subsaharan africa

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Information about subsaharan africa
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Published on October 25, 2007

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Slide1:  C.J. Cox Instructor Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa Physical Geography of Africa Cultural Geography of Africa Historical Geography of Africa African Sub-regions Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa:  Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa 1. Continent dominated by it’s plateau character 2. Majority of people depend on farming for their livelihood Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa:  Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa 3. High amount of disease (malaria, sleeping sickness, aids) 4. African boundaries drawn at the beginning of the colonial period 5. Economic development in scattered areas Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa:  Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa 6. Rich in raw materials vital to industrialized economies 7. Inter-regional connections are poor 8. Africa has been a place of competition and conflict between major powers Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa:  Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa 9. Highest population growth despite diseases & food shortages 10. Contrasting areas from civil wars to stability Relative Location of Africa:  Relative Location of Africa Lying astride the equator Between the Atlantic/Indian and Mediterranean Second largest continent 4500 miles from east to west 4800 miles from north to south Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa Physical Geography of Africa Cultural Geography of Africa Historical Geography of Africa African Sub-regions Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Plate Tectonics Plateaus Deserts Mountains Rivers Lakes Climates LANGUAGES diversity of African languages, human racial groups Islam in the north Niger Congo languages in south dozens of languages in a single country 1/7 of the inhabited world with 1/3 of the languages Khoisan (Bushman language) Malay-Polynesian & Germanic in the south POPULATION 475 million concentrations in Nigeria, Lake Victoria & Southern Africa Diseased areas (1 million children die from Malaria a year) Sahel (suh-hell) Ethiopia, West Africa poor soils, inadequate precipitation AGRICULTURE subsistence farming, herding military governments corn not as high a yielding grain as wheat or rice population growth higher than in India & China increase of 105 million from 1980 to 1988 per capita food production decreasing HISTORY Pre Euopean Prelude absence of written history Trade places like Timbuktu East Africa trade with China, India Indonesia & Arabs Colonial Transformation 1600s series of coastal stations & forts trade with African middlemen for slaves, gold, ivory & spices Arabs had slave trade long before Europeans 30 million slaves deported from Africa all over world European presence brought a reorientation of trade interior states decline 400 years later European carved up Africa Penetration into the interior not until mid of 1800's Belgium Congo Portuguese Angola & Mozambique French western Africa (France still maintains influence) Interest in colonies' labor transit agriculture (cotton Mozambique, coffee Angola) minerals WEST AFRICA (bulge Lake Chad to Senegal to coast to Sahara) large desert states to the north smaller coastal states most populated region cultured area coastal location favorable for trade Nigeria Moslem north mid area poor unproductive & disease oil reserves in the Niger delta urbanization 29% capital Abuja in center Burkina Faso East Africa highland plateau Africa savanna Lake Victoria 3 major countries come together Tanzania largest country with 24 million country with out a prime core area African socialism cooperatives & new villages cotton north/ tea south Kenya 22.8 million good agricultural areas strong core area capitalist state Nairobi/Mombassa tourism pop. increase 4.2 % annually doubling time is 17 years by 2025 4 times as many as today (83 million) over 1/2 pop under 15 average 8 kids per woman Uganda 16.2 million military regime of Amin 1971-1979 75,000 Asians evacuated & commercial system fell apart death by violence 300,000 economy still in shambles & fragmented Obote Burundi & Rwanda 12 million EQUATORIAL AFRICA Zaire, Congo, Cameroon, Central African Republic Gabon Equatorial Guinea Zaire 33 million & 900,000 sq. miles wealth within the basin rim river system nuetralized by rapids independence in 1960 Others 17 millions Gabon modest oil reserves, forests & lots of minerals Cameroon self sufficient in food, oil reserves SOUTHERN AFRICA South Africa the dominant political & economic force & military the continent's richest in minerals gold, chromium, diamonds, platinum, coal and iron ore. political influence in Southern Africa operates ports in Mozambique assistance programs in Malawi med. agriculture wool plateau country southern tip 471,000 square miles 34.7 million great ethnic diversity English, Boers, (5 mill) colored (3 mill) Asians, 1 mill Indians & blacks (25 million) Dutch founded Cape Town in 1652 1800 the British Boer War 1899-1902 Afrikaners labor for sugar plantations & mines Johannesburg 2.2 mill (gold field) Pretoria 1 mill plateau area apartheid ( apart - hate) separateness Afrikaners policy in 1948 minimize contact of ethnic groups homelands immigrant workers government- today must concentrate on keeping control Zambia landlocked copper in south Zimbabwe chrome/asbestos steppe 9.6 million considerable economic potential Independence in 1980 Malawi's core in south Mozambique exit for Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa cashews & coconut 14.7% Urbanized Independence in 1975 Angola conflict with South Africa in Namibia while fighting an insurgent state in the south central part of it's own territory. oil coffee independence in 1975 Namibia copper, lead & zinc steppe Lesotho mountainous enclave surrounded by South Africa poor & landlocked NORTH AFRICA / SW ASIA LOCATION & SIZE HISTORY POPULATION MINERAL RESOURCES PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ECONOMY URBANIZATION SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TEN GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Plate Tectonics Deserts Mountains Rivers Lakes CLIMATE LANGUAGES POPULATION AGRICULTURE HISTORY WEST AFRICA Nigeria Burkina Faso East Africa Tanzania Kenya Uganda Burundi & Rwanda EQUATORIAL AFRICA Zaire Gabon Cameroon SOUTHERN AFRICA South Africa Malawi Mozambique Angola Namibia Lesotho Zambia Zimbabwe SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TEN GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA 1) Continent dominated by the continent's plateau character 2) majority of people depend on farming for their livelihood 3) high amount of disease (malaria, sleeping sickness) 4) African boundaries drawn at the beginning of the colonial period 5) Economic development in scattered areas 6) Rich in raw materials vital to industrialized economies 7) Inter-regional connections are poor 8) Africa a place of competition and conflict between major powers 9) Highest population growth despite diseases & food shortages. 10) contrasting areas, some of civil wars others with stability Environmental deterioration, diseases, population growth is highest in world, political conflicts PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Lying astride the equator Atlantic/Indian/Mediterranean 2nd in size to Eurasia Plate Tectonics core for the super continent Gondwana deep gorges & rift valleys resultant from continental movement north Deserts Mountains Rivers Lakes CLIMATE Symmetrical about the equator Rainy climate of equator Savanna lands of trees with grass Steppe lands of only grass Arid conditions of Sahara & Kalahari Deserts Med. zones at extremities LANGUAGES diversity of African languages, human racial groups Islam in the north Niger Congo languages in south Malay-Polynesian & Germanic in the south POPULATION 475 million concentrations in Nigeria, Lake Victoria & Southern Africa AGRICULTURE subsistence farming, herding military governments HISTORY Pre Euopean Prelude absence of written history Colonial Transformation 1600s series of coastal stations & forts trade with African middlemen for slaves, gold, ivory & spices Arabs had slave trade long before Europeans 30 million slaves deported from Africa all over world European presence brought a reorientation of trade interior states decline 400 years later European carved up Africa Penetration into the interior not until mid of 1800's Belgium -Congo Portuguese - Angola & Mozambique French - western Africa (France still maintains influence) Interest in colonies' labor transit agriculture (cotton Mozambique, coffee Angola) minerals WEST AFRICA Nigeria Burkina Faso East Africa Tanzania Kenya Uganda Burundi & Rwanda EQUATORIAL AFRICA Zaire Gabon Cameroon SOUTHERN AFRICA South Africa Malawi's Mozambique Angola Namibia Lesotho Zambia Zimbabwe World Regional Geography Sierra College C. J. Cox SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PHYSICAL FEATURES Landforms Bodies of Water Kalahari Desert Namib Desert Mt. Kilimanjaro The Rift Valley Drakensberg Mts. Great Escarpment Lake Tanganyika Lake Victoria Congo (Zaire) River Niger River The Cape of Good Hope Zambezi River Orange River Lake Malawi COUNTRIES West Africa Equatorial East Africa Southern Nigeria Benin Ghana Burkina Faso Ivory Coast Liberia Sierra Leone Guinea