Study design 6.2.1 4

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Information about Study design 6.2.1 4
Health & Medicine

Published on March 18, 2014

Author: felipedelagarzam

Source: slideshare.net

STUDY DESIGN

6.2.1 Outline the importance of specificity, accuracy, reliability and validity with regard to fitness testing. Specificity: the test must assess the individuals fitness for the activity or sport in question. Ex. An endurance running test would not be used to assess improvement in cycling endurance.

6.2.1 Outline the importance of specificity, accuracy, reliability and validity with regard to fitness testing. Reliability: refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. *test should produce the same results if repeated.

6.2.1 Outline the importance of specificity, accuracy, reliability and validity with regard to fitness testing. Validity: refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure. Conclusions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate. •Also, can be expressed as your correlation coefficient (strong relationship when close to 1 or -1)

6.2.1 Outline the importance of specificity, accuracy, reliability and validity with regard to fitness testing. Accuracy: is incorporated into test validity and reliability and covers the accuracy to which measurements can be recorded.

Reasons for Fitness Testing Why do athletes or anyone participate in fitness tests? * Identify strengths and weaknesses of an athlete * To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program * To measure fitness levels following injury or offseason * To assist in setting goals

6.2.1 Outline the importance of specificity, accuracy, reliability and validity with regard to fitness testing. Exercise • Discuss the Fitnessgram Test and how specific, accurate, reliable, and valid this test really is. • Aerobic Capacity - Pacer Test • Muscular Endurance - Sit-ups • Muscular Strength - Push-ups • Hamstring Flexibility - Sit and Reach Test • Body Composition – Skinfold Caliper Test

Factors Which May Affect Fitness Tests What kind of factors would influence fitness tests or any field test? *time of day *weather conditions *environment (surface, noise, people) *different. assessor *athlete’s emotion, health, hydration *time of last meal *medication

Study Design Looking at Statistical information and correlations does not in itself determine causality. Students should include a demonstration of causality in experimental results by the inclusion of: •control groups •randomization •placebo •blinding and double-blinding •statistical analysis

6.2.2 Discuss the importance of study design in the context of the sport and exercise sciences. • Interested in cause and effect experiments • Causality is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first.

6.2.2 Discuss the importance of study design in the context of the sport and exercise sciences. • To make sure that our results are due the expectations of the participant. • Use these sites for reinforcement at home. • http://skepdic.com/control.html • http://www.bmj.com/content/321/7259/504 • Experimental and control groups are needed. • A control group is compared to an experimental group a test of a hypothesis. • Why do we need two groups?

Study Design • Another example is the idea that because people who eat a lot of extra virgin olive oil live for longer, olive oil makes people live longer. While there is some truth behind this, you have to remember that most regular olive oil eaters also eat a Mediterranean diet, have active lifestyles, and generally less stress. These also have a strong influence, so any such research program should include studies into the effect of these - this is why a research program is not always a single experiment but often a series of experiments.

6.2.2 Discuss the importance of study design in the context of the sport and exercise sciences. • When performing a cause and effect experiment participates must be selected in a process called randomization, i.e. randomly allocate individuals into groups. • We also want to ensure that the start groups are fairly matched by conducting pre-tests.

6.2.2 Discuss the importance of study design in the context of the sport and exercise sciences. • Placebo- participant is taking a treatment that will not affect performance. • Participants do not know what group they are part of which is called blinding the participate. • Double blinding experiments blind the participate and the experimenters.

6.2.2 Discuss the importance of study design in the context of the sport and exercise sciences. • Questions to consider when designing: are we sure that any changes in the data is due to the cause and effect? Is there a learning or habituation effect?

6.2.3 Outline the importance of the Physical Activity Readiness • Questionnaire (PAR-Q). • A questionnaire that individuals who undertake physical fitness tests must be asked to complete before undergoing the tests. • Basically it is important to do to make sure the individual is physically healthy. If they answer “Yes” to any question they should see a doctor first. • Use these websites to reinforce the PAR-Q • http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/sth-evs/english/parq.htm • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1330274

6.2.4 Evaluate field, laboratory, submaximal and maximal tests of human performance. • As scientists we need to use what we have available. • Laboratory tests will more than likely be more accurate and reliable versus field tests. • But do we have the instruments to collect the data

Laboratory Tests Advantages: *controlled environment *sport specific equipment *simulate sport’s demands Disadvantages: *not always accessible *limited value assessing team sports *not conducted in the sport environment 6.2.4 Evaluate field, laboratory, submaximal and maximal tests of human performance.

