Stretching and Strengthening

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Information about Stretching and Strengthening
Education

Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Hillary

Source: authorstream.com

VT Run-Walk Clinic Stretching and Strengthening Jamie Meyer M.S., C.S.C.S. Virginia Tech Strength and Conditioning Coordinator for Olympic Sports :  VT Run-Walk Clinic Stretching and Strengthening Jamie Meyer M.S., C.S.C.S. Virginia Tech Strength and Conditioning Coordinator for Olympic Sports Stretching Precautions:  Stretching Precautions Please consult with a doctor before starting a strengthening and flexibility routine if A bone blocks motion You recently fractured a bone Suspect or know of inflammation or infectious process in or around a joint You have osteoporosis You experience sharp, acute pain with joint movement or muscle elongation You’ve had a recent sprain or strain Your joint lacks stability You suffer from certain vascular or skin diseases You experience a loss of function or decrease in range of motion When should I stretch?:  When should I stretch? Before a workout Stretching before a workout improves performance by increasing the available range of motion and improving functional abilities. Stretching decreases the likelihood of injuries, particularly large muscle strains, by increasing the elasticity of muscles and tendons. When should I stretch? :  When should I stretch? Following a workout or race Post workout stretching facilitates range of motion improvements because of increased muscle temperature. Stretching should be done 5 to 10 minutes after a workout The increased body temperature increases the elastic properties of collagen within the muscles and tendons, which allows greater stretch magnitude. Some studies have shown that post workout stretching may decrease muscle soreness. How long should I stretch?:  How long should I stretch? Optimal stretching duration is 30-45 seconds 2-3 times per large muscle group For practical prescription each stretch should be held for a minimum of 10 seconds to 30 seconds 6 Tips for Effective Stretching:  6 Tips for Effective Stretching Prior to stretching perform a 3-5 minute warm-up Before you initiate a stretch inhale and as you move through your range of motion exhale Move to the point in the range of motion where you experience a sensation of mild discomfort Stretches should be held 10-30 seconds Maintain a neutral back positioning through the entire range of motion Unilateral stretches should be repeated on each side The Importance of Stretching Your Hip and Thigh:  The Importance of Stretching Your Hip and Thigh Tightness in the back of the thigh, or hamstring muscle, may limit how far you can swing your leg forward during your stride Tightness in the front of the thigh (quadriceps muscle) or front of the hip muscles (illiacus/psoas) could limit the backward striding motion Stretches for Your Hip and Thigh:  Stretches for Your Hip and Thigh Standing Hip Stretch Place your left foot on top of a bench or other stable resting place. Bring your chest to left knee. Stretch should be felt in the front portion of the right hip. If you do not feel this stretch, position your right foot further away from the bench. Repeat on other leg. Stretches for Your Hip and Thigh:  Stretches for Your Hip and Thigh Standing Hamstring Stretch Stand with the leg to be stretched elevated on a sturdy bench of comfortable height, knee straight. Opposite foot should point straight ahead. Slowly bend forward from hips, keeping your back straight unitil felt behind the knee of the leg on the table Stretches for Your Hip and Thigh:  Stretches for Your Hip and Thigh Quadriceps Stretch Stand close to a wall or chair for support with the leg to be stretched behind you. Hold the foot of the leg to be stretched with your hand, gently pulling the heel toward the buttock until a stretch is felt in the front of the thigh. Keep back in an a neutral position and point knee straight down to ground The Importance of Stretching Your Calf:  The Importance of Stretching Your Calf Calf flexibility plays an important role in maintaining proper walking and running form. Calf tightness and loss of ankle mobility may contribute to problems such as shin splints, overpronation (flat feet), plantar fascitis (heel pain) hip or knee pain Stretches for Your Calves:  Stretches for Your Calves Standing Calf Stretch Stand in front of a wall with the leg to be stretched straight behind you. Have your rear foot facing straight ahead, keep arch in foot, keep knee cap aligned with the second toe. Slowly move your hips forward, keeping back in neutral position working through your range of motion until a stretch is felt in back of calf Remember that the stretch should be felt in your extended leg Make sure you are actively pushing your heel into the ground Advanced Stretches:  Advanced Stretches Virtually all stretches present some risk The possibility of an injury depends on numerous variables, including an athlete’s state of training, age, previous injuries, structural abnormalities, fatigue, and technique. The following exercises are advanced, meaning they may be too advanced or dangerous for inactive and moderately active individuals and even for some serious or elite athletes as well. These exercises should be performed only if they are considered essential to your activity Advanced Stretches:  Advanced Stretches Traditional Hurdler’s Stretch Strains the medial ligament of the knee May cause knee instability Twists and compresses the knee-cap, which can cause the kneecap to side-slip Straight-Leg Stand and Toe Touch Stresses the medial aspect of the knees Forces the knee to hyperextend Places greater pressure on the lumbar spine Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner Focus on the prime movers Quadriceps Hamstrings Calves Prevent Muscle Imbalances If the vastus laterals (a part of the quadriceps muscle) is overly developed relative to the vastus medials (the part of the quadricep that is colse to the knee a knee injury injury know as chrondromalacia patella is likely Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner Use Multi-joint exercises whenever possible Biceps curl is a single joint excerise (bodybuilders) Squats are an example of a multi-joint exercise Three joints Hip, Knee, and Ankle Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner Mimic the positions and movements of the sport Position your hands and feet so that they are in similar position to walking or running Add resistance to a segment of your stride to improve on weaknesses Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner CORE CORE CORE A strong core helps keep the pelvis in a neutral position late in a workout or race If the abdominals fatigue the front of the pelvis sags and the butt protrudes, thus shortening the stride Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner Keep the number of exercises low In order to improve on specific movements and muscles try to focus on sets rather than the number of exercises performed Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner PERIODIZE YOUR TRAINING Anatomical Adaptation “Prep Period” Prepare muscles and tendons for greater loads More exercises are done here than in any other phase Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner:  Guidelines of Strength Training for the Walker/Runner Maximum Strength Main purpose is to force generation Resistance increases as repetitions decrease Start with a conservative load and gradually increase Power Endurance Develop the ability to quickly recruit fibers and sustain their high power output Explosive movements Strength Maintanence Goal is to maintain the strength gained from the previous phase If strength training is not performed a gradual loss of strength will occur Strength Training Periodization Breakdown:  Strength Training Periodization Breakdown Anatomical Adaptation Phase Duration 4 Weeks Sessions per weeks 2-3 Load (%1RM) 40-60 Sets 3-5 Reps 15-25 Speed of lift average Focus on skill development of lifting techniques Recovery 30-90 sec Maximum Strength Phase Duration 4 Weeks Sessions per weeks 2-3 Load (%1RM) 85-95 Reps 3-8 Sets 3-6 Speed of lift average Focus on good form, quality movements Recovery 2-4 Min Slide23:  Power Endurance Phase Duration 4 Weeks Sessions per weeks 2 Load (%1RM) 50-65 Sets 2-3 Reps 8-15 Speed of lift FAST Recovery 3-5 MIN Muscular Endurance Phase Duration 4-6 Weeks Sessions per weeks 2 Load (%1RM) 30-50 Sets 1-3 Reps 20+ Speed of lift FAST Recovery 1-2 MIN Strength Training Periodization Breakdown

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