Guinea Bissau Gambia Senegal Togo Cameroon Cent. African Rep. Democratic Republic of the Congo(Zaire) Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Cabinda Rwanda Uganda Burundi Kenya Tanzania Angola Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Botswana Swaziland Lesotho South Africa Namibia Madagascar NORTH AFRICA PHYSICAL FEATURES Landforms Bodies of Water Sahara Desert Atlas Mountains Nubian Desert Ahaggar Mts. Ethiopian Highlands Nile Red Sea Persian Gulf COUNTRIES North African Countries Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Egypt Sudan Mauritania Mali Niger Chad Western Sahara The Horn Eritrea Ethiopia Djibouti Somalia Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Plate Tectonics core for the super continent Gondwana deep gorges & trenches resultant from continental movement rift valleys or hugh parallel cracks or faults Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Plateaus - plateau land mass where altitude moderates the tropical heat average of at least 1000 ft. half of continent is over 2500ft. Basins - Congo, Djouf, Kalahari & Sudan LANGUAGES diversity of African languages, human racial groups Islam in the north Niger Congo languages in south dozens of languages in a single country 1/7 of the inhabited world with 1/3 of the languages Khoisan (Bushman language) Malay-Polynesian & Germanic in the south POPULATION 475 million concentrations in Nigeria, Lake Victoria & Southern Africa Diseased areas (1 million children die from Malaria a year) Sahel (suh-hell) Ethiopia, West Africa poor soils, inadequate precipitation AGRICULTURE subsistence farming, herding military governments corn not as high a yielding grain as wheat or rice population growth higher than in India & China increase of 105 million from 1980 to 1988 per capita food production decreasing HISTORY Pre Euopean Prelude absence of written history Trade places like Timbuktu East Africa trade with China, India Indonesia & Arabs Colonial Transformation 1600s series of coastal stations & forts trade with African middlemen for slaves, gold, ivory & spices Arabs had slave trade long before Europeans 30 million slaves deported from Africa all over world European presence brought a reorientation of trade interior states decline 400 years later European carved up Africa Penetration into the interior not until mid of 1800's Belgium Congo Portuguese Angola & Mozambique French western Africa (France still maintains influence) Interest in colonies' labor transit agriculture (cotton Mozambique, coffee Angola) minerals WEST AFRICA (bulge Lake Chad to Senegal to coast to Sahara) large desert states to the north smaller coastal states most populated region cultured area coastal location favorable for trade Nigeria Moslem north mid area poor unproductive & disease oil reserves in the Niger delta urbanization 29% capital Abuja in center Burkina Faso East Africa highland plateau Africa savanna Lake Victoria 3 major countries come together Tanzania largest country with 24 million country with out a prime core area African socialism cooperatives & new villages cotton north/ tea south Kenya 22.8 million good agricultural areas strong core area capitalist state Nairobi/Mombassa tourism pop. increase 4.2 % annually doubling time is 17 years by 2025 4 times as many as today (83 million) over 1/2 pop under 15 average 8 kids per woman Uganda 16.2 million military regime of Amin 1971-1979 75,000 Asians evacuated & commercial system fell apart death by violence 300,000 economy still in shambles & fragmented Obote Burundi & Rwanda 12 million EQUATORIAL AFRICA Zaire, Congo, Cameroon, Central African Republic Gabon Equatorial Guinea Zaire 33 million & 900,000 sq. miles wealth within the basin rim river system nuetralized by rapids independence in 1960 Others 17 millions Gabon modest oil reserves, forests & lots of minerals Cameroon self sufficient in food, oil reserves SOUTHERN AFRICA South Africa the dominant political & economic force & military the continent's richest in minerals gold, chromium, diamonds, platinum, coal and iron ore. political influence in Southern Africa operates ports in Mozambique assistance programs in Malawi med. agriculture wool plateau country southern tip 471,000 square miles 34.7 million great ethnic diversity English, Boers, (5 mill) colored (3 mill) Asians, 1 mill Indians & blacks (25 million) Dutch founded Cape Town in 1652 1800 the British Boer War 1899-1902 Afrikaners labor for sugar plantations & mines Johannesburg 2.2 mill (gold field) Pretoria 1 mill plateau area apartheid ( apart - hate) separateness Afrikaners policy in 1948 minimize contact of ethnic groups homelands immigrant workers government- today must concentrate on keeping control Zambia landlocked copper in south Zimbabwe chrome/asbestos steppe 9.6 million