Study on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hopeful cotton cultivars and their adaptability

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Information about Study on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hopeful cotton...

Published on July 13, 2016

Author: MehdiBadri5

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1. Study on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hopeful cotton cultivars and their adaptability Farshid Talat Assistant Professor, AREEO I.R.Iran Email: Farshid.talat@gmail.com Mehdi Badri Graduate Student of Plant Breeding, Urmia University Razieh Akbari Undergraduate Student of Agriculture Abstract Based on weather conditions, Iran is one of the most convenient areas for cultivation and production of cotton. Cotton is one of the most important natural fiber producing plants that is used in different industries. The seeds of this crop include about 20% oil and is considered to be the most important oilseed in the world after soybean. Different cultivars of cotton respond differently to the weather conditions and choosing the appropriate cultivar is particularly important in increasing the yield, especially in a place where cotton cultivation is not common. This research was conducted in 2014 cropping season in a randomized complete blocks design with four replications in order to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative traits of 8 varieties, with Varamin and Sahel as check cultivars in Urmia weather conditions. The results showed significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits in the level of one percent ( =α 1%). SKT133, K8801 and K8802 have the highest yield, respectively. This cultivars have also the largest number of bolls per plant. This features can be used in order to modify the commercial cultivars and the production of new cultivars and hybrid seed in the region. The SKSH-249 cultivar has the lowest yield. Keywords: Adaptability, Cotton, Hopeful Cultivars, Yield

2. 2 Introduction The cotton (Gossypium Hibiceae) is flowering plant (dicotyledons) from Malvacea family. Gossypium genus includes 47 diploid species and 5 tetraploid species. Spinning fibers in the world consist of four main species and cultivars including diploid species, G.aaboreum and G. herbaceum with 2n = 2x = 26 chromosomes and tetraploid species G. barbadens and G.hirsutum with 2n = 4x = 52 chromosomes. Currently about 95% of Iran’s cultivation area consist of G.hirsutum species (Javed et al, 2008). Cotton is one of the most precious and valuable products which has especial economic importance and agricultural and commercial position in the world so that it is called white gold. Beside textile, Cotton is needed in other industries such as vegetable oils and carpet. The cotton is also a valuable resource for oil and margarine providing and its cultivable species seeds contain 14.6 to 25.6 oil (Hosseini nejad, 1994). This plant is the most important fiber crop producer in the world and produces 55 percent of the fiber in the textile industry (Smith et al, 1991). Based on weather condition, Iran is one of the most convenient areas for cultivation and production of cotton. Cotton is one of the most important and main natural fiber producer plants which is used in variety of industries. The seeds of this crop have about 20% oil which is considered the most important oil seeds in the world after soybean. Cotton seed meal which is obtained after oil extraction is one of the main animal feed mill having 36-48% protein. Therefore in addition to employment in agriculture and textile industry, cotton crop has boomed oil seed extraction companies and provides hundreds of food, pharmaceutical, military, hygienic and industrial products to the society which are obtained just by crude oil products. Compared to other crops, cotton is more job creating and creates 2 permanent productive job per hectare in the country. Its job creation in related industries (Pine, oil extraction, textile factories, etc.) is more than other crops so that by creating a job in the cotton crop, about five job opportunities in affiliated industry section and services is provided. While the country is facing with labor shortage, the development of cotton cultivation with support from government could lead to significant job opportunities by private sector investment. According to the cotton plant specifications, the plant's ability to adapt to climatic and soil conditions is very large and is arable in almost of the country without limitation. Soil salinity is generally tolerated by cotton and is heat loving. Due to the deep roots and weeding agriculture, cotton has an important role in the improvement of crop rotation and while improving soil situation, increases next crop yield. Due to the positive effects of alternative, cotton cultivation reduces diseases, especially wheat diseases in humid provinces (in north). Thus existing of cotton cultivation in alternation application of provinces leads to wheat production stability. Diversification and added value in the production and supply of cotton products is exceptional among agricultural products. For instance yarn with significant added value, 40% value- added of fabrics, 90% value-added of garments, good quality oil, rich animal feed containing 48-36% protein, Linter used in ammunition and military industries and manufacturing Other products such as soap, vitamins, Glycerin, paper, types of flooring, photographic film and so on. While some of these products have not been established in the country yet and numerous new jobs can be created through those and can benefit from economic and social advantages. Raw cotton exports, especially its products, is a way of earning currency and it has advantageous relative exchange rate compared to other agricultural commodities. Comparing the value of production in a hectare of various products indicates that the production value of one hectare of cotton is more than wheat, corn, rice and many other products in world markets. Considering the advantages of this product, Development of cotton cultivation should be programmed by country planners (Ahmad et al, 1996). Technical progress, changes in the cotton crop and new issues in cotton cultivation along with its associated industry developments, necessitated the need to develop new varieties with different characteristics. Different methods of genetic diversity creation either by within and between species hybridization or physical and chemical mutations and their integration and other activities that recently were conducted by using of genetic engineering in the world, leaded to rich and advanced cultivars. The increasing needs of cotton farmers, unexpected factors in the nature and the possibility of gradual genetic changes caused by various factors necessitated that different varieties of high-yielding suitable characteristics of cotton be available consistently. For this purpose every year after passing through quarantine and assessment of specific research stations in different regions of the country, different varieties of imported cotton

