structure and functions of heart PPT, SSC AP Srinivas Nallapu

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Information about structure and functions of heart PPT, SSC AP Srinivas Nallapu
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Published on April 27, 2014

Author: SrinivasNallapu

Source: slideshare.net

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SSC Board Andhra Pradesh

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com 1.12. Heart Structure

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Heart is a hollow organ.  Situated slightly towards left side in the middle of the thoracic cavity.  It is made up of CARDIC MUSCLE.  It is conical shape with apex facing downwards and broad base directed upwards.  It is the size of the fist of the person.  It protected on all sides by rib case and by vertebral Coolum on the back side. External features

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www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Pericardium

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Pericardium  Heart is enclosed in a double layered, Transparent, Thin sac called “ PERICARDIUM” The Space between the inner and outer layers is called “PERICARDIAL SPACE” Pericardial space filled with a fluid called “PERICARDIAL FLUID”  Pericardium and Pericardial fluid protects the heart from physical shocks or blows.

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Pericardium  Heart is enclosed in a double layered, Transparent, Thin sac called “ PERICARDIUM” The Space between the inner and outer layers is called “PERICARDIAL SPACE” Pericardial space filled with a fluid called “PERICARDIAL FLUID”  Pericardium and Pericardial fluid protects the heart from physical shocks or blows. Fluid.

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www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Heart is internally divided in to Four chambers. Two upper chambers called “AURICLES” Two lower chambers called “VENTRICLES”  The verticle groove indicates the presence of right and left chambers. Left V Right Auricle. Left Auric Right Ventricle

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Very large vein that brings the blood to heart from all parts of the body are called “ Vena Cavae” or Caval Veins. Very large Arteries that brings the blood away from heart to all parts of the body are called “ AORTAE” (Aorta = singular) Left V Right Auricle. Left Auric Right Ventricle Vena Cavae Aorta

www.clickbiology.com Blood Vessels that bring Blood to heart

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  3 large veins that bring blood to all parts of the body.  SUPERIOR VENA CAVA  INFERIOR VENA CAVA  PULMONARY VEINS  SUPERIOR VENA CAVA; Collects deoxygenated blood from upper parts of the body ( Head and Neck) INFERIOR VENA CAVA; Collects deoxygenated blood from lower parts of the body ( Abdomen, Hands and Legs) PULMONARY VEIN; Brings oxygenated blood from lungs and opens in to the left Auricle. Blood Vessels that bring Blood to heart In addition to this CORONARY VEINS bring deoxygenated blood from the walls of the heart. These also opens into right auricle

www.clickbiology.com Blood Vessels that carry Blood away from heart systemic Or Pulmonary Aorta

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Heart receive oxygenated blood and supply to all parts of the body  2 large aortae that send blood to all parts of the body.  SYSTEMIC AORTA or SYSTEMIC TRUNK  PULMONARY AORTA  SYSTEMIC AORTA or SYSTEMIC TRUNK Arises from left ventricle and carries blood to all parts of the body except lungs. PULMONARY AORTA; Originates in the right ventricle. Out side the heart it divides in to 2 branches – RIGHT & LEFT PULMONARY ARTERIES. Which carry blood to left and right Lungs. A pair of CORONARY ARTERIES carry oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. In some people coronary arteries get blocked, when this happen muscle cells do not receive oxygenated blood and stop working. This is called Heart Attack. Patient may die due to failure of heart muscle. Blood Vessels that carry Blood away from heart

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Heart has 4 chambers . 2 upper – Auricles. 2 lower - ventricles  These 4 chambers are separated by WALLS or SEPTAE ( Septum = Singular).  Rt and Lt Auricles – Vertical Inter Auricular Septum. This wall prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood (rt auricle , Lt auricle) Rt and Lt Ventricles – Vertical Inter Ventricular Septum This wall prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood (rt ventricle , Lt ventricle) 1.12.2. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF HEART Inter Auricular Septum. Inter Ventricular Septum.

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Walls of ventricles thicker and muscular because it pumps blood to various parts of the body. Wall of Lt ventricle is thicker then rt ventricle. (Pumps more distence i;e fingers Auricles and Ventricles separated from each other by transverse ( Horizontal) Septum – AURICULO - VENTRICULAR SEPTUM.  There are 2 openings in this septum called Auriculo ventricular Apertures Rt auricle opens in to Rt ventricle through – Rt Auriculo ventricular Apertures Lt auricle opens in to Lt ventricle through – Lt Auriculo ventricular Apertures 1.12.2. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF HEART Rt Auriculo ventricular Apertures. Lt Auriculo ventricular Apertures

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com  Heart has valves which allow the blood flow in one direction And prevents its flowing back. The valves held in position by tough connective Tissue strands. These strands are called “CHORDAETENDINAE” VALVES IN THE HEART

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com VALVES IN THE HEART Sno Name of the Valve Location Allows blood to flow from 1 Tricuspid Valve (3 flaps or Cups ) Right Auriculo Ventricular Aperture Right Auricle to Right Ventricle 2 Bicuspid (Mitral ) Valve (2 flaps or Cups) Left Auriculo Ventricular Aperture Left Auricle to Left Ventricle 3 Pulmunary Valve (3 half moon shape or semilunar valves) At the origin of pulmonary aorta in the right ventricle. Allows blood to flow right ventricle in to pulmonary aorta 4 Aortic Valve ( 3 semilunar valves) At the origin of aorta in the left ventricle Allows blood to flow from left ventricle in to the aorta.

