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STUDY ON WEB SITES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT HIGHER SCHOOLS AT TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

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Published on October 12, 2013

Author: leventatali

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Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16
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Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 STUDY ON WEB SITES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT HIGHER SCHOOLS AT TURKISH UNIVERSITIES Levent ATALI , Kürşad SERTBAŞ ABSTRACT The organizations that can evaluate and make use of the internet technologies at proper level and sufficiently will be able to be much more successful to achieve their target people by offering a richer content at web sites. These innovations resulted from internet technology have big importance in terms of creating advantage to the educational institutes. This study aims to clarify the existing status of web sites of Physical Education and Sport Higher Schools(PESHS) at the universities. The data have been obtained by means of questionnaires and examinations on the web sites. The study has been carried out on web site of PESHS on the internet (n=38) Consequently, some failures in the basic criteria of the internet (web site) such as updating, scope, standardization, conformity to the target people and design of web sites of higher schools have been found out. Considering the innovations caused by internet technology the web sites of PESHS should be reviewed by their responsible again and visual, audio and the other technological supports should be available in the web sites of the higher schools. To establish such components, the higher schools should work on standardization among themselves and working committees should be established. Keywords : Internet, Web site, Sport Technology, Sport Education 4

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 INTRODUCTION Computer Technologies have been more common in every area of our life since 1980’s and internet have had a role in our lives from the begining of 1990’s till now and been used mostly in education as an immediate way of information transfer. The rapid change in computer and communication technologies named the period as “ age of information technologies”. In addition to the role of internet in storing and sharing the produced information, it also provides the opportunuties for multimedia. For this reason and due to being cheap it provides big advantages when compared with other communication materials.(Berkem and friends,2001) Internet and web, the swiftly improving way of communication, contribute to improvement of associations and establishments in parallel to their own development and are high level of importance. Evaluation of education policy and new technologies and restructring them is the action that must be done first by the countries who want to reach a high level in every area. While this restructuring society of information which searches, produces, improves and uses information technologies must be aimed at and especially should be adopted by the universities.(Altıkardeşler and friends.2001) Universities must use internet in communicating with other word-wide universities. Internet is a window that removes the walls of the universities and connects people to the world. (Halis,2002) By means of this window, information has become a component that is shared most rapidly in all over the world. In no period of time after the invention of printing house, information has stretched out as fast and easy as this way. ( Tokat and Öncel, 2001) Immediate communication and easiness, which are the main purposes of using internet are the critical reasons of education associations’s using internet. Dolanbay ( 2002 ) summarized the reasons of association’s using internet as below. a)To strengthen the image of the association. b)To expand the services and to be easily contacted. c)To create new service areas. d)To provode visuality. e)To incrase the target mass. f) To provide satisfaction. g) To reduce costs. h) To expand to the world. Beside the items above, how much associations can make use of internet is related to the vision and abilities of them. The need of education association’s using these abilities at the highest level, has much more importance than the situation of it’s users producing information. Despite of all these elements, to decide using internet is not enough to make use of it. To take part on the internet is possible by application of the specific rules that are required by an effective web design. The main titles of these rules have been brought out in 5 items by Walden University. Actuality – Reliability – Involvement – Design - Standardization The presentation of information and involvement according to a plan is of importance in the purpose of reaching the target mass. In an effective web design, to have the structure which provides an easy stroll, the regular construction of information and to pass from one page to an other systemetically are of great importance.(ODTU,2002) That the web site provides the fastest and the easiest way of solution between the association and the users, make this branch of high importance and requires planning. In the age that we call”the age of information technologies “, rapid improvements affect the structure of associations and make us review the structures and processes of organizations and use the internet technologies as well. In our study we realize this review by examining the web pages in Physical Education and Sport Higher Schools of universities to the extent of using internet. 5