considerable economic potential Independence in 1980 Malawi's core in south Mozambique exit for Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa cashews & coconut 14.7% Urbanized Independence in 1975 Angola conflict with South Africa in Namibia while fighting an insurgent state in the south central part of it's own territory. oil coffee independence in 1975 Namibia copper, lead & zinc steppe Lesotho mountainous enclave surrounded by South Africa poor & landlocked NORTH AFRICA / SW ASIA LOCATION & SIZE HISTORY POPULATION MINERAL RESOURCES PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ECONOMY URBANIZATION SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TEN GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Plate Tectonics Deserts Mountains Rivers Lakes CLIMATE LANGUAGES POPULATION AGRICULTURE HISTORY WEST AFRICA Nigeria Burkina Faso East Africa Tanzania Kenya Uganda Burundi & Rwanda EQUATORIAL AFRICA Zaire Gabon Cameroon SOUTHERN AFRICA South Africa Malawi Mozambique Angola Namibia Lesotho Zambia Zimbabwe SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TEN GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA 1) Continent dominated by the continent's plateau character 2) majority of people depend on farming for their livelihood 3) high amount of disease (malaria, sleeping sickness) 4) African boundaries drawn at the beginning of the colonial period 5) Economic development in scattered areas 6) Rich in raw materials vital to industrialized economies 7) Inter-regional connections are poor 8) Africa a place of competition and conflict between major powers 9) Highest population growth despite diseases & food shortages. 10) contrasting areas, some of civil wars others with stability Environmental deterioration, diseases, population growth is highest in world, political conflicts PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Lying astride the equator Atlantic/Indian/Mediterranean 2nd in size to Eurasia Plate Tectonics core for the super continent Gondwana deep gorges & rift valleys resultant from continental movement north Deserts Mountains Rivers Lakes CLIMATE Symmetrical about the equator Rainy climate of equator Savanna lands of trees with grass Steppe lands of only grass Arid conditions of Sahara & Kalahari Deserts Med. zones at extremities LANGUAGES diversity of African languages, human racial groups Islam in the north Niger Congo languages in south Malay-Polynesian & Germanic in the south POPULATION 475 million concentrations in Nigeria, Lake Victoria & Southern Africa AGRICULTURE subsistence farming, herding military governments HISTORY Pre Euopean Prelude absence of written history Colonial Transformation 1600s series of coastal stations & forts trade with African middlemen for slaves, gold, ivory & spices Arabs had slave trade long before Europeans 30 million slaves deported from Africa all over world European presence brought a reorientation of trade interior states decline 400 years later European carved up Africa Penetration into the interior not until mid of 1800's Belgium -Congo Portuguese - Angola & Mozambique French - western Africa (France still maintains influence) Interest in colonies' labor transit agriculture (cotton Mozambique, coffee Angola) minerals WEST AFRICA Nigeria Burkina Faso East Africa Tanzania Kenya Uganda Burundi & Rwanda EQUATORIAL AFRICA Zaire Gabon Cameroon SOUTHERN AFRICA South Africa Malawi's Mozambique Angola Namibia Lesotho Zambia Zimbabwe World Regional Geography Sierra College C. J. Cox SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PHYSICAL FEATURES Landforms Bodies of Water Kalahari Desert Namib Desert Mt. Kilimanjaro The Rift Valley Drakensberg Mts. Great Escarpment Lake Tanganyika Lake Victoria Congo (Zaire) River Niger River The Cape of Good Hope Zambezi River Orange River Lake Malawi COUNTRIES West Africa Equatorial East Africa Southern Nigeria Benin Ghana Burkina Faso Ivory Coast Liberia Sierra Leone Guinea Guinea Bissau Gambia Senegal Togo Cameroon Cent. African Rep. Democratic Republic of the Congo(Zaire) Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Cabinda Rwanda Uganda Burundi Kenya Tanzania Angola Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Botswana Swaziland Lesotho South Africa Namibia Madagascar NORTH AFRICA PHYSICAL FEATURES Landforms Bodies of Water Sahara Desert Atlas Mountains Nubian Desert Ahaggar Mts. Ethiopian Highlands Nile Red Sea Persian Gulf COUNTRIES North African Countries Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Egypt Sudan Mauritania Mali Niger Chad Western Sahara The Horn Eritrea Ethiopia Djibouti Somalia Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Deserts The Sahara Desert - the world’s greatest desert The Kalahari Desert The Namib Desert Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Mountains