Published on May 10, 2013
©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD., & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Striving Styles® Personality System www.StrivingStyles.com Striving Styles®PersonalitySystemThe Next Evolution of Jung’sTypology and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®More than 100 years from the inception of Jung’s Psychological Type Theory and 70 years after the release of the Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator, the Striving Styles Personality System is the next step in this evolutionary process. It is a complete assessment and development system that is based in the neurobiology of personality development. It incorporates the pioneering work of experts in brain functioning and development as well as emotional intelligence. Like Myers & Briggs, another mother and daughter team, Anne Dranitsaris, Ph.D. and Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard, have created the Striving Styles to show people the true mechanics of their minds, so they can direct how it functions and how they feel ‐‐ as Jung intended with his work!
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 2 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com Jung theorized thatthere are fourprincipal psychologicalfunctions by which weexperience the world:sensation, intuition,feeling, and thinking.One of these fourfunctions is dominantand we use it most ofthe time. It is used ineither an inwardly oroutwardly fashion. This paper discusses the Striving Styles® Personality System as thethird step in the evolution of psychological type theory and its manyapplications. It builds on Jung’s theory as well as the pioneering work ofMyers, Briggs and all of the practitioners that have contributed to the bodyof knowledge surrounding the MBTI®. In addition, it integrates the work oftop theorists of the 20th and 21st centuries, on psychological developmentand emotional intelligence, as well as recent findings from neuroscience. Itshows how psychological functions are embedded in our physiology andlinked to our emotions. Most importantly, it gives people the wisdom andpower they need to self-actualize by re-patterning their brains. The Theory: Jung’s PsychologicalType TheoryPsychological type is a theory of personality developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung to explain the innate differences in the behaviors, choices and forms of expression in healthy people. Unlike many of his contemporaries, Jung not only investigated psychological disorders or mental illness, but attempted to determine the basis for healthy psychological order in the human psyche. Jung inferred that people operate from different psychological frameworks and orientations, which are identifiable through observation and that we have physiological, inborn preferences for processing our experiences and interacting with the world. Jung opened new ways of thinking about people and the behaviors with which people would respond in normal circumstances. He described behavioral predictability and provided a way to make reasonable assessments about people’s differences in ideas, responses, and behaviors. He theorized that we have four different “functions” in our consciousness, and that the four functions are on two polar scales; two functions for “perceiving” (or gathering information), and two functions for “judging” (or making decisions). Jung also believed that individuals have a preference for using one of the functions on each of the scales, and that it seemed like one of these two functions will be
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 3 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com The Myers-Briggs TypeIndicator is apsychometricquestionnairedesigned to measureinborn, psychologicalpreferences in howpeople gatherinformation & makedecisions, inferredfrom Jung’s typologytheory.favored the most. He also theorized that people used these functions in either an extraverted or outwardly‐directed fashion, or an introverted or inwardly directed fashion. He referred to the directional aspect as “attitudes in consciousness.” Based on this model, Jung defined eight different functional patterns of behavior, or “types” with predictable patterns of behavior. Jung described the behaviors and motivations of these eight different functions in his book, Psychological Types (1921), through characterizations of people who habitually prefer one pattern over another – his “eight types.” Jungs theory of psychological types attempts to categorize people in terms of their primary modes of psychological/mental functioning, assuming that we all have different functions and attitudes of consciousness. The Assessment: Myers-Briggs TypeIndicatorThe MBTI was the first effective tool for sorting the eight Jungian functions into the most to least favorite. It was created by Isabel Briggs‐Myers and her mother, Katherine Briggs in the early 1940s to make Jung’s theory useful for a more mainstream audience. The original focus of the assessment was careers, as Briggs tried to help people select occupations that were best suited to their personality types during and following WWII. She believed this would help them lead healthier, happier lives. Myers and Briggs created the MBTI based on four dichotomous scales, adding two new scales ‐ Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving ‐ to Jung’s original two function scales (judging functions: Thinking and Feeling, and perceiving functions: Intuition and Sensing) to make their psychometric instrument work. As well, they replaced psychological type with personality type to make it palatable to people of that time. The MBTI soon found its place in organizations, because unlike Jung’s theory, it did not discuss emotions or mental dysfunctions, or use other psychological words that would cause it to be rejected.