3. 3 cultivar are evaluated in a 2-year test. The tested cotton will be introduced as a commercial cultivar if it is suitable in all respects including yield, precocity, fiber quality and tolerance to Verticillium disease and if has superiority in some traits compared to the regional trade, it would be considered as a basis to the appropriate hybridization demo for breeding. In this regard, in the 1994 adaptation of new varieties of cotton in the cotton cultivation regions of the country have been assessed (Hosseini Nejad, 2008). So far through importing new cultivars and investigating them, Coker, Kala 1517 (e) and Giza 31 (Egyptian) cultivars at the beginning of Cotton Research and Hopi kala, Deltapayn and the Dr. Omoumi long string cultivars and then Bakhtegan, Varamin, Sahel preterm Mehr cultivars and recently Khordad and Sepid cultivars have been selected and cultured (Babar et al, 2002). In 1993- 1996 Nemati et al studied on 8 Iranian and foreign varieties of cotton in the cotton area of Iran for 3 years which led to introducing 2 varieties for planting in north and northeast areas of the country. Ahmad et al (1996) reported that factors such as reproductive branch at lower nodes of plant, remaining more bolls during plant growth and rapid maturity of boll are main factors of precocity that are strongly influenced by the cultivar, weather conditions and farm management. Iqbal et al (2003) studied the traits and precocity in upland cotton. The results showed that the first fruiting branch node, the number of fruiting branches and vegetative branches, flower number and number of bolls per plant and boll weight have direct and positive correlation with plant’s yield. Babar et al (2002) showed that node number to the first fruiting branch has very high relationship with precocity. Foreign reports indicate extensive research activities to introduce suitable varieties. During a two-year experiment in Canada (Javed et al, 2008), the four lines obtained from different species were compared to hirsutum species from agronomic traits and quality of cotton fibers point of view. The physiological indices of Lakvnay 89 and Deltapayn were investigated in field experiments in Mexico. Another experiment reported on several cotton cultivars showed that the Dltapayn 20 has the highest yield. Also 18 varieties of cotton in 12 sites in the US and 6 regions in Spain were evaluated in terms of compatibility and yield. The results showed that Coker 312 and Dltapayn 90 cultivars had highest yield in all weather conditions. In another experiment in 1994, a number of cotton cultivar were compared in terms of fiber quality and yield against Verticillium wilt disease and the akala 95-1517 cultivar was announced as superior and commercial varieties. Precocity and tolerance against Verticillium wilt disease have been evaluated as necessary traits to introduce varieties. Also investigations in China and several other areas in Africa showed that Zangmyan cultivar had a high tolerance against disease in all areas. In Mexico Akala B3080 was known excellent during the experiment in terms of tolerance against disease and precocity. (Vafayi tabar et al, 2010). Materials and Methods This experiments was conducted in 2014 cropping season in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Saatluw Research Station, Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran. The geographical location of the station is longitude 45 degrees 10 minutes 95 seconds east, latitude 37 degrees 44 minutes 18 seconds north and its height from sea level is 1338 meters. In this experiment, 8 varieties of cotton with Varamin and Sahel cultivar as checks in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications were cultivated. The cultivars used includes: Number of treatments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cultivars NSK-847 GKTB-113 SKN2- 739 Varamin K8801 BC244 SKT133 K8802 SKSH-249 Sahel Each plot consists of 4 lines in 9 meters by 80 cm distance between each lines and 20 cm on the lines. The crop was harvested from half a meter from beginning and end of the second and third lines after removing first and fourth rows. Recorded traits includes as follow:

