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Published on March 14, 2014

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Stylistics: Stylistics Methods and categories of analysis Stylistics: Stylistics -- A branch of applied linguistics concerned with the study of style in texts , especially (but not exclusively) in literary works -- traditionally known as the study of literary texts using formal linguistic tools, can also be done via sophisticated computer-based applications. -- Therefore , stylistics looks at what is 'going on' within the language; what the linguistic associations are that the style of language reveals. Formal linguistic tools: Formal linguistic tools phonetics ,- The discipline that studies linguistic sound semantics - how meaning is inferred from words and concepts. Pragmatics - how meaning is inferred from context . Morphology - the formation and composition of words syntax - the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words corpus linguistics,: corpus linguistics , is the study of language as in sample expressed ( corpora ) of "real world" text. This method represents a digestive approach to deriving a set of abstract rules by which a natural language is governed or else relates to another language. Originally done by hand, corpora are now largely derived by an automated process . -- large chunks of text can be analysed for possible occurrences of certain linguistic features, and for stylistic patterns within a written or spoken discourse . [ Rhetoric, Close Reading, and Stylistics :  Rhetoric, Close Reading, and Stylistics 5th century BC – Sicily: Rhetoric taught as a practical discipline. Rhetoric – Stylistic is the modern version of this ancient discipline . -- taught its students how to structure an argument , how to make effective use of figures of speech , and generally how to pattern and vary a speech or a piece of writing so as to produce the maximum impac t. Close reading: Close reading emphasizes differences between literary language and that of the general speech community . . .. Stylistics , by contrast, emphasizes connections between literary language and everyday language. . . . Stylistics uses specialized technical terms and concepts which derive from the science of linguistics, terms like 'transitivity,' 'under- lexicalisation ,' collocation ,' and ‘cohesion' collocation: collocation From the Latin , " place together . A familiar grouping of words, especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association. " Collocations should not be confused with 'association of ideas.' The way lexemes work together may have nothing to do with 'ideas.' We say in English green with jealousy (not blue or red ), though there is nothing literally 'green' about 'jealousy. Examples and Observations:  Examples and Observations The mule has more horse sense than a horse. He knows when to stop eating--and he knows when to stop working." (Harry S Truman ) I'm an incredible man, possessing an iron will and nerves of steel --two traits that have helped me become the genius I am today as well as the lady killer I was in days gone by." (William Morgan Sheppard as Dr. Ira Graves, "The Schizoid Man." Star Trek: The Next Generation , 1989) cohesion : cohesion From the Latin, "cling together" The use of  repetition ,  transitional expressions , and other devices to guide readers and show how the parts of a composition  relate to one other. Adjective:  cohesive . Cohesion  is achieved when writers  connect  their organized parts with sufficiently clear and numerous signals--like the words 'finally,' 'thus,' 'however,'--to make the development of their cases intelligible and to lead the reader safely along the emerging lines of their arguments. . . . cohesion  and  coherence  were often used interchangeably, both referring either to a kind of vague sense of wholeness or to a more specific set of relationships definable  grammatically  and  lexically . Stylistics as methodology: Stylistics as methodology As a methodology, the pedagogic value of stylistics in the teaching of literary language and of how such language works within a text, in both native speaker and non-native speaker contexts , has resided in an explication of how texts are understood and interpreted by readers, mainly in terms of their interaction with the linguistic organization of the text. Stylistics has therefore served to make explicit and retrievable how interpretation is formed or new aspects of interpretation revealed. Critical Discourse Analysis : Critical Discourse Analysis A further aspect of textual analysis with which some stylisticians concern themselves, and about which others have reservations, is the study of the extent to which interpretation is influenced by tensions between the text and its reception in the wider context of social relations and socio-political structures . Methodologies: practical stylistics: Methodologies: practical stylistics Practical stylistics involves close reading of the verbal texture of texts. Deriving as it does from practical criticism and from the practice of making uses of language a ‘way in’ to the meaning of texts , practical stylistics is the basic practice of stylistic The basic assumption is that literature is made from and with language, that language is the medium of literature and that beginning with the very textuality of the text is a secure foundation for its interpretation. Transformative text analysis: Transformative text analysis Transformative analysis is built on a pedagogic assumption that close reading has tendencies toward a more passive reception of the text and that putting the reader into a more active role by forcing the text into a different linguistic or generic design will lead to more active engagement with its specific textuality . Transformative text analysis assumes that noticing is more likely to take place if features of language and textual organization are drawn to a reader’s attention as a result of the text having been deliberately manipulated in some way. The process here is one in which the reader compares the original text with one which has been re-written, transformed, re-registered. Reader responses and the role of the reader: Reader responses and the role of the reader The various forms of textual manipulation described here are designed to impact on the nature of the reading process undertaken by the reader, with the pedagogic aim of fostering more active and engaged reading on the part of individual readers. Alderson and Short (1989 ) , develop the interesting practice of revealing a text line by line in a gradual unfolding of meaning and invite readers to undertake a step-by-step interpretation and re-interpretation of features of the language of a text as it emerges . The responses of readers may be collected in the form of protocols (written during and after the analytical process) or recorded orally as readers talk out their responses in varying degrees of immediacy of engagement. corpus stylistics : corpus stylistics Corpus stylistics makes use of computer driven searches of the language of large multimillion word databases to help identify particular stylistic features. The use of corpus linguistic techniques and strategies is a necessary methodological advance in stylistics as it allows the power of computational analysis to identify significant linguistic patterns that would not be identifiable by human intuition. * corpus linguistics focuses on what can be identified computationally . Cognitive Stylistics: Cognitive Stylistics *Cognitive stylistics combines the kind of explicit, rigorous and detailed linguistic analysis of literary texts that is typical of the stylistics tradition with a systematic and theoretically informed consideration of the cognitive structures and processes that underlie the production and reception of language. *systematically based on theories that relate linguistic choices to cognitive structures and processes . * This provides more systematic and explicit accounts of the relationship between texts on the one hand and responses and interpretations on the other. Aims of Stylistic Analysis: Aims of Stylistic Analysis *its main aim is to explicate how our understanding of a text is achieved, by examining in detail the linguistic organization of the text and how a reader needs to interact with that linguistic organization to make sense of it . * understanding in detail how the author has constructed the text so that it works on us in the way that it does . In pedagogic terms the aim is to provide a systematic set of analytical tools, drawn from linguistics, that can foster insights into the patterning of literary texts in ways which allow those insights to be open, evidenced and retrievable . REFERENCES: REFERENCES Methodologies for Stylistic Analysis: practices and pedagogies( Ronald Carter) Stylistics (field of study )- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   S tylistics By Richard Nordquist

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