are not diabetic protein is often recommended, sometimes along with sugar Hypoglycemia:  Hypoglycemia Sudden onset Occurs when eating has been delayed or when too much insulin was administered (blood sugar level drops) May be fatal if left unattended Hypoglycemia: Signs and Symptoms:  Hypoglycemia: Signs and Symptoms Sudden onset Sudden hunger Trembling / Shaking Anger, bad temper (mood change) Staggering, poor coordination Pale Confusion, disorientation, altered mental status Sweating Eventual stupor or unconsciousness or seizure Hypoglycemia: What To Do:  Hypoglycemia: What To Do If victim is known diabetic, has altered mental status, and is awake enough to swallow: GIVE 10-15 grams of sugar ½ can regular soda 6 jelly beans P.275 If no improvement after 15 minutes, give 15 more sugar If no improvement, take to the hospital (trim gym, student at ballgame) Glucagon: injectable medication Hyperglycemia:  Hyperglycemia The body has too much sugar in the blood Pancreas fails to produce insulin to lower sugar levels When sugar levels remain high, over time, it damages the walls of the vessels, leading to impairment of the circulatory system Affects functioning of most organs Problems healing (small cuts, amputations) Blindness Hyperglycemia:  Hyperglycemia Diabetic coma (ketoacidosis) Levels may rise to 1200 Body begins to burn fat as primary fuel Fat as fuel results in production of acids and ketones = “fruity breath” Hyperglycemia: Signs and Symptoms:  Hyperglycemia: Signs and Symptoms Gradual onset Drowsiness Extreme thirst / dry mouth Frequent urination Flushed skin Vomiting / nausea Fruity breath Heavy breathing Eventual stupor or unconsciousness Hyperglycemia: What To Do:  Hyperglycemia: What To Do Have conscious victim follow physician’s recommendations If you are uncertain if sugar level is high or low, GIVE SUGAR If no response in 15 minutes, get to the hospital Abdominal Distress:  Abdominal Distress Gastrointestinal problems Cramping, aching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea May be viral or bacterial Difficult to determine the cause Abdominal Distress? Ask These Questions:  Abdominal Distress? Ask These Questions Cramping pain? Constant pain? (indicates organ inflammation) Nausea? Poor appetite? Fever? Diarrhea or vomiting? Is a “virus” going around? Chance of pregnancy? Abdomen rigid to touch? Emergency (son) Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea: What To Do:  Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea: What To Do Watch for dehydration Pinch test Wait for nausea to pass before giving liquids and foods Give clear fluids Sprite, 7-up, water Jell-o, pop sickles What To Do #2:  What To Do #2 Hot water bottle, warm bath Lay on left side, knees bent Suppository (by prescription) Solid food? Crackers, toast Avoid milk and meats for 48 hours Let diarrhea run its course Imodium A-D) What To Do For Infants::  What To Do For Infants: Vomiting or projectile vomiting? Diahrrea? Pedialite Abdominal Distress: When To Seek Medical Attention:  Abdominal Distress: When To Seek Medical Attention Constant pain Unable to drink for more than 24 hours Blood or brown grainy matter in vomit Vomiting following a head injury Additionally: Black or bloody stools Rigid, swollen, distended stomach Pain when abdomen is pressed then released

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