no mts. of continental size Atlas Mountains Drakenberg Mts. Abyssian Highlands Volcanic Peaks of East Africa such as Mt. Kenya & Mt. Kilimanjaro Great Escarpment (Zaire to Swaziland) Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Rivers The Nile (Abyssian Highlands to Mediterranean) The Niger (highlands of Guinea to delta of Nigeria The Congo River (Dem. Rep. Of The Congo) The Zambezi - (Zaire/Zambia boundary (Lualaba River) to Lake Malawi delta Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Lakes Lake Victoria Lake Tanganyika Lake Malawi (Nyasa) Many of the rivers in Africa occupy the trenches cutting through the East African Plateau Physical Geography of Africa:  Physical Geography of Africa Climates Symmetrical about the equator rainy tropical climates of equator savanna lands of trees with grass steppe lands of only grass arid conditions of Sahara & Kalahari Deserts med. zones at extremities Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa Physical Geography of Africa Cultural Geography of Africa Historical Geography of Africa African Sub-regions Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Population Languages Agriculture Economics Religion Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Population 763 million concentrations in Nigeria, Lake Victoria & South Africa high mortality rates of Sahel, Ethiopia, West Africa poor soils, inadequate precipitation Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Population Characteristics Birth rates 40/1000 Death rates 15/1000 Natural Increase 25/1000 Infant Mortality 91/1000 Doubling Time 27 years Pop <15 44% Pop > 65 3% Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Languages Diversity of African Languages indicating isolation over long periods of time Dozens of languages in a single country 1/7 of the inhabited world with 1/3 of the the languages Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Languages divides North Africa & Africa South of the Sahara Afro-Asiatic north of Sahara Niger Congo languages in the south Malayo Polynesian in Madagascar Germanic in South Africa Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Agriculture subsistence farming Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Agriculture Cultural Geography of Africa:  Cultural Geography of Africa Agriculture nomadic herding per capita food production decreasing Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa Physical Geography of Africa Cultural Geography of Africa Historical Geography of Africa African Sub-regions Historical Geography of Africa:  Historical Geography of Africa Pre European Prelude the absence of written history Trade with places like Timbuktu East Africa trade with China, India Indonesia & Arabs Colonial Transformation 1600s series of coastal stations & forts trade with African middlemen for slaves, gold, ivory & spices Arabs had slave trade long before Europeans Historical Geography of Africa:  Historical Geography of Africa Colonial Transformation (continued) 30 million slaves deported from Africa all over world European presence brought a reorientation of external trade interior states decline - Penetration into the interior not until mid of 1800's 400 years later European carved up Africa Belgium Congo Portuguese Angola & Mozambique French western Africa (France still maintains influence) Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa Physical Geography of Africa Cultural Geography of Africa Historical Geography of Africa African Sub-regions Slide38:  Nigeria Burkina Faso Mauritania Mali Niger Senegal Guinea Guinea Bissau Gambia Ivory Coast Sierra Togo Benin Ghana Liberia WEST AFRICA:  WEST AFRICA bulge Lake Chad to Senegal to coast to Sahara) large desert states to the north smaller coastal states most populated region cultured area coastal location favorable for trade WEST AFRICA:  WEST AFRICA Nigeria Moslem north mid area poor unproductive & disease oil reserves in the Niger delta urbanization 29% capital Abuja in center Slide41:  Kenya Uganda Tanzania Rwanda Burundi The Horn Ethiopia Somalia Eritrea Djibouti East Africa:  East Africa highland plateau Africa - savanna Lake Victoria 3 major countries come together Tanzania largest country with 24 million country with out a prime core area African socialism cooperatives & new villages cotton north/ tea south East Africa:  East Africa Kenya 22.8 million good agricultural areas strong core area capitalist state Nairobi/Mombassa tourism pop. increase 4.2 % annually doubling time is 17 years by 2025 4 times as many as today (83 million) over 1/2 pop under 15 average 8 kids per woman East Africa:  East Africa Uganda 16.2 million military regime of Amin 1971-1979 75,000 Asians evacuated & commercial system fell apart death by violence 300,000 economy still in