4. 4 Harvested plants Harvested bolls Flowering number HeightNode numberReproductive branchvegetative branchYield Microsoft EXCEL and SAS (9.2) Computer software were used in order to statistical analyses of data. Tukey’s test was used for mean value comparisons. Results and Discussions Table 1 shows the analysis of variance on measured quantitative traits. Based on these results, for statistical level of α=1% all the investigated cultivars showed significant differences in all traits. Comparison of the average intended traits is shown in Table 2. According to the results, SKT133 cultivar has the highest yield and was placed in a separate group. K8801 and K8802 cultivars were in second and third place respectively. The three mentioned varieties also have the highest number of bolls and harvested plants (Table 2). So that SKT133 cultivar was placed in a separated group from bolls and harvested plant point of view. SKSH-249 cultivar had the lowest yield. Considering other traits, this cultivar was placed in a separated group which was among the lowest. Check cultivars (Varamin and Sahel) showed average values in terms of yield and other traits (Table 2). Analysis of variance results and comparison of the morphological traits of studied cultivars is shown in Tables 3 and 4 respectively. According to the results, all of the measured morphological traits showed significant differences in statistical level of α=1%. According to the results in Table 4, SKT133 and K8802 cultivars were placed in the same group based on the vegetative branch and number of nodes and height. K8801 cultivar was in the same group with the mentioned cultivars based on the vegetative branches and number on nodes. Varamin cultivar was in a separated group only in the number of nodes while the Sahel cultivar was in separate groups for all morphological characters except height. Table 1- summary of variance analysis of quantitative traits. M .S. Harvested plantsHarvested bollsFlowering numberYieldDFS.O.V 14.96n.s 234.425* 3.494** 1131.46** 3replication 91.54** 922.302** 11.133** 6930.71** 9treatment 6.6871.7760.613227.3927error 15.2331.0616.0715.2-CV ns, *, **: non-significant, and significant at 5 % and 1 % levels of probability respectively.

5. 5 Table 2- Comparison of the mean value of quantitative traits of cultivars. Harvested plantsHarvested bolls Flowering number YieldTreatmentsNumber of treatments * 5.25 D* 10.75 D* 5.45 BA72.50 BCNSK8471 7.25 DC21.25 DC* 7.35 A* 96.50 BGKTB-1132 6.50 DC* 20.25 D6.50 A * 74.00 BCSKN2-7393 12.50 BAC31.25 BDC4.10 BC* 99.50 BVaramin4 14.75 BA41.50 BAC6.30 A ** 159.00 AK88015 9.50 BDC23.25 DC6.05 A ** 89.50 BBC2446 * 17.25 A* 52.25 A3.50 C ** 182.00 ASKT1337 * 18.25 A47.50 BA* 2.40 C* 102.00 BK88028 * 6.00 D* 10.75 D3.15 C ** 44.50 CSKSH-2499 6.25 DC* 14.00 D3.90 BC72.50 BCSahel10 *: Means having at least one similar letter are not significantly different at 5 % level of probability (Tukey’s method). Table 3- summary of variance analysis of Morphologic traits cultivars. M .S. HeightNode numberReproductive branch vegetative branchDFS.O.V 36.189n.s 3.464n.s 0.168n.s 0.128n.s 3replication 513.748** 7.801** 1.856** 1.898** 9treatment 27.4291.710.4170.58527error 9.2917.120.0219.51-CV ns, *, **: non-significant, and significant at 5 % and 1 % levels of probability respectively. Table 4-Mean value comparison of the morphologic traits of cultivars. HeightNode numberReproductive branch Vegetative branch TreatmentsNumber of treatments 38.65 D ** 6.30 BA* 2.15 C3.15 ABNSK8471 51.50 BC* 8.65 BA3.55 BAC* 4.90 AGKTB-1132 46.50 DC* 8.40 BA* A51.43.95 ABSKN2-7393 60.75 BA* 9.20 A3.60 BAC4.00 ABVaramin4 71.45 A ** 8.70 BA3.35 BAC3.60 ABK88015 * 71.82 A* 8.80 A3.25 BAC4.45 ABBC2446 62.35 BA8.55 BA3.17 BAC4.70 ABSKT1337 63.30 BA6.40 BA4.10 AB4.35 ABK88028 52.60 BC6.05 BA2.55 BC3.15 ABSKSH-2499 44.65 DC* 5.55 B* C2.40* 2.95 BSahel10 *: Means having at least one similar letter are not significantly different at 5 % level of probability (Tukey’s method).

