Str 1 02 summer 04

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Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Carlotto

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Slide1:  1.02 Identify historical and technological developments in structural systems Slide2:  Structures should be analyzed utilizing the following three areas: The influence of their technology on history. An understanding of the attributes of their design. The processes, procedures, and design constraints of the time. Slide3:  Prehistoric- Stonehenge The megalithic ruin known as Stonehenge stands on the open downland of Salisbury Plain two miles (three kilometres) west of the town of Amesbury, Wiltshire, in Southern England The Sarsen Circle: 108 feet (33 metres) in diameter originally comprised of 30 neatly trimmed upright sandstone blocks of which only 17 are now standing. The stones are evenly spaced approximately 1.0 to 1.4 metres apart, and stand on average 13 feet (4 metres) above the ground. They are about 6.5 feet (2 metres) wide and 3 feet (1 metre) thick and taper towards the top. They originally supported sarsen lintels forming a continuous circle around the top. Each lintel block has been shaped to the curve of the circle. The average length of the rectangular lintels is 3.2 metres (10' 6"). The lintels were fitted end-to end using tongue-and-groove joints, and fitted on top of the standing sarsen with mortice and tenon joints. The Sarsen Circle with its lintels is perhaps the most remarkable feature of Stonehenge in terms of design, precision stonework, and engineering. Stonehenge is the only stone circle in the world with horizontal lintels across the top of the stones. Bluestones which are the smaller stones that you can see in the pictures came from the Prescelli Mountains in Pembroke, South Wales 245 miles (380kms), dragged down to the sea, floated on huge rafts, brought up the River Avon, finally overland to where they are today. Each stone weighs about five tons. It required unbelievable dedication from ancient man to bring these stones all the way from South Wales. Slide4:  What You Don’t See… Solution: The Project provides for a visitor centre at Countess East, 3km (2 miles) to the east of Stonehenge. All car and coach parking will be at the visitor centre, and a visitor transit system will take visitors to within walking distance of the Stones; provision will be made for those visitors who are unable to undertake the walk. Slide5:  Stonehenge: a visual history http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/default.asp?wci=MainFrame&URL1=http%3A//www.english-heritage.org.uk/default.asp%3FWCI%3DNode%26WCE%3D8391 Slide6:  Sumeria- ziggurat, cities, irrigation systems Sumeria- ziggurat, cities, irrigation systems All of the Sumerian cities were built beside rivers, either on the Tigris or Euphrates or on one of their tributaries. The city rose, inside its brown brick walls, amid well-watered gardens and pastures won from the swamps. In all directions, the high levees of the irrigation canals led to grain and vegetable fields. The most elaborate of the Sumerian buildings was the temple or ziggurat. Normally a huge platform or terrace was first constructed, upon which the temple could be built; but in later times, as the terraces grew to be like artificial mountains, they were built in huge steps or levels mounted by an elaborate stairway clearly symbolizing the ascent toward heaven. These early cities, which existed by 3500 BC, were called temple towns because they were built around the temple of the local god. The temples were eventually built up on towers called ziggurats (holy mountains), which had ramps or staircases winding up around the exterior. Public buildings and marketplaces were built around these shrines. Slide7:  Egypt- pyramids, cliff tombs. temples, cities. Egypt- pyramids, cliff tombs. temples, cities. It is the one and only Wonder which does not require a description by early historians and poets. It is the one and only Wonder that does not need speculations concerning its appearance, size, and shape. It is the oldest, yet it is the only surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders. It is the Great Pyramid of Giza. A major problem facing the builders of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, was that of getting the Large stone blocks to the height they required. The use of ramps is the only one proven to have been used. The ramps were built on inclined planes of mud brick and rubble. They then dragged the blocks on sledges to the needed height. As the pyramid grew taller, the ramp had to be extended in length, and its base was widened, else it would collapse. It is likely that for the construction of each pyramid, several ramps were probably used Slide8:  Greece- Parthenon, Acropolis, amphitheaters, cities Greece- Parthenon, Acropolis, amphitheaters, cities The Parthenon is a Doric peripteral temple, which means that it consists of a rectangular floor plan with a series of low steps on every side, and a colonnade (8 x 17) of Doric columns extending around the periphery of the entire structure. The three main types of columns used in Greek temples and other public buildings are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The truest and most basic difference among the orders has to do with proportions (Doric columns, for