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 As for the existing situation, all of our universities have web pages available. Web pages of Physical Education and Sport Higher Schools take place in web pages of universities as a link. PURPOSE Using technologies related to internet in education associations is important in reaching the target mass and realization of purposes of the associations.The associations which evaluate the internet technologies efficiently and properly will be succesfull in reaching their target mass when their web sites present a miscellaneous content. By this study it is aimed to find out the present situation of web sites. Limitations This study is restricted by the examination of web pages of Physical Education and Sport Higher Schools(PESHS) in state universities. Method In this investigation the present situation of web sites have been tried to find out by using the scanning method. Universe-Sampling This study is realized in PESHS under leading of state universities. ( Table-1 ) The whole universe has been reached by internet connected PIII computer, but 4 universities who do not have web sites, 1 web page site which has a temporary renewal warning,1 web site which gives error alarm, 6 unique web sites have been excluded. The rest of the web sites have been visited with spesicif periods od time and with different computers. Totally 25 web sites of PESHS have been examined by means of formed questionaire. Gathering Data The data of study have been provided by visiting web sites by means of questionaire which consists of 36 questions (yes/no ) prepared with the assistance of viewpoint of specialists in connection with the literature. Analyzing and Interpretation of Data The data provided from the web sites of (PESHS) has been collected on a data base and then it has been interpreted by evaluating frequencies and percentages in Microsoft Excel program. FINDINGS and COMMENTS Table-1 : Data for Physical Education and Sport Higher Schools (PESHS) State University 53 ( N ) Physical Education and Sport 38 ( N ) Higher Schools Without a web site ( PESHS ) 4 Temprorary renewal warning 1 The site giving alarm of error 2 Constists of one page 6 TOTAL 13 Inspected PESHS 25 6

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-2 : The distrubition of the pictures in sites. Kind of Picture Total Total percentage A pass photo 255 %69,8 Building 25 %7,7 Garden 6 %1,6 Activity 69 %18,9 City 7 %2 TOTAL 365 %100 As seen in Table-2, there are totally 365 pictures available in PESHS web sites. Of these, 255 items (%69,8) are suitable for a document, 28 items (%7,7) are of buildings, 6 items (%1,6) are of gardens, 69 items ( %18,9) are of activities, 7 items (%2)are of cities. In the web site of PESHS, there is not used enough pictures which contributes to the introduction of the school. Table-3 : Distribution of e-mail adresses and backgrounds of the acedemic staff on web sites. Names e-mail e-mail not Background Background Title of staff Member of education Assistance of education Assistance of search Lecturer Specialist TOTAL available 173 218 97 93 4 585 available available available 66 %38 107 %62 115 %66 113 %52 105 %48 91 %42 23 %24 74 %76 43 %44 4 %0,4 89 %99 31 %33 2 %50 2 %50 1 %25 208 %36 377 %64 281 %48 not available 58 %34 127 %58 54 %56 62 %67 3 %75 304 %52 As seen in Table-3 there is data of totally 585 staff in web sites of PESHS. 173 people are Member of Education, 218 people are assistance of education, 97 people are assistance of search, 93 people are Lecturer and 4 people are spacialists. Of the available staff 208(%36) people have e-mail adresses on web site,377(%64) people do not have e-mail adresses, 282(%48) people have backgroundson web site and 304 (%52) people do not have backgrounds.The number od e-mail adresses which belongs to academic staff and provides fast and economic communication is not at an enough level. Table-4 : Fax and telephone. Fax or available telephone N YES 25 18 %72 7 NO %28 As seen in Table-4, the number of the web sites which has fax and telephone numbers is 18(%72 ) and the number of those which do not have telephone or fax numbers is 7 (%28) While there should be telephone or fax numbers, being tradditional way of communication, available in all of web sites they are not available in % 28 of web sites. Table-5 : Responsible person for web site YES NO Responsible person N 25 12 %48 13 %52 for web site As seen in Table-5, the nuber of the web sites in which a responsible is determined is 12(%48) and those in which responsinle is not determined is 13 (%52). Inspite of the fact that there should be a responsible for every web site of PESHS in order to be contacted in case of any problem, the percentage of the ones in which the responsible is not determined is (%52). 7

