Published on January 28, 2014
Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism
Strategy 1 • Give credit where credit is due when directly quoting. When quoting a sentence, put the person's words in quotation marks and include an APA formatted in-text citation. • When quoting phrases longer than 40 words, put the quote in a block quote. Cite your source.
Short quote • At minimum, APA formatting requires the writer to note the author of the direct quote, year the source was published, and the page or paragraph on which the information was found. • Katherine Smith (2010) of the US Department of Education acknowledged, “It is noted that children who attend pre-kindergarten are more prepared than those students who attend preschool only” (p. 4).
Long quote—Use block formatting The US Department of Transportation (2010) found the following: FMCSA research shows that drivers who send and receive text messages take their eyes off the road for an average of 4.6 seconds out of every 6 seconds while texting. At 55 miles per hour, this means that the driver is traveling the length of a football field, including the end zones, without looking at the road. Drivers who text while driving are more than 20 times more likely to get in an accident than nondistracted drivers. (para. 5)
Citing Block Quotes • Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a • • • • free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Strategy 2 • Give credit where credit is due when paraphrasing. • Always use your own words when using someone’s ideas, information, or analysis. Remember to use all original language when paraphrasing a source. You need to use your own style and your own words when paraphrasing! Both stealing words and/or style is plagiarism.
How Do We Do Paraphrase? o Read the passage carefully o Decide the main ideas of the passage o Highlight important words or phrases o Write the main points in your own words
How do I cite paraphrased information in APA formatting? • Summary / Paraphrase If you summarize or paraphrase another person's work, you must include a citation in your paper and an entry in your reference list. A proper citation requires the author’s last name and the year the source was published. Example #1: • According to Gardner (2004), multiple intelligences need to be considered in all classrooms. Example #2: • Multiple intelligences need to be considered in all classrooms (Gardner, 2004).
Paraphrasing Two Authors • Two Authors When there are two authors, always include both authors' last names when making your in-text citation. Example #1 (with signal phrase) • Miller and Crooks (2005) emphasized the difference in breeds by comparing genetic coding at the molecular level. Example #2 (without signal phrase) • Experts emphasized the difference in breeds by comparing genes a the molecular level (Miller & Crooks, 2005).
IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT PARAPHRASING: 1. Use only important information. 2. Paraphrasing is better than quoting too much. 3. We must use our own voice and words.
Strategy 3 • Add your own analysis or thoughts after you have inserted directly quoted words or paraphrased knowledge. This allows you to put your own spin on the research you have used. It also allows you to illustrate the explicit connection between the research you chose and your essay’s intent or thesis statement. I call this giving the author the opportunity to add his or her $.02 on the matter.
Adding Your Own $.02 • Think of a hamburger when inserting expert knowledge into a paragraph. • Meat = Expert knowledge • Ketchup, mustard, pickles, onions, mayo, lettuce = your own $.02.
Strategy 4 • Use a plagiarism checker to see if you plagiarized. Keep your similarity index below 15%. • The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Style Handbook (2006) states, “In research papers, you should quote from a source to show that an authority supports your point…and to present a particularly well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost or changed if paraphrased or summarized” (para. 3).
Strategy 5 • Do not recycle work! In other words, do not double- dip! Re-used work will likely be flagged by the plagiarism checker, marking your work as suspect. • You can reference former papers you wrote or have published, but you cannot present your previously written work as new. To do so, is academically dishonest.
Strategy 6 • Do not buy or copy a paper from the Internet. This will easily be flagged by a plagiarism checker or by inserting the suspect text into Google.
Strategy 7 • Note the penalties associated with plagiarism when they are posted in class. Forewarned is forearmed!
Strategy 8 • Plan out your time. Work out a schedule ahead of time and establish a timeline so that you are not rushed. • This avoids the temptation to plagiarize. • This avoids accidental plagiarism.
Strategy 9 • Choose a topic that means something to you personally so that you are more invested in the topic.
Strategy 10 When in doubt, cite it out!
References Class schedule. (2014). [Media]. Retrieved from http://www.sdmathcircle.org/index.php?page=classschedule Think outside the book. (n. d.). [Media]. Retrieved from http://djmcknight.wordpress.com/2012/07/19/thinking-outside-the-book/ Two cents. (2008). [Media]. Retrieved from http://archive.mises.org/8037/two-cents-on-the-penny-thatare-now-worth-almost-four/ Hamburger. (2008). [Media]. Retrieved from http://www.danselden.com/2012/08/02/hamburgerheaven/ No recycling. (2008). [Media]. Retrieved from http://pordentrodomeioambiente.blogspot.com/ One sentence summaries. (n. d.). [Media]. Retrieved from http://1sent.tumblr.com/ Online purchase. (2013). [Media]. Retrieved from http://www.westmont.edu/_offices/provost/Plagiarism/infostud.pdf Originality checker. (n. d.). [Media]. Retrieved from http://www.technorhetoric.net/8.2/reviews/balester/index.htm Passion. (n. d.). [Media]. Retrieved from http://www.ekaterinawalter.com/2013/05/think-like-zuckphilosophy-of-passion-purpose-and-leadership/ Stack of books. (n. d.) [Media]. Retrieved from http://www4.uwsp.edu/education/lwilson/newstuff/recommendedbooks.htm University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center. (2006). Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources. Retrieved on June 24, 2007, from http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/QPA_PorQ.html Warning. (2010). [Media]. Retrieved from http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/File:Warning_icon.svg
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Welcome to Plagiarism.org, your source of information on plagiarism and best practices for ensuring originality in written work.
It's not enough to know why plagiarism is taken so seriously in the academic world or to know how to recognize it. You also need to know how to avoid it.