shambles & fragmented Burundi & Rwanda 12 million Slide45:  Chad Cameroon Central African Rep. Gabon Sao Tome and Principe Equatorial Guinea Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) CENTRAL AFRICA:  CENTRAL AFRICA Zaire, Congo, Cameroon, Central African Republic Gabon Equatorial Guinea Zaire 33 million & 900,000 sq. miles wealth within the basin rim river system nuetralized by rapids independence in 1960 CENTRAL AFRICA:  CENTRAL AFRICA Gabon modest oil reserves, forests & lots of minerals Cameroon self sufficient in food, oil reserves Slide48:  South Africa Angola Namibia Botswana Zimbabwe Mozambique Zambia Malawi Madagascar Lesotho Southern Africa:  Southern Africa South Africa the dominant political & economic force& military the continent's richest in minerals gold, chromium, diamonds, platinum, coal and iron ore. political influence in Southern Africa operates ports in Mozambique assistance programs in Malawi mediterranean agriculture wool plateau country Southern Africa:  Southern Africa South Africa southern tip 471,000 square miles 34.7 million great ethnic diversity English, Boers, (5 mill) colored (3 mill) Asians, 1 mill Indians & blacks (25 million) Dutch founded Cape Town in 1652 1800 the British Boer War 1899-1902 Afrikaners labor for sugar plantations & mines Southern Africa:  Southern Africa South Africa Johannesburg 2.2 mill (gold field) Pretoria 1 mill apartheid ( apart - hate) separateness Afrikaners policy in 1948 minimize contact of ethnic groups homelands immigrant workers government- today must concentrate on keeping control Southern Africa:  Southern Africa Zambia landlocked copper in south Zimbabwe chrome/asbesto steppe 9.6 million considerable economic potential Independence in 1980 Malawi's core in south Southern Africa:  Southern Africa Mozambique exit for Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa cashews & coconut 14.7% Urbanized Independence in 1975 Southern Africa:  Southern Africa Angola conflict with South Africa in Namibia while fighting an insurgent state in the south central part of it's own territory. Oil coffee independence in 1975 Southern Africa:  Southern Africa Namibia copper, lead & zinc steppe Lesotho mountainous enclave surrounded by South Africa poor & landlocked Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Ten Geographic Qualities of Africa Physical Geography of Africa Cultural Geography of Africa Historical Geography of Africa African Sub-regions Slide57:  C.J. Cox Instructor Africa South of the Sahara Text Outline:  Africa South of the Sahara Text Outline Africa in the New World Order African Cultures African Natural Environments Four subregions of Africa South of the Sahara Traditional, colonial & modern landscapes Future Prospects Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Africa in the New World Order At the extreme periphery African Cultures tribes & kingdoms religious influences colonial impacts independence outcomes & prospects Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara African Natural Environments tropical climates changing climates ancient rocks, plateaus & rifts ancient landscapes forests savannas & deserts resources enviromental problems soil, diseases, drought Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Four subregions of Africa South of the Sahara Central Africa countries, people,economics, politics Western Africa countries, people,economics, politics Eastern Africa countries, people,economics, politics Southern Africa countries, people,economics, politics Traditional, colonial & modern landscapes Future Prospects Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Traditional, colonial & modern landscapes Urban landscapes Colonial Cities New Cities Rural Landscapes Future Prospects Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Future Prospects legacy tribal kingdoms & slavery European colonization Independence & Economic Colonialism Poor Governent & Internal Strife Population Growth Global Warming Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Future Prospects Disappointments Failure of Inappropriate Policies False Economies of Large-Scale Projects Currency Exchange Rates Slow Results from Structural Adjustment Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Future Prospects Disappointments Failure of Inappropriate Policies False Economies of Large-Scale Projects Currency Exchange Rates Slow Results from Structural Adjustment Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara Future Prospects Basic Needs education infrastructure Internal or external impetus Africa South of the Sahara:  Africa South of the Sahara African Subregions African Cultures African Natural Environments Traditional, colonial & modern landscapes Future Prospects

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