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 4 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com In the MBTI language, there are four dichotomous scales rather than the two that Jung identified. This differed from Jung’s language, which identified the attitude the function operated in, and the mental process of the function. While Jung identified 8 psychological types, the MBTI identifies 16 personality types. Myers and Briggs, the authors of the test, was determined to makeJung’s Psychological Type theory useable in daily life. To do this, theydeparted from Jung in some significant ways. Jung’s Theoryincorporated the notion of development and individuation, however, theMBTI did not. It is solely a psychometric instrument.The body of research and writing that gives credibility to the MBTI isbased on the ongoing contributions of psychologists, consultants,coaches, trainers and facilitators who have integrated it into trainingand development programs, counseling, career counseling, leadership,team and employee development, culture, etc. The success of theapplication of the results of the MBTI is dependent upon their programs.Adapting Jung’s Theory & the MBTI toAdvances in NeuroscienceJung believed we have four mental functions in consciousness, meaning that our brain has four distinct areas in which these functions are located. During Jung’s lifetime, his theory was impossible to prove, as the technological advances that allow us to look at the brain to see how it lights up when the functions are used simply did not exist. However, we now have this information available to us and pioneers like Katherine Benziger, Arlene Taylor and others have endeavored to connect Jung’s functions with brain functions. As the SSPS incorporates the neuroscience of personality and brain development, it allows us to leverage what we have learned through the MBTI. As a result, we can now enhance our ability to understand and help others achieve their potential. Jung did not have access to brain specialization research, as it had not yet taken place during his lifetime. As a result, he compared the four functions as being:
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 5 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com “…somewhat like the four points of the compass; they are just as arbitrary and just as indispensable. Nothing prevents our shifting the cardinal points as many degrees as we like in one direction or the other, or giving them different names….” (C.G. Jung, Psychological Types) The work that has been done by people such as Roger Sperry and Ned Hermann show us that the brain has two hemispheres with two areas of specialization on each hemisphere. This results in four quadrants. Rather than the points on the compass, we have the four quadrants of the brain, each with their own role to play in our personality and in consciousness. While Jung believed they were opposite – and they can appear that way – each specialized function is necessary for us to achieve our potential as human beings. As we now have learned, our brain is neurally wired to use one brain function over the others. The functions are also wired to communicate with each other over time. The functions are a physiological reality, and studies by Dr. Arlene Taylor have supported Jung’s hypothesis that we can experience energy depletion and fatigue when we use our other mental functions for too long. Jung went so far as to say that it could be psychologically detrimental to our well being when our environment does not support us in the use of our dominant function; he called this “falsification of type.” Now that we have embraced the developments in brain specialization and dominance and incorporated them into the SSPS, people are now able to gain more insight into how their brains work and take charge of their own development. Finally, everyone dedicated to using Jung’s Psychological Type theory, the MBTI and other Jungian sorters can integrate the advantages of brain science and neuroplasticity. With the SSPS, personality type becomes something that everyone must know about, not just a fun activity, or something comparable to astrology.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 6 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com Jung’s intention was to help people by recognizing the complexity ofhuman psychology. Through the Striving Styles, we hope to facilitateJung’s Theory of Psychological Type to meet its own potential byilluminating the dynamic nature of the mind and consciousness.Incorporating advances in neuroscience and brain development andlinking back to Jung’s theory of mental functions, the Striving Stylesprovides a complete understanding of the mechanics of the mind andhow the brain is organized for each of the eight psychological types orStriving Styles.The SSPS allows us to go beyond sorting Jung’s functions with anassessment tool as it is a comprehensive assessment and developmentsystem, with a Roadmap for Development that provides a step-by-stepapproach for achieving potential by integrating the four functions of thebrain based on the specific needs of each Striving Style. SSPS: Time for an Evolution!It’s time for us to build on the knowledge base of the Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator and to show people the true mechanics of their minds, so they can direct how it functions and how they feel ‐‐ as Jung intended with his work. If we understand the brain, particularly our own brain, we can direct and influence how it functions and how we feel. The Striving Styles brings Jungs eight psychological types to life, connecting each type to the psychological need that must be met to ensure the well‐being and growth of the individual. Each of the eight Striving Styles has its own unique qualities based on the quadrant of the brain it resides in. These qualities are obvious to others, in the way they behave, communicate and relate. The distinct talents, abilities and behaviors of each of the Striving Styles ensure that they get their predominant need met. The SSPS is based on the assertion that each of us is born with a predominant need and pattern of energy (Striving Style) that determines how we will behave in order to get that need met.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 7 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com With this neuro‐psychological framework, practitioners quickly get to the heart of what is driving client behavior so they can expedite their development and behavioral change. Understanding the function of the part of the brain that each Style originates from, and what its predominant need is, enables us to identify how clients will behave at their most confident and when they feel threatened. It also shows which situations will satisfy the Style’s need and which will thwart it. Unlike the MBTI, the Striving Styles isn’t just about sorting preferences and giving you a four letter code. It is a user‐friendly system, taking Jung’s functions and evolving them into characters that are so simple that even children can identify and use them. “Our ten year old grand-daughter / niece, a Socializer StrivingStyle, knows that if she isn’t connected to friends or spends toomuch time on her own, she becomes manipulative in order to getattention. She can see that when she is only focused on her need toconnect with others, that other areas of her life suffer. She couldnot understand the Jungian language of extraverted feeling orintroverted intuition – in our experience, neither do most people.The most exciting thing about the SSPS is that it is easy to get toknow, easy to understand, and easy to apply.” – Anne & Heather