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-6 :The section which requires fee The section requires fee. which N 25 0 YES %0 NO 25 %100 As seen in Table-6, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have the section that necessitates fee is 0(%0) and the number of those which do not have is 25 (%100). In point of view of the target mass, the absence of the section that necessitates the fee facilitates economically. Table-7 : Personal Information of Staff Personal informaiton of N the staff is available 25 1 YES %4 24 NO %96 As seen in Table-7, the number of the web sites in which the personal informaiton of the staff is given is 1 (%4) and the number of those in which the personal information of the staff is given is 24(%96) Table-8 : Information with source Information with source N 25 YES 4 %16 NO 21 % 84 As seen in Table-8, the number of the web sites of PESHS in which the personal information of the staff is given is 4 (%116) and the number of those in which the personal information of the staff is not given is 21(%84). The information that can be used in investigations and publications is not at an enough level. Table-9 : Advertisement on the page Advertisement is available on the page N 25 0 YES %0 NO 25 % 100 As seen in Table-9, the number of the web sites of PESHS in which there is advertisements is 0(%0) and the number of those in which there is not advertisements is 25(% 100). Table-10 : The date uf update is determined. The date of update is N determined. 25 3 YES NO % 12 22 % 88 As seen in Table-10, the number of the web sites of PESHS in which there is the date of update is 3(%12) and the number of those in which there is not date of update is 22(%88) The date of update should be on every page in order to maintain the validity of the information on these web sites. Table-11 : Site map Site map is available N 25 YES NO 3 % 12 22 % 88 As seen in Table-11, The number of the web sites of PESHS that have the site map is 3(%12) and the number of those which do not have site map is 24 (%88 ). Site maps which provides us to reach the information in the easiest way are insufficient. 8

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-12 : On-Site research In- Site research N 25 2 YES %8 NO 23 % 92 As seen in Table-12,the number of the web sites of PESHS which has an in-site research is 2(%8) and yhe number of those 23(%92). The on-site research which provides us to reachy the information in the easiest way is insufficient. Table-13:Supplement applications for disabled. Supplement aplications for disabled are available N 25 0 YES %0 NO 25 % 100 As seen in Table-13, the number of the web sites of PESHS which include supplement applications for disabled are 0(%0) and the number of those which do not include supplement applications for disabled are 25 (%100). For this reason there is not sufficient supplement applications for disabled. Table-14: Text version Text version available N 25 YES 1 %4 NO 24 % 96 As seen in Table-14, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have text version is 1(%4) and the number of those which don’t have text version is 25(%100). The text version which manages us reach the required information in the fastest and the easiest way is insufficient. Table-15:The program which necessitates extra software The programme which N necessitates extra software 25 YES 2 %8 NO 23 % 92 According to Table-15 : the number of the web sites which has programmes that necessitates extra software. Extra opportunity for software that manages the target mass use information in different formats is insufficient. Table-16 : The chat is available Chat is available N 25 0 YES %0 25 NO % 100 As seen in Table-16, the number of the web sites of PESHS which present chat service is 0(O%0) and the number of those which do not present it is 25(%100). The chat service that facilitates the institutional and personal communication of the target mass. Table-17: Groups of discussion. YES Groups of discussion N 25 0 % 0 are available 25 NO % 100 As seen in Table-17, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have the groups of discussion is 0(%0) and the number of those which do not have the groups of discussion is 25(%100). The service of groups of discussion which would contribute the area improvement of the target mass is not used in a sufficient level. 9

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-18: membership of site. The membership of site N is available. 25 1 YES %4 24 NO % 96 As seen in Table-18, the number of sites of PESHS which have the membership of site is 1(%4) and the number of those which don’t have membership of site is 24(%96). The membership of site which is used for giving information in essential situations is insufficient. Table-19: Asking questions. The section of asking N questions is available 25 2 YES %8 23 NO % 92 As seen in Table-19, the number of the web sites of PESHS which has section for asking questions. In the point of the view of sharing information and consulting sevices about the target mass sections af asking questions is insufficient. Table-20 : The commonly asked questions. The commonly ased N questions are available 25 YES 0 %0 NO 25 % 100 As seen in Table-20, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have the commonly asked questions is 0(%0) and the number of those which don’t have the commonly asked questions is 25(%100) The section of asking questions is not used which eases the economic usage of time in the service of sharing information related to the target mass. Table-21 : Adress of site The adress of the site N which can be easily remembered 25 YES 9 % 36 NO 16 % 64 As seen in Table-21, the number of the web sites of PESHS that has an adress which can be remembered easily is 9(%36) and the number of those which don’t have an adress can be easily remembered is 16(%64). The number of site adress which facilitates the communication between the target mass and the association and can be easily remembered is not used in a sufficient level. Table-22: Link to main page There is link to N mainframe in every page available. 25 YES 14 % 56 NO 11 % 44 As seen in Table-22, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have in every page a link to the main page is 14 (%56) and the number of those which don’t have alink to the main page is 11(%44). While it is necessary to have a returning menu to the main page in order to make the targer mass reach information in an easy way it is restricted at the percentage of %56. 10