6.2.4 Evaluate field, laboratory, submaximal and maximal tests of human performance. •Field Tests advantages: *specific to the sport *conducted in the sporting environment disadvantages: *environment can alter test results *much planning in testing administration

6.2.4 Evaluate field, laboratory, submaximal and maximal tests of human performance. • When testing humans we want to know the maximum they can do. At times the tests, e.g. the maximal weight they can lift is not appropriate for the individual. • For an example, a younger or elderly individual who is not used to undertaking maximal exercise, thus, stopping before reaching their maximum. • Sub-maximal tests can be done and then calculate the persons maximum

6.2.4 Evaluate field, laboratory, submaximal and maximal tests of human performance. •Submaximal Tests: the athlete works below maximum effort and data is extrapolated to estimate maximum capacity. (ex. Step test) advantages: *prevents injury over exertion disadvantages: *depends on extrapolation *small measurement inaccuracies can result in large discrepancies

6.2.4 Evaluate field, laboratory, submaximal and maximal tests of human performance. •Maximal Tests: athlete works at maximum effort or to exhaustion. (ex. Beep test) Advantages *measurements can be more accurate Disadvantages *risk of injury and over exertion *difficult to ensure the athlete is working to max. *effort depends on athlete’s motivation

Study Design • Define a problem and select Variables • Formulate a focused problem/research question and identify the relevant variables. • Control Variables- design a Method for effectively controlling variables • Develop a Method for Collecting data - student develops a method that allows for collection of sufficient, relevant data • Examples: Experiment – Questionnaire – Observation

Study Design • The independent variable is the manipulated variable. No more than one or two. • This is the factor manipulated by the researcher, and it produces one or more results, known as dependent variables. • A scientist manipulates an independent variable, to influence a dependent variable, or variables. • A well-designed experiment normally incorporates one or two independent variables, with every other possible factor controlled. There may be more than two dependent variables in any experiment.

Study Design • For example, a researcher might wish to establish the effect of temperature on the rate of plant growth; temperature is the independent variable. They could regard growth as height, weight, number of fruits produced, or all of these. A whole range of dependent variables arises from one independent variable.

Study Design • In any experimental design, the researcher must determine that there is a definite causal link between the independent and dependent variable. • Controlled variables are used to reduce the possibility of any other factor influencing changes in the dependent variable, known as confounding variables. • In the above example, the plants must all be given the same amount of water, or this factor could obscure any link between temperature and growth.

Study Design • The relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable is the basis of most statistical tests, which establish whether there is a correlation between the two. The results of these tests allow the researcher to accept or reject the null hypothesis, and draw conclusions.

6.2.1 Outline the importance of specificity, accuracy, reliability and validity with regard to fitness testing. Exercise • Discuss the Fitnessgram Test and how specific, accurate, reliable, and valid this test really is. • Aerobic Capacity - Pacer Test • Muscular Endurance - Sit-ups (Mariela) • Muscular Strength - Push-ups (Emily) • Hamstring Flexibility - Sit and Reach Test (Valeria) • Body Composition – Skinfold Caliper Test (Mr. Koene) Use the following site to complete this exercise • http://www.topendsports.com/testing/fitnessgram.htm

Aerobic Capacity - Pacer Test • Specific- testing athletes aerobic endurance • Accurate- Cadence is used and teacher counts how many shuttles students completes • Reliable- has its defaults because it depends on how strict the tester is and practice • Valid- it does measure aerobic capacity • Limitations: students can become better with time, student motivation, teacher miscounts do students cross live every single time.

Body Composition – Skinfold Caliper Test • Specific- Uses measurements to calculate body composition • Accurate- Calipers are extermely accurate but it depends on experience. • Reliable- the reliability of skinfold measurements can vary from tester to tester depending on their skill and experience. • Valid-using skinfold measurements is not a valid predictor of percent body fat, however they can be used as a monitoring device to indicate changes in body composition over time. • Limitations-caliper experience

• FitnessGram helps achieve goals by applying easy-to-use technology to conduct fair and accurate fitness assessments and easily record the results, set individualized goals for students, give students responsibility for managing and recording their own activities, create detailed reports of progress and results for students, parents, and administrators help students and parents understand the value of physical activity.

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