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 8 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com Each of us has four quadrants in our brain that are meant to work in an integrated fashion. We call it your ‘Striving Style Squad’.Neuroscience has shown that when this integration does not happen, we become rigid and inflexible in thought and action. It also shows that it leads to physical and mental illness, including dementia (Alzheimer’s). The SSPS teaches how to use all four functions of the brain in a step‐by‐step approach to development leading to a healthy brain and self‐actualizing human being. Getting to know each of the Striving Styles goes hand in hand with getting to know your brain. This makes it easy for clients to recognize what quadrant of the brain they are acting from and to be able to shift. They learn what makes them tick, including information on the part of the brain where their Predominant Style is located, and what types of activities it is therefore oriented toward. It helps them understand their relationship style, which includes aspects of their communication style, and their social and emotional orientation. Most importantly, it teaches them about their need satisfiers, which includes the “must have” activities that satisfy their predominant need, how they are likely to behave if they are self‐protective and how they behave if they are self‐actualizing.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 9 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com With the SSPS, we can go below the surface, to get in and talk aboutemotions and defensive behavior. SSPS Practitioner training teachesthose skilled with using the MBTI the mechanics of the mind, how thebrain works and how behavior is a result of an attempt to satisfypsychological needs.It’s exciting to think that those who are working with the development ofpersonality can now increase their awareness of the brain, personalitydevelopment, defenses and emotions through the Striving Styles.The Need for a Neuro-PsychologicalApproachWe now know so much about the brain and emotional maturation. Most working with human development have fallen behind neuroscience and psychology in terms of the approaches being used to help people develop. Jung’s theory of psychological type is still as relevant as ever as it can now be connected to brain lateralization theory and brain physiology. When integrated with an understanding of psychological need and brain development, it gives us the key to expediting development and unlocking human potential. The Striving Styles Personality System is the first, comprehensive, neuro‐psychological framework for learning how a person’s cognitive functions are organized in their brain and which of the functions is hard wired from birth to be used to meet the psychological needs of the self. It shows how behavior is used to get the need of the function met. The SSPS is a way of understanding the more dynamic and interpersonal aspects of an individual’s personality and how their needs and emotions cause shifts in behavior. The Striving Styles is a complete development system that that incorporates Jung’s Psychological Type Theory, Emotional and Social Intelligence, Needs Theory, Mindfulness and the latest advances in brain development and neuroplasticity as it relates to emotional development. It provides people with a structured and systematic approach to developing the quadrants of the brain and the integration of the functions – just as Jung intended.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 10 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com Using recent findings in how the human brain develops during the lifespan, it shows the stages of development of our three brains based on Roger Sperry’s Triune Brain Theory (instinctual, emotional and rational) and how failures in childhood nurturing and environmental factors can lead to maladaptive patterns of behavior in adulthood. It states that these maladaptive patterns of behavior are emotionally driven and get in the way of brain development and achieving one’s potential. It promotes the premise that automatic maladaptive patterns of behavior that get the predominant need met and ensure psychological survival will get in the way of development. It states that these maladaptive behavioral patterns can be changed and new neural pathways in the brain can be laid as a result of choosing different behaviors and having different experiences. In other words, by understanding the psychological need that must be met, individuals can consciously seek to meet their predominant need in their work, relationships and leisure activities. This increases self‐awareness and self‐mastery, putting people in the “driver’s seat” in their lives and helping them actively develop their true potential, rather than simply surviving. Not Just an Assessment‐ A Complete System for Development The SSPS is a three‐part developmental system that includes a comprehensive framework for development. It consists of the following components: An assessment for identifying how the brain is organized based on a four quadrant model; the predominant need; frequency of use of each of the functions; the equivalent Jungian cognitive functions. A Developmental Framework that focuses on strategies centered on brain development and emotional maturation, and; A Roadmap for Development that identifies the specific steps to take to change behavior and re‐pattern the brain.