example, being thicker and shorter, Ionic columns taller and slimmer). As a shortcut, the orders may be distinguished most easily by their capitals (the tops of the columns) Slide9:  Rome- aqueducts, viaducts, baths, Coliseums, roads Rome- aqueducts, viaducts, baths, Colosseum, roads The Amphitheater is 465 feet long, 386 feet wide and 118 feet high. The foundation of cement measures 23 feet thick. The building was built on the site of an artificial lake which had to be drained. Some of those drains are still in use today. (If those drains were closed the amphitheater could be flooded for mock sea battles) The exterior was made up of three tiers of arches. The first set of arches were Doric, the second Ionic, and the third were Corinthian. The amphitheater was equipped with 240 masts. On the masts a large canvas would be attached which could be extended to protect the audience from the elements. Slide10:  China- Buddhist temples, gardens, homes, Great Wall China- Buddhist temples, gardens, homes, Great Wall The Great Wall is reputed as one of the seven construction wonders in the world not only for its long history, but its massive construction size, and its unique architectural style as well. The construction of the Great Wall began between the 7th and 8th centuries B.C. when the warring states built defensive walls to ward off enemies from the north. It was only a regional project then. Until the Qin Dynasty, the separate walls were joint together and consequently it stretched from east to west for about 5000 thousand kilometers and served to keep nomadic tribes out. The Wall was further extended and strengthened in the succeeding dynasties. Especially during the Ming dynasty when the northern nomadic ethnic groups became very powerful, the Ming rulers had the Wall renovated 18 times. As a result, not the remains from the Qin dynasty were restored, but some 1000 kilometers were constructed to a full length of 6,700 kilometers Slide11:  Japan- pagodas, temples, gardens, homes Japan- pagodas, temples, gardens, homes Because of their wood construction, Japan's pagodas have always been extremely vulnerable to fire. At the same time, these tall, slender towers, built of interlocking posts and beams, are so resistant to earthquakes and typhoons that Japan's long architectural history records only a very few instances of their collapsing. Some 1,300 years after it was built, the five-story pagoda of Horyuji in Nara shows not the slightest sign of instability. In the article that follows, architect Ueda Atsushi describes the ingenious techniques by which the Japanese of earlier times built their pagodas to withstand even the strongest winds and earthquakes. Slide12:  Of course, high towers have been built in the West ever since the Middle Ages. In all cases, however, the material is masonry--stones or bricks joined to form a single mass of wall capable of withstanding this or that impact from without. In the case of Japan's wooden pagodas, however, each story is structurally independent. Each story of the pagoda is basically a square box with no bottom, built around twelve outer pillars, or gawabashira. The pagoda as a whole is, in essence, five stacked boxes. Since each story is smaller than the one beneath it, the placement of the gawabashira moves inward as one proceeds up the pagoda, meaning that horizontal beams are needed to support the gawabashira of each story above the first. In fact, these pillars rest on horizontal bases, which in turn are supported by taruki--slanting beams that run from the inside of the structure diagonally downward to the outside, where they support the eaves. The weight of the upper story, pushing down on the inner ends of the taruki, would cause the outer ends to rise if there were no counterweight. The heavy tiled roof of the eaves performs precisely this function. In short, the taruki functions as a lever arm, while the top of the gawabashira serves as the fulcrum. Slide13:  The story above bears down on the inner end of the lever, and the overhanging roof balances this load at the outer end or, to put it another way, the heavy eaves are in effect supported by the story above. When one reaches the uppermost level, of course, there is no story above to counterbalance the overhang. Here, however, the tall copper or iron spire, or finial, performs that function. The finial of the Horyuji pagoda, we are told, weighs a full three tons. Ueda explains in detail how this lever construction ensures that, during typhoons and earthquakes, pagodas swing and sway but almost never collapse. Built not to resist the forces of nature head-on but to accept and absorb their impact, pagodas epitomize the ingenuity of traditional Japanese wood architecture. This solution to the problem of structural stability could be said to manifest the Japanese approach to nature--not only to observe it carefully but also to learn from it and coexist harmoniously with it. Slide14:  Islam- Hagia Shopia, mosques, minarets Islam- Hagia Shopia, mosques, minarets Architecturally the grand basilica represented a major revolution in church construction in that it featured a huge dome which necessitated the implementation of new ideas in order to support the weight of this dome, a feat which had not been attempted before. In the days when there was no steel used in construction, large roofs and domes had to be supported