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-23: Video Image The video image is N available 25 0 YES %0 NO % 100 25 According to Table-23, the number of the web sites of PESHS that have video image in is 0(%0) and the number of those which don’t have video image in is 25(%100). Video which facilitates the institutional and personal communication of the target massis not used in web sites. Table-24 : Voiced supply The voiced supply is N available. 25 YES 0 %0 NO 25 % 100 According to Table-24, the number of the web sites of PESHS which present voiced supply is 0(%0) and the number of those which don’t present voiced supply is 25(%10). Service of the voiced supply which facilitates the institutional and personal communication of the target mass is not used by the web sites. Table-25: Animation Animation is available N 25 YES 5 % 20 NO 20 % 80 As seen in Table-25, the number of the web sites of PESHS which includes animation is 5 (%20) and the number of those which don’t include animation is 20(% 80). The animation is used at such a level that transmitting information to the target mass in order to provide an interactive presentation in the page is insufficent. Table-26 : Supply in foreign language. Supply in language. foreign N 25 3 YES % 12 22 NO % 88 As seen in Table-26, the number of the web sites of PESHS which supply foreign language is 3(%12) and the number of those which don’t have a supplement service for foreign language is 22(% 88). The supply in foreign language is not enough to give information to people from different cultures. Table-27: Entertainment. Entertainment areas are N available. 25 0 YES %0 25 NO % 100 According to Table-27, the number of the web sites which have entertainment areas is 0(%0) and the number of those which don’t have entertainment areas is 25(%100). The entertainment areas do not take place in web sites. Table-28: Quastionaire for site visitors. Quastionaire for site N visitors is available. 25 YES 1 %4 NO 24 % 96 As seen in Table-28, the number of the web sites which have questionaire for the site visitors is 1(%4) and the number of those which don’t have questionaire is 24(%96). 11

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-29 : Instruction for visitors. Instructions for visitors N are available. 25 0 YES %0 NO % 100 25 As seen in Table-29, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have instructions fo visitors in is 0(%0) and the number of those which do not have instructions is25(%100). The instructions which are necessary to indicate the responsibilities and general rules related to the page are not used in all pages. Table-30: Administrative decissions. Administrative decissions are available N 25 1 YES %4 24 NO % 96 As seen in Table-30, the number of the web sites of PESHS which include the decissions of administrative commitee is 1(%4) and the number of those which do not include these decissions is 24(%96). The administartive decissions is not found in an adequate level in order to provide the instutional transparencey. Table-31: Appreciation and claim The desing for N appreciation and claim is available . 25 YES 3 % 12 NO 22 % 88 According to the Table-31, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have a section for appreciation and claim is 3 (%12 ) and the number of those which don’t have a section for appreciation and claim is 22(%88) The services of appreciation and claim are not used in a sufficient level in order to realize the purposes of web pages. Table-32 : Information for the student at high school Information for the N students at high school is available. 25 YES 3 % 12 NO 22 % 88 According to Table-32, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have the section of information for the students at high school is 3(%12) and the number of those which don’t have this section is 22(%88). The service of information for the students at high school is not used in a sufficient level in order to give information to the mass that may take place in the field. Table-33 :Imaginary Tour Imaginary available. tour is N 25 YES 0 %0 NO 25 % 100 According to the Table -33, the number of the web sites which involve imaginary tour in their pages is 0(%0) and the number of those which do not involve it is 25(%100). The service of imaginary tour is a facility povided by internet technologies is not used by web pages. 12

