Published on March 9, 2014
India-2013-14 Our thinking, expectations
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY • India comprises 28 States and seven Union Territories. They are: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. • Union Territories are : Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. 2
An important development after independence was that the Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution provided that "the State shall endeavour to provide for free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years". Education has since been an integral part of the Five Year Plans. The goal of economic growth in the Plans had a powerful impact on educational development. Stress on education has increased because of the demands of the growing economy in the various fields.
From independence period, the percentage of literacy rose to 24.0 in 1961. The number of primary schools increased from 1,72,661 in 1946-47 to 3,87,100 in 1964-65. The middle schools increased from 12,843 in 194647 to 69,474 in 1964-65. The total enrolment in classes I to V increased by about 50.4 lakhs between 1946-47 and 1950-51.
It increased by 60.2 lakhs in the First Plan, by 98.2 lakhs in the Second Plan and by 133 lakhs during first four years of Third Plan. The enrolment at the middle stage increased by 10.8 lakhs (1946-47) and, by 11.7 lakhs (1950-51) in First Plan, by 24.2 lakhs in Second Plan, and by 22.07 lakhs in the first four years of Third Plan.
Judged, however, in the context of India's target of providing free and compulsory education for all children in the age group 6-14 years, these figures show that the country has still a long way to go. The expansion at the secondary stage has been even greater than that at the elementary stage. The total number of secondary schools increased from 6,682 in 1949-50 to 24,967 in 1964-65. The enrolment at this stage increased from 10.83 lakhs in 1949-50 to 44.87 lakhs in 1964-65.
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