by massive pillars and walls. The dome of Hagia Sophia was supported by four piers (the solid supports from which the arches spring), each measuring about 118 square yards at the base. Four arches support the circular base from which rises the dome which is pierced by forty single-arched windows which admit light to the interior. The church itself measures 260 x 270 feet; the dome rises 210 feet above the floor and has a diameter of 110 feet. The nave is 135 feet wide, more than twice the width of the aisles which measure 62 feet. Because Constantinople lies in an earthquake-prone region, the massive structure of the Great Church was deemed sufficient to meet the threat. That expectation however was disappointed when in later years earthquakes destroyed parts of the church and dome, requiring massive repairs including the construction of large buttresses to support the walls which in turn held up the dome. Slide15:  India- Taj mahal, rock cut temples India- Taj mahal, rock cut temples The Taj Mahal, India’s most famous architectural wonder, in a land where magnificent temples and edificies abound,reminds visitors about the rich civilization of a country that is slowly but surely lifting itself into an industrialized society. Taj Mahal means "Crown Palace" and is in fact the most well preserved and architecturally beautiful tomb in the world. It is a celebration of woman built in marble and that’s the way to appreciate it. Construction began in 1631 and was completed in 22 years. Twenty thousand people were deployed to work on it. The material was brought in from all over India and central Asia and it took a fleet of 1000 elephants to transport it to the site. The Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a huge white marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flanked by four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel-inlaid cenotaph of the queen. The rectangular base of Taj is in itself symbolic of the different sides from which to view a beautiful woman. The main gate is like a veil to a woman’s face which should be lifted delicately, gently and without haste on the wedding night. The dome is made of white marble, but the tomb is set against the plain across the river and it is this background that works its magic of colours that, through their reflection, change the view of the Taj. The colours change at different hours of the day and during different seasons. Like a jewel, the Taj sparkles in moonlight when the semi-precious stones inlaid into the white marble on the main mausoleum catch the glow of the moon. The Taj is pinkish in the morning, milky white in the evening and golden when the moon shines. These changes, they say, depict the different moods of woman. Slide16:  Pre- Columbian- Aztec, Maya, Inca Pre-Columbian- Aztec, Maya, Inca Their cities and fortresses were mostly built on highlands and on the steep slopes of the Andes Mountains. The architecture of the Inca cities still amazes and puzzles most scientists. Stone steps lead up to the top of the cities, which consist of stone houses and religious buildings. The blocks of stones weigh several tons and they are fit together so tightly that not even a razor blade can fit through them. The central city was mainly used for government purposes, while the citizens occupied surrounding areas. Their homes were made from the same stone material and had grass rooftops. Since population was increasing and the organization of the Inca became stronger, the need for protection became necessary. They built enormous fortresses on top of steep mountains that enabled them to see their enemies and defend themselves. One of the most famous Inca fortresses is Sacasahuman (pictured above), located in Cuzco, the Inca Empire capital. Even though the Inca never had access to the wheel, they built a sophisticated road system to connect the villages. The roads were paved with flat stones and barriers to protect the messengers. Slide17:  Medieval Europe- castles, cathedrals, hill towns, wall towns Durham cathedral building - a large part of which dates back some 900 years - is widely regarded as one of the most complete and perfect examples of Romanesque architecture still in ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE - A style of architecture that flourished in Western Europe between 1050 and 1200. This style derived its name from the fact that it drew much of its influence from Roman architecture. In England, it is also called the Norman style. Some of the characteristic features of this school of architecture are: Rounded arches Squat, massive pillars Small windows Simple, carved decoration. Slide18:  Renaissance Europe- St. Peter’s cathedral, Leaning tower of Pisa Renaissance Europe- St. Peter’s cathedral, Leaning tower of Pisa TOWER BASICS Official Name: TORRE PENDENTE DI PISA Function: Bell Tower (Campanile) Original Architect: Bonanno Pisano Architect who realized that the Leaning Tower could not be straightened: Tomasso di Andrea da Pontedera (1275) Years Built: 1173-1350 First Construction Stop: 1178 (War with Firenze) Year in which lean became obvious: 1178 (Third Story) Height at which lean became obvious: 10.6 meters (35 ft.) Level at which Tower Straightens to North: 5 (About 110 meters) Second Construction Stop: 1185 (War with Firenze) Later Construction Stop: 1284 (War with Genoa, Major Sea Battle Defeat) Height: 55.863 meters (185 feet). 