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 Table-34 : e-mail of association e-mail of association is N available. 25 8 YES % 32 17 NO % 68 According to the Table-34, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have e-mail of association is 8(%32) and the number of those which do not have it is 17(%68). The adress of association, facilitating the instutional communication of the target mass is not used at a sufficient level. Table-35 : News and declarations. News and declarations N are available. 25 12 YES % 48 3 NO % 52 According to the Table-35, the number of the web sites of PESHS which have a section for news and declarations is 12(%48) and the number of those which do not have this section is 13(%52). The news and declarations are not used sufficiently in order to give information to the target mass. Table-36 : Directive Links. Directive available. links are N 25 7 YES % 28 18 NO % 72 According to Table-36, the number of the web sites of PESHS which include directive links is 7(%28) and the number of those which do not include tem is 18(%72). The directive links which easies the reach to information areas and the improvement of them for target mass is not used in a sufficient level. CONCLUSION As a result, the facilities that is provided by internet technologies are not used in a sufficient level in the web pages of PESHS. Especially animation, Picture and imaginary tour is not used to provide visulaity. Furthermore the voiced supply is not evaluated as well. The visual and acoustic attractivity which keep the users in-site is effective in appreciation of the users which visit the web sites of every association and by reason of this, the association’s reaching their purposes of their preparing the web site.(Ulukan and Baraz, 2001) When web sites are inspected in point of standardization, the regulations that prevent the copmlexity can not be found out. One opf the studies which is related to the evaluation of information sources in internet is the one being implemented by University of Georgia and is a questionairewhith 6 ranks. In this study the necassity of standardization in web pages has been determined asone of the main categories in page quality and realization of association’s aims.(Cebeci and Bek, 1998) During the inspection of general usage of web sites with the study it has been found out that their usage has been focused as 6 titles below. These titles are : Sections, General Information, Managing, Communication, History, Declarations. The decission of taking place on Technology and especially on internet.The consisted information and titles must also be planned and well organized in order to succeed the aims.The presentation of the above mentioned 6 titles with visual and acoustic support makes the communication more effective. (Haggerty, 2001) 13

Atalı, L., Sertbaş, K. (2006). Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokullarının Web Sayfalarının İncelenmesi. Spor Yönetimi ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Dergisi, Cilt: 6, Sayı:1,ss.4-16 RECOMMENDATIONS : • • • • • • • • • • • Visual, acoustic and other technologic supports should take place in the web pages of PESHS. PESHS ’s should create technologic supports in their structures. PESHS’ s should constitute comissions between themselves for the standardization. Web pages should be made up in English besides the other foreign languages. The design and strolling between the links that help the users should be done systematically. There should be links from every link to the the main page. Support applications should be consistent for the disabled. Neccessary information ,especiallay e-mail adress of association, should be consisted in order to maintain communication The regulations that will give information to staff and to visitors should be consisted. E-mail adresses should be provided for the staff of PESHS and and the web site should consist backgrounds of them. The web sites of PESHS should have easy to remember adresses in order to be visited independent of the web sites of university. The supports such as site maps, in-site reserach motors and text version should be consisted in order to help users in reaching information fast and economically. REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • ALTIKARDEŞLER, A. ,KORKMAZ, H., ÇAMURCU Y.(2002) Planning and Organization Web Based Education. Paper presenteed at Open and Distance Education Conference, Turkey LÜTFÜ, M., GÜRDAL, A., BAKİOĞLU, A., ERDOĞAN, Y.(2001) Role of Internet in Improvement of Teaching, Sciences of Education Review, 2, pp.273 CEBECİ, Z. BEK, Y.(1998) The quality of information sources in internet : Measurements for evaluation. Paper presented at Conference of Internet Turkey DOLANBAY, Ç.(2000) E-commerce, Strategies and Methods, Ankara : Meteksan Press HAGGERTY, R.(2000) Computer Applications in Sport Management , www.icsspe.org HALİS, İ.(2002) Teaching Technology and Material Improvement, Ankara : Meta Pres. WWW.(2002)Web site of Middle East Technical University. www.metu.edu.tr WWW.(2002)Web site of Walden University .www.lib.walden.edu/judge_4.html TOKAT, B., Öncel, M.,( 2001) The affects of internet to as a mean of technology in management, Solution points for KOBI. Social Sciences Review, 5, pp. 217 ULUKAN, C., BARAZ, B.,(2001) Evaluation of universities which educate dependent on internet by means of analyzing the web sites. Afyon Kocatepe University Social Sciences Review, 3, pp.197 14

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