6. 6 Regression analysis was performed on measured quantitative and morphologic traits (Table 5). Traits in regression analysis are in following order: Variable Y X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 Traits Yield vegetative branch Reproductive branch Node number Height Flowerin number Harvested bolls Harvested plants Table 5- Regression analysis summary of quantitative and morphological traits of cultivars. Source DF SS MS F Value Pr > F Model 7 129688 18527 4.55 0.0013 ** Error 32 130324 4072.63316 - Corrected Total 39 260012 - - According to the table, regression model analysis is significant at the probability level of 1% and the fitted model is as following: Y = 8.01682 -5.15797 x1 -13.28381 x2 + 4.36683 x3 -0.47218 x4 + 8.90017 x5 -1.01396 x6 +12.92406x7 Since the high yield cultivars have high number of plants and harvested bolls (Nemati, 1997), according to the regression model, yield is mostly predicted by harvested plant’s traits. Therefore SKT133, K8801, K8802 cultivars have better yield, respectively and are recommended as suitable cultivars for the area.

7. 7 References Ahmad, Z. and M. N. Malik. (1996). How a short Season changes physiological needs of cotton plant. ICAC. P. P. 16-21. Articles Collections cotton breeding. Publications Cotton Research and fibrous plants in Varamin. Babar S.B., Soomro A. R. and A. W. Soomro. (2002). Two preliminary reliable indicator of earliness in cotton. Asson J. PI. Sci. 1: 121-122. Hosseini Nejad, Z. (2008). Evaluation and Comparison of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cotton cultivars and their compatibility. Cotton Research Institute country- Department of Varamin. Hosseini Nejad. Z. (1994). Study on adaptability of new varieties of cotton in areas cotton regions Iran -research publications cotton fiber plants. Iqbal, M., Chang, M. A. and Mahmood, A. (2003). Maturity of cotton cultivars in multan as determined by nodes above white flower. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2: 325-33. Javed, M. S., Hanif, M., Niaz, M. and Ali, I. (2008). Impact of storage period and temperature on the pathogenic behaviour of Fusarium solani on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. Mycopath. 6(1&2): 7-11. Nemati, N. (1997). Evaluate and compare the qualitative characteristics of cotton cultivars. Cotton Research Institute of Iran - Department of Varamin. Ramezanpoor. S. and et al. (2002). The Relationship between some morphological traits with yield crop varieties, cotton Glandls through multivariate statistical methods. Iran Agricultural Sciences, 32: 113-103. Records (records and correspondence) in the Department of cotton and oilseeds Iran received from the public and private institutions. Singh, P. (1998).Cotton breeding.Kalgani Pub.New Dehli.India.pp.74-92. Smith, C. W., J. T. Cothren. (1991). Cotton; origin, History, Technology and production. John wiley & sons, Inc. Vafayi tabar, S. and et al. (2010). Variation of correlation earliness with other quantitative and short-early varieties of upland cotton, cotton and fiber plants, 1: 114-97. Vafayi tabar. M, Talat. F. (2008). Evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cotton promising figures in the region of Varamin. Iran Journal of Agricultural Science.

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