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Diff between Right and Left Auricles Sno Right Auricle Left Auricle 1 Larger in size Smaller in size 2 Receives blood through superior and inferior vena cave Receives blood through pulmonary vein 3 Receives deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body except lungs. Receives oxygenated blood from lungs 4 Pumps blood in to right ventricle Pumps blood in to left ventricle

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Sno Right Ventricle Left Ventricle 1 Smaller in Size Larger in size 2 Pulmonary aorta takes its origin Systemic aorta takes its origin 3 Receives deoxygenated blood from right auricle Receives oxygenated blood from left auricle 4 Pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs Pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body except lungs 5 Tricuspid valve guards the right auriculo ventricular aperture Bicuspid (Mitral) Value guards the left ariculo-ventricular aperture. Diff between Right and Left Ventricles

www.clickbiology.com 1.12.3. Heart – Mechanism of functioning  Cardiac muscle responsible for Contraction and relaxation of Heart. Heart contract and relaxes 70 – 80 times/ minute HEART BEAT: Heart beat represent 1 contraction and 1 relaxation of the heart. Contraction phase called SYSTOLE. Relaxation phase called DIASTOLE One Heart beat has 3 stages. 1. Auricular Systole : Both auricles contract at the same time and pump blood in to ventricles 2. Ventricular Systole: Both ventricles contract at the same time and pump blood in to vessels. (Auricles begin to relax during this stage) 3. Ventricular diastole : Both auricles and ventricles relax

www.clickbiology.com Blood flow circuits  There are two circuits for the flow of blood  PULMONARY CIRCUTE: Blood flow from Heart and Lungs. SYSTEMIC CIRCUTE: Blood flow from Heart and Organs of the body. Heart pumps blood in to two circuits called DOUBLE CIRCUTE HEART P V P A AORTA Vena cava

www.clickbiology.com Pulmonary Circuit  Deoxygenated blood from organs is collected in to Rt auricle and then sent in to Rt Ventricle. From rt ventricle to lungs. In the lungs blood is oxygenated and returned to the left Auricle by pulmonary veins. P V P A AORTA Vena cava

www.clickbiology.com Systemic Circuit  Oxygenated blood from left Auricle is pumped in to left ventricle From left ventricle blood is pumped into systemic aorta. This aorta supplied blood to various parts of the body. The deoxygenated blood from various parts of the body collected in to superior , inferior venacava and finally in to rt auricle. P V P A AORTA Vena cava

www.clickbiology.com Blood Pressure  The blood with which blood flows in the blood vessel is called BLOOD PRESSURE. ARTERIES – Receive blood so High BP in arteries. The BP gradually decreases when blood flows in to capillaries. When this blood is collected in veins BP greatly reduced. BP high in Arteries. Less in Veins

www.clickbiology.com Blood Pressure BLOOD PRESSURE measured by doctors by a instrument called “SPHYGMOMANOMETER” and is written as 120 / 80 (systolic/diastolic)

www.clickbiology.com Hypertension or High Blood Pressure In some people BLOOD PRESSURE will be very high more then the usual 120 / 80 such a condition is called High Blood Pressure. Reason for high bp : Blocking of arteries by cholesterol.

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www.clickbiology.com Coronary Angioplasty

www.clickbiology.com Thank you

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com External view of the heart pulmonary artery pulmonary vein coronary artery left ventricle right ventricle inferior vena cava right atrium pulmonary vein aorta superior vena cava

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium superior vena cava (transports blood from the head) inferior vena cava (transports blood from rest of body)

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The right atrium collects deoxygenated blood and pumps it to the right ventricle right atrium

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs right ventricle

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs aorta

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The septum separates the left and right sides of the heart septum

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium Pulmonary veins

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The left atrium collects the oxygenated blood and pumps it to the left ventricle Left atrium

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta Left ventricle

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The aorta carries the oxygenated from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Aorta Aortic arch

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Atrio-ventricular valves prevent backflow of blood into the atria when ventricles contract Bicuspid valve (mitral valve) Tricuspid valves Tendon

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com The semi-lunar valves prevent backflow of blood from the arteries into the ventricles Aortic semi-lunar valve Pulmonary semi-lunar valve

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Summary Quiz Identify the part of the heart indicated by an arrow . There are 10 questions in total.

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 1

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www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 4

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 5

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 6

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 7

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 8

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 9

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Question 10

www.clickbiology.comwww.clickbiology.com Answers 1 left ventricle 2 vena cava 3 right atrium 4 pulmonary artery 5 aorta 6 pulmonary vein 7 left atrium 8 atrio-ventricular (tricuspid) valve 9 semi-lunar (aortic) valve 10 right ventricle

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