Structure And Role Of The Processor

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Information about Structure And Role Of The Processor
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Published on November 11, 2008

Author: py7rjs

Source: slideshare.net

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AQA AS Computing comp2 structure and role of the processor.

Structure and role of the Processor

Basic Points Program Control Unit – fetches instructions from the memory and executes them one at a time. Arithmetic and Logic Unit – Performs the arithmetic and logical tasks (the calculator) Registers – Very fast memory on the actual processor which stores both the program being carried out and the variables being worked on. (some dedicated some general purpose) Internal Clock – linked to the system clock and governs the rate at which the processor does things. Internal Buses – link the control unit, ALU and registers. Logic Gates – used to control the flow of data.

Program Control Unit – fetches instructions from the memory and executes them one at a time.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit – Performs the arithmetic and logical tasks (the calculator)

Registers – Very fast memory on the actual processor which stores both the program being carried out and the variables being worked on. (some dedicated some general purpose)

Internal Clock – linked to the system clock and governs the rate at which the processor does things.

Internal Buses – link the control unit, ALU and registers.

Logic Gates – used to control the flow of data.

Registers Very fast memory on the actual processor Very small storage capacity normally measured in kB (1024kb, i.e. 1Mb) General purpose – for storing and working on data. Dedicated registers – required for processor to keep track of what it’s doing, program counter, error checking etc (some can be written to by programs others can’t.)

Very fast memory on the actual processor

Very small storage capacity normally measured in kB (1024kb, i.e. 1Mb)

General purpose – for storing and working on data.

Dedicated registers – required for processor to keep track of what it’s doing, program counter, error checking etc (some can be written to by programs others can’t.)

Actual registers Stack pointer (SP) Program Counter (PC) Status Register (SR) Accumulator (ACC) Current Instruction Register (CIR) Memory Address Register (MAR) Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

Stack pointer (SP)

Program Counter (PC)

Status Register (SR)

Accumulator (ACC)

Current Instruction Register (CIR)

Memory Address Register (MAR)

Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

System Clock and clock Speed Every PC has a quartz clock (like a pocket watch) The processor takes the external clock cycle and multiplies it for it’s internal use Some instructions take more than one clock cycle to perform, the processor regulates this. Clock speed is often in the region of 2GHz (currently)

Every PC has a quartz clock (like a pocket watch)

The processor takes the external clock cycle and multiplies it for it’s internal use

Some instructions take more than one clock cycle to perform, the processor regulates this.

Clock speed is often in the region of 2GHz (currently)

Word Length A word is a collection of binary digits Information and instructions are stored in words Larger words allow larger pieces of data to be worked on in any given cycle

A word is a collection of binary digits

Information and instructions are stored in words

Larger words allow larger pieces of data to be worked on in any given cycle

Bus Width Word length and bus width are linked Bus width is the number of wires connecting the components Wider busses can carry more data per cycle

Word length and bus width are linked

Bus width is the number of wires connecting the components

Wider busses can carry more data per cycle

Increasing clock speed and Moore’s Law Moore’s law predicted that clock speed would increase by a factor of 10 every 3 years? This broke in 2000, over solutions had to be found. Quantum physics got in the way restricting how small you can make electric components before you loose track of your electrons.

Moore’s law predicted that clock speed would increase by a factor of 10 every 3 years? This broke in 2000, over solutions had to be found.

Quantum physics got in the way restricting how small you can make electric components before you loose track of your electrons.

Multicore The argument was that if you can’t make the chips faster (smaller) then you can have two or more running at the same time. It has faults Programs are rarely optimised to use both chips Power consumption is much higher

The argument was that if you can’t make the chips faster (smaller) then you can have two or more running at the same time.

It has faults

Programs are rarely optimised to use both chips

Power consumption is much higher

Word Length and bus width Longer word lengths result in more available addresses and more data available to be processed per cycle. They increase the speed but not as a direct multiplier ( double the word length does not necessarily double the speed) Wider busses have a similar affect to longer words (larger busses are required to provide and move longer words).

Longer word lengths result in more available addresses and more data available to be processed per cycle. They increase the speed but not as a direct multiplier ( double the word length does not necessarily double the speed)

Wider busses have a similar affect to longer words (larger busses are required to provide and move longer words).

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