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 11 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com We know that assessment is only the first step. The SSPS provides individuals with a step‐by‐step guide for developing their brain, their personality and their potential. Development of the personality and changing behavior is possible but it’s not as easy as swallowing a pill or having an “A‐ha” moment. Our brains are capable of changing from emotionally‐driven automatic behaviors, to creating new patterns of behavior and new pathways in the brain. Rather than just a list of tips and things to do, the SSPS Developmental Framework focuses on brain development and emotional maturation. Building on the work of pioneers in emotional and social intelligence such as Daniel Goleman and Daniel Siegel, the Developmental Framework teaches individuals how they grow and mature emotionally. It includes five essential building blocks needed for people to become who they are meant to be, based on their own innate brain organization. Each of the building blocks helps them to: work through barriers to growth; mature their emotions, and change reactive habits of mind. The Framework provides individuals and practitioners alike with all the tools needed for emotional and relational development. The SSPS’ comprehensive Roadmap for Development lets individuals chart a course for their own development by helping them first to understand how their brain is organized and what part of their brain they need to develop. It also shows how unmet needs cause shifts in behavior that get in the way of achieving a person’s goals and, most importantly, what they can do about it. As a complete system for development, the SSPS uniquely offers practitioners a clear path for facilitating client development based on brain organization. It allows practitioners to generate a roadmap for their clients growth based on understanding the more dynamic aspects of their brain, emotions, behavior, and personality. It provides them with the activities and experiences necessary in order for their client to repattern their brain for sustained behavioral change.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 12 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com The Striving Styles Personality System was developed by Toronto-basedclinical psychotherapist, corporate therapist and author, AnneDranitsaris, PhD, and her business partner, Heather Dranitsaris-Hilliard, a sought-after speaker and expert in organizationaldevelopment and behavioral change.Like Myers and Briggs, Anne and Heather are also a mother anddaughter team who have more than 50 years of combined experiencehelping clients to develop to their full potential and working with leadersin organizations to alleviate dysfunctions and bring about behavioralchange.They bring a unique perspective to the nature vs. nurture debate. Atbirth, Heather was given up for adoption by Anne. They reunited 27years later to find they were both working to help people to achieve theirpotential – just in different forums. They started their first businessthree years later and have been working together ever since.Creators of the SSPSHaving spent many years using the MBTI in our work with individuals as well as organizations, we knew first hand its limitations. We started using other assessments in combination with the MBTI as part of our development programs aimed at creating significant behavioral change. We found ourselves building customized reports for clients to help them to really understand the drivers of their behavior and the self‐protective strategies being used as a result of their needs and emotions. For many, this was cost prohibitive, leaving them without the tools they needed to break patterns of behavior that were getting in the way. In 2007, our belief in the need for something that would help people to really understand why they behave the way they do led us to create an assessment and development system of our own with the same type of substantial reports we had been customizing for our clients. We had conducted an exhaustive search and could not find an assessment or approach that was inclusive of a developmental framework or that would truly shed light on what was behind
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 13 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com the behavior which was seemingly counter to what was in a persons best interests. We wanted something that would be useful for our clients in a range of applications, as well as for ourselves, in our own lives, as well as for our children. We wanted a system that considered the full human experience — emotions, behavior and personality – and showed people how to develop.Using the most up‐to‐date research on how different parts of the brain function and the role of emotions in learning and development, we combined this information with Psychological Type, Needs and Brain Dominance theories, and Mindfulness – amongst others ‐ to create the Striving Styles Personality System, or SSPS. After using the system successfully in our consulting business and personal lives, we decided to bring the Striving Styles to a wider human development practitioner market as well as to the general public. The Striving Styles brings Jungs eight psychological types to life, connecting each Style to the psychological need that must be met. With this neuro‐psychological framework, you quickly get to the heart of what is driving behavior so you can expedite development. The Striving Styles Personality System provides individuals and practitioners alike with a way to easily understand and leverage brain functioning. It provides people with the specific tools to re‐cast their motivations and re‐pattern their brains, and to consciously influence how they behave in order to live happy, successful and fulfilled lives. “We are excited to bring the SSPS to the market and to continue to use Jung’spsychological types, as well as enhance the use of the MBTI. There are so many outthere who could benefit personally and professionally. It is our deepest hope that theStriving Styles Personality System will fill the void, helping people to stop adaptingand begin to pursue their own path to becoming who they are meant to be.”- Anne & Heather -Learn more about the Striving Styles and how to put this powerful neuro-psychological framework for development and achieving potential to work foryou or your clients. Build on your knowledge of personality type, and enhanceyour ability to develop others by becoming a Striving Styles QualifiedPractitioner. Leverage our consulting expertise for your organization.
The SSPS®: An Evolution of Jung’s Psychological Type and the MBTI©2013 Anne Dranitsaris, PhD. & Heather Dranitsaris‐Hilliard Page 14 of 14 Striving Styles® Personality System | www.StrivingStyles.com MBTI®, Myers‐Briggs, Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator and the MBTI® logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MBTI Trust, Inc., in the United States and other countries, and are used under license. Striving Styles®, SSPS, Who Are You Meant to Be? and the SSPS logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sage, Kahuna Enterprises Inc. in Canada, the United States and other countries.