Style: the Content of Subculture (w/Ilze Lāce)

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Information about Style: the Content of Subculture (w/Ilze Lāce)

Published on February 23, 2012

Author: zemnieks



Meanings and changes in Subcultural tastes in Latvia 2002-2010.
Presented at conference "Youth (Sub)cultures in Changing Societies " in Tallinn, Estonia, 2011.02.04.

Meanings and changes in Subcultural tastes in Latvia 2002-2010 Jānis Daugavietis & Ilze Lāce (Rīga, Latvija) At Youth (Sub)cultures in Changing Societies This work has been supported by the Tallinn 2-4 February 2011 European Social Fund within the project«Support for Doctoral Studies at University of Latvia».

Image of subcultures • rebellious character and political meanings? • socialized for a very long time the pop culture industry, the educational system • ‘classic pop-rock’ performers and ‘big names’ • virtual communities and styles without distinctive cultural or political behavior Understanding and use of traditional subcultures - reified and manufactured

Structure1. Theory Subcultures, Post-subcultures and back2. Methodology & data3. Analysis - Social factors - Contents - Comparison of 2002&20104. Conclusions

Subcultures, Post-subcultures and back (1)Two theoretical approaches :  ‘traditional’ (structural) delinquency, resistance, subordination, [working] class, opposition, deviance, non-conformism, marginalization (associated most with CCCS)  ‘postmodern’ taste cultures, scenes, tribes, club culture, postmodern subcultures, etc.homology - Marxist tradition, CCCS* and Pierre Bourdieu** vspostmodern interpretation of forming social identities (including tastes) *** * Clarke, J. et. al. (2003) ‘Subcultures, cultures and class’, in Hall, S., and Jefferson, T. (eds. ) Resistance through Rituals, London: Routledge. ** “Distinction..” (‘La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement’ 1979) **** Bennett, Andy (1999) ‘Subcultures or neo-tribes? Rethinking the relationship between youth, style and musical taste’, Sociology vol:33 iss:3. Muggleton, David (2000) Inside Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style, London; New York: Berg.

Subcultures, Post-subcultures and back (2) Explanations of tastes: a) social represents social tensions, contradictions... stable, straight b) ‘individualistic’ individual, unique, changing, unstable, diverseCritique of the post-subculturalism:  the elimination of the social structures  insufficient empirical basis  focus on spectacular and minor subcultures  generalization of the findings * * Shildrick, T. A. and MacDonald, R. (2006) In defence of subculture: young people, leisure and social divisions, Journal of Youth Studies, 9 (2), pp.125-140.

Socio-political context of Latvia 2,4 million inhabitants One big city – capital Rīga (0,7 mill.) Two main and almost equal language communities – Latvian and Russian Divided educational system – Latvian language schools and minority language schools (mostly - Russian) 2/3 of Rīga – Russians Since 2004 ‘school reform’ – 2/3 of classes in minority secondary schools are in Latvian or bilingually Culturally – segrageted communities*  * Tabuns, Aivars ed. (2006) Kultūras. Jaunieši. Mediji, Rīga: Latvijas Universitāte.

Approach, methods, dataEthnographic studies and / vs quantitative researchWe apply:  positivist techniques (quantitative survey, statistical data analysis) analyze  complemented by the ‘insider’ approach explanations, hypothesis, speculationsData from two representative sample surveys of Rīgasecondary school pupils (2002 & 2010)  more than 400 students surveyed (each year)  both Latvian and Russian schools represented  average age ~17 Data on their favorite:  genres  performers

Research questions1. The impact of structural (social) factors on (musical) taste: gender and ethnicity2. The changes in students’ musical tastes during eight years period?3. The logic of construction of tastes OR What’s inside the ‘black box’ of ‘subcultures’?

Most popular genres (%) 2002 2010Hip hop, rap 56 Club, dance 49Pop-, Partymusic, Top 40 54 Rock 45Disco 44 Pop music 43Rock 40 Hip hop, rap 40Classical 20 RnB 39World Music 19 Alternative, indie 27Electronic 19 Electronic, techno 24Latin 19 Top 40 24Alternative, indie 18 Metal 21Nu Metal, Korn family 17 Reggae 17Heavy Metal 16 Disco 16Techno 14 Classical 16Punk, hardcore 11 Punk 15Schlager 11 DnB 15Britpop 9 Blues 13Death Metal 8 Latino (salsa, rumba...) 11Jazz 7 Hardcore 9Music hall 6Blues 5Industrial 5 n=417 n=347

Genres and styles: overview of tastes Slight decrease in popularity of hip hopThree wider styles or dominant groups of listeners:  pop  rock  hip hop

Cluster analysis of genres and artists (2002) rock, subcult. hip hop pop

The most popular ‘subcultural genres’ (%) 2002 2010Hip hop, rap 56 Hip hop, rap 40Alternative, indie 18 Alternative, indie 27Nu Metal, Korn family 17 Metal 21Heavy Metal 16 Reggae 17Techno 14 Punk 15Punk, hardcore 11 DnB 15 n=417 n=347 Alternative, indie - one of the ‘new’ emerging major styles Reggae - the image of freestyle and teenagers’ growing interest in (and availability) of different kinds of psychoactive substances. Latvian cultural market flooded with related symbols and goods.10 years of broadband home internet - expansion and diversification ofglobal (western) mass culture. Further fragmentation of tastes?