8 stories. Weight: 14,700 metric tons Thickness of Walls at the Base: 8 feet Direction of Lean: 1173-1250 North, 1272-1997 South 7th Floor Completed: 1319 Bell Tower Completed: 1350 First Bells added: 1198 (Third Floor) Total Number of Bells: 7, tuned to musicalSystems and Society Largest Bell: Three and a half tons, cast in 1655. Year cement injected into base, (blamed for lean acceleration): 1934 Steps to Bell Tower: 294 Date Closed to Public: 7 January 1990 Date Re-opened to Public: 15 December 2001 Weight of Lead added on North side: 600 tons (1995) Amount of tilt recorded overnight in September 1995: 2.5 mm (0.07") Weight of Lead added after overnight tilt in September 1995: 230 tons Rate of Fall in 1990: 1.2 mm (1/20") every year ("Un millimetre per anno") Source: The Guardian (London) August 19 1997 Amount of tilt correction from 1990 - 1999: 25 mm (about 1.0") Amount of tilt correction from 1999-2001: 43.8 cm (about 17.25") Date that Tower was last at current tilt: 1700 Slide19:  Modern Europe- Bauhaus style, Eiffel Tower, Euro tunnel, Millenium dome Modern Europe- Bauhaus style, Eiffel Tower, Euro tunnel, Millenium dome The Millennium Dome is the largest structure of its type in the World. 100,000 square metres of domed fabric held up by forty-three miles of high-strength cabling, the building measures over one kilometre in circumference and covers over 80,000 square metres. It is so big, it would completely cover the Great Pyramid of Giza. The cover of the Dome is made of PTFE-coated glass fiber, which has an estimated minimum lifetime of 25 years. The structure, designed by the Richard Rogers Partnership is 320m in diameter and 50 meters high at its center. It is twice the size of the Wembley stadion and covers 20 acres of ground floor space. The structure is expected to last until 2018. After that year, developers are allowed to demolish the dome and redevelop the site. Slide20:  Early U.S.- native American dwellings, pioneer homes, Colonial architecture Early U.S.- Native American dwellings, pioneer homes, Colonial architecture Tepees (or tipis): The name tepee is derived from a Dakota word meaning a place where one lives. Developed by Indians of the northern forests, the tepee was crafted from a pole frame then covered with birchbark, caribou hides or other materials. The basic structure was then adapted by nomadic Plains tribes, who strengthened the frame against strong winds and sewed buffalo hides together for the covering. Since the Plains Indians were constantly on the move, their homes had to be readily transportable. The supporting poles were lashed to the sides of a horse and the other pieces dragged along the ground forming a kind of triangle. The buffalo hide covering as well as most of the family's other belongings were then carried off to the new location by the horse. This transport system was called a travois. Slide21:  Contemporary U.S.- Empire State Building, Astrodome, St. Louis Arch, Capital building The stainless-steel-faced St. Louis Arch spans 630 ft. between the outer faces of its triangular legs at ground level, and its top soars 630 ft. into the sky. It takes the shape of an inverted catenary curve, a shape such as this would be formed by a heavy chain hanging freely between two supports. 87 Technology Competencies 1.00 Systems and Society Each leg is an equilateral triangle with sides 54 ft. long at ground level, tapering to 17 ft. at the top. The legs have double walls of steel 3 ft. apart at ground level and 7-3/4 in. apart above the 400-foot level. Up to the 300-foot mark the space between the walls is filled with reinforced concrete. Beyond that point steel stiffeners are us The double-walled, triangular sections were placed one on top of another and then welded inside and out to build the legs of the Arch. Sections ranged in height from 12 ft. at the base to 8 ft. for the two keystone sections. The complex engineering design and construction is completely hidden from view. All that can be seen is its sparkling stainless steel outside skin and inner skin of carbon steel, which combine to carry the gravity and wind loads to the ground. The Arch has no real structural skeleton. Its inner and outer steel skins, joined to form a composite structure, give it its strength and permanence. Slide22:  Internet THE WONDERFUL STRUCTURES OF THE WORLD http://pweb.jps.net/~taile/ EARTH MYSTERIES-STONEHENGE http://witcombe.sbc.edu/earthmysteries/EMStonehenge.html NATIVE AMERICAN DWELLINGS http://www.thewildwest.org/native_american/society/Dwellings.html THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARCH http://www.nps.gov/jeff/arch-const.htm THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT SUMERIA http://ragz-international.com/sumeria.htm STRUCTURES RESOURCES ON THE WEB http://www.fi.edu/structures/list.html GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA. http://ce.eng.usf.edu/pharos/wonders/pyramid.html Videos This Old Pyramid http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/listseason/19.html#1915 Stonehenge http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stonehenge/ Fall of the Leaning Tower http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pisa/ Frozen in Heaven http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/peru/

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