Social divisions at playSignificant differences in taste: gender based choices (2002) * Girls Boys “Electronic”, “Nu Metal / Korn “Pop-, Partymusic, Top 40”, “Latino”, family”, “Heavy Metal”, Korn, Ruki Verh, Pink, Madonna, Rammstein, Metallica, “Hip Shakira, Tumsa, “Pop genres”, Hop”, “Subcultural genres”, “female artists” “hardest rock” (factor) Conceptualisation : Conceptualisation : Popularity Subcultures “Lightness” “Heaviness” Gender Aggression * Daugavietis, Jānis (2005) ‘Rīgas vidusskolēnu muzikālās gaumes: atšķirīgais un kopīgais’ (unpublished master thesis), Rīga: University of Latvia.

Subcultural taste: genre by gender (%) 2002 girls boys 2010 girls boys Hip hop, rap 55 59 Hip hop, rap 38 42 Alternative, indie 16 20 Alternative, indie 29 24 Nu Metal, Korn family 11 24 Punk 16 15 Heavy Metal 10 24 Reggae 15 18 Techno 10 21 Metal 14 29 Punk, hardcore 8 16 DnB 13 17 • Gender based differences have almost disappeared four cases in 2002 / one in 2010 • From typical top40 consumers girls moved towards different alternative styles, except still masculine hard and metal music • .. or changes of the ‘alternative’ styles: they have moved towards top40 format or / and more feminine audience

Subcultural taste: genre by school language (%) 2002 Latvian Russian 2010 Latvian RussianHip hop, rap 57 56 Hip hop, rap 39 42Alternative, indie 26 11 Alternative, indie 32 21Nu Metal, Kornfamily 23 11 Metal 22 20Heavy Metal 18 15 Reggae 19 13Techno 11 17 Punk 15 15Punk, hardcore 10 12 DnB 10 22 • Many local scenes are ethnically homogenous - exclusively ‘latvian’ or ‘russian’ • Usually ‘Latvian scenes’ are bigger and more diverse • Russian speaking community often does not have enough resources for building and sustaining smaller ‘sub-genral’ (alternative, subcultural) scenes

The Content of Subcultural tastes‘Traditional’ survey - a closed list of genres/ stylesWe used also open-ended question: “write your 5favorite artists”the latent classifications and understanding of the meanings respondentsascribe to the musical genres and styles presented to them* • Crosstabulation of data in two variables - genres & performers exploring the contents of genre: confronting it with the performers mentioned • Cluster analysis explores ‘empirical structure’ of the data, groups & classifies cases or variables with similar values * Daugavietis, Jānis (2006) ‘Muzikālās gaumes latento klasifikāciju izpēte’, LU Raksti: Socioloģija 701, pp. 71-82, Rīga: University of Latvia.

Genres & Artists 2002 & 2010• Hip hop, rap listeners:Eminem; Nelly&Kelly; Linkin Park; Limp Bizkit; Pink; Руки Вверх; Korn; Rammstein; JenniferLopez; Shakira; Madonna; Britney Spears; Taty (2002) and David Guetta; Bob Marley; LinkinPark; Beyonce; Eminem; Guf; Prāta Vētra; Akon; Rihanna; Armin van Buuren; DJ Tiesto;Inna; Timbaland (2010)• Hip hop, rap fans (having the genre as the first choice):Eminem; Nelly&Kelly; Limp Bizkit; Linkin Park; Pink; Cypress Hill; Ja Rule; Руки Вверх; D-12;Korn; Jennifer Lopez; Prodigy (2002) and Eminem; Guf; Многоточие; Centr; David Guetta;Linkin Park; МакSим; Sekkta; St1m; Timbaland; 2Pac (2010)• Alternative, indie:Korn; Linkin Park; Eminem; POD; Limp Bizkit; Nirvana; System Of A Down; Metallica;Radiohead; Marilyn Manson; Prodigy; Puddle Of Mud; Rammstein; Земфира (2002) andLinkin Park; Prāta Vētra; AC/DC; Bob Marley; Kings of Leon; Nickleback; Papa Roach; BonJovi; Guns’n’Roses; Billy Talent; Blink 182; Coldplay; DJ Tiesto; Muse (2010)• Heavy Metal (2002) Rammstein; Linkin Park; Eminem; Korn; Nirvana; Limp Bizkit;Metallica; Marilyn Manson and Metal (2010) Rammstein; Metallica; Nirvana; Korn; LimpBizkit; Marilyn Manson; Sepultura; Godsmack• Techno (2002) Eminem; Руки Вверх; Brooklyn Bounce; Nelly&Kelly; Linkin Park; Prodigy;DJ Aligator (Project); Rammstein; Limp Bizkit and DnB (2010) David Guetta; DJ Tiesto;Armin van Buuren; Guf; Justin Timberlake; Linkin Park; Noize MC; Rihanna; Eminem

Alternative, rock n=151 Popular music, n=196  Rock (89%)  Club, dance (75%)  Alternative, indie  Hip hop, rap (55%) (50%)  RnB (54%)  Metal (38%)  Pop music (49%) 3 of the most  Pop music (35%) popular performers  Top 40 (35%) are shared in both  Punk (29%) taste groups  Electro, techno (33%)AC/DC Metallica, Guns’n’ David Guetta, Armin van Linkin ParkRoses, Papa Roach, Buuren, DJ Tiesto, Prāta VētraMuse, Bon Jovi, Kings of Rihanna, Eminem, Lady Bob MarleyLeon, Led Zeppelin.. Gaga..

‘Light alternative’ and ‘clubbers’ seem to be more ‘subcultural’ by genres than by performers POP MUSIC „LIGHT” ALTERNATIVE CLUBBERS Top 40 DavidPrāta Vētra 46% Bob Marley 38% Linkin Park 29% Guetta 38%One Republic 14% Metallica 20% DJ Tiesto 22% Eminem 16%Placebo 14% Moby 17% ATB 18% Rihanna 14% Armin vanColdplay 12% Guf 12% Buuren 14% Akon 13%Black EyedPeas 12% Guns n Roses 11% AC/DC 14% Lady Gaga 13% JustinKings of Leon 10% Gustavo 11% Slipknot 9% Timberlake 11%n 74 n 66 n 77 n 71 Rock (52%), Rock (61%), Club, dance (44%),Pop music (64%) Hip hop, rap (47%), Club, dance (72%), Alternative (34%)RnB (49%), Alternative (39%), RnB (59%), Hip hop, rap (31%),Club, dance (45%), Pop music (36%, Hip hop, rap (56%), Pop music (31%)Rock (45%) Club, dance (36%), Pop music (49%). Metal (27%) Reggae (35%) Punk (24%)

Some conclusions and further assumptions The tastes of traditional subcultures (punk, metal, rock, hip hop, etc.) are part of mass culture with no substantial differences mostly - international (or local) popular music ‘mega-stars’, which cannot be associated with this subculture Proportion of respondents with ‘real subcultural taste’ - insignificant Locality might be of importance. Tendency for a local consumer to support local scenes - demand for locality Taking just ‘real fans’ of genre – more local artists e.g. in 2010 more often name local Hip hop, rap performers Guf, Многоточие, Centr, St1m, Каста from Russia or Sekkta, Gustavo, Kreisais Krasts and others form Latvia

Changes in subcultural tastes: focus on locality Performers were coded as belonging to the local (Latvian / Russian) or global music. Three codes given: local (Latvian + Russian); Latvian; Russian. Local artists selected (%)30 Local (Lv+Ru) 20022520 Local (Lv+Ru) Russian 2002 20101510 Latvian 2002 Russian 2010 5 Latvian 2010 0

Local artists by genres 0,4 Thesis: stronger local scenes 0,3 Hip hop (Ru’10) Hip hop (Lv’10)... above average 0,2 DnB (Ru’10) 0,1 Alt., indie (Lv’10) Punk, hc (Lv’02) Average listener Techno (Ru’02) 0 Punk (Lv’10) Hip hop (Lv’02) Alt., indie (Lv’02) Techno (Lv’02) -0,1 Metal (Lv’10) Punk, hc (Ru’02) Heavy metal (Lv’02) -0,2 DnB (Lv’10) Hip hop (Ru’02) -0,3 Metal (Ru’10) Punk (Ru’10) Number of selected local -0,4 Alt., indie (Ru’10) artists by certain subculture Alt., indie (Ru’02) listeners below average -0,5 Heavy metal (Ru’02) -0,6 Thesis: weak local scenes

Conclusions  Contents and meanings:  ‘mass styles’ and ‘maistreamisation’ => ‘megagroups’ dominate in all genres  blurred, media mediated meanings meanings transformed into some kind of ‘fashion catalogues’ (genres, styles, artists...)  Structural factors  changing, but still important (gender & ethnicity) differences converge, the remaining are mainly in «heavy» genres  Global / local  ‘locality’ is important for musical subcultures more than for other genres  Remarks on subculture as homogenous phenomena  global ideas + local interaction (exsistence of real ‘scenes’)  Small countries – are local ‘subcultures’ imagined? ... just “groups”, “friends”, “local scenes” or “mini cultures”?

PaldiesСпасибо TänuDankeThanks Ačiū

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