Published on February 24, 2008
Building Effective Classroom Cultures: A Reviewof Evidenced Based Behavioral Practices for Assessing and Treating Challenging Behaviors: Building Effective Classroom Cultures: A Review of Evidenced Based Behavioral Practices for Assessing and Treating Challenging Behaviors By Steve Vitto What are the two general functions of behavior?: What are the two general functions of behavior? Obtain/Get something Escape/Avoid something What are the four general things that a person attempts to obtain or get by his/her behavior?: What are the four general things that a person attempts to obtain or get by his/her behavior? Attention Item Activity Sensory How does identification of the function of behavior assist with the development of a good behavior plan?: How does identification of the function of behavior assist with the development of a good behavior plan? It provides insight into and direction for preventative strategies It provides clues as to what replacement behaviors are necessary It provides direction for the most potentially effective reactive strategies How is a Functional Assessment Different from a Behavior Intervention Plan?: How is a Functional Assessment Different from a Behavior Intervention Plan? Functional Assessment takes into consideration what is happening now and what happened in the past Behavior Intervention Plan focuses on what to do differently in the future Name three components of a good Behavior Intervention Plan: Name three components of a good Behavior Intervention Plan Goal Reinforcers Replacement Behaviors Preventative Strategies Reinforcement Strategies Reactive Strategies Data On who’s behavior does the Preventative and Reactive strategies component of a BIP focus?: On who’s behavior does the Preventative and Reactive strategies component of a BIP focus? Staff, Adult in order to change the student’s behavior What is the major reason why we take data?: What is the major reason why we take data? To objectively determine whether or not the behavior plan is working A positive reinforcer: A positive reinforcer A. decreases the behavior it follows. B. consists of stickers and candy C. increases the behavior it follows D. is stronger, the more expensive it is Answer:: Answer: Extinction is:: Extinction is: A. withdrawing reinforcers for desired behavior. B. withdrawing the reinforcement that has been maintaining the behavior. C. what happens to old animals D. withdrawing and hiding from the acting out student. answer: answer withdrawing the reinforcement that has been maintaining the behavior What is the most significant variable that differentiates a child with social maladjustment/ conduct disorder and a child with an emotional impairment ?: What is the most significant variable that differentiates a child with social maladjustment/ conduct disorder and a child with an emotional impairment ? possible variables: possible variables A. a lack of anxiety about their behavior B. defiance C. disrepsct D. fighting ANSWER: ANSWER A. a lack of anxiety about his/her behavior Answer: Answer A. A LACK OF ANXIETY ABOUT BEHAVIOR TIME OUT IS USUALLY INDICATED FOR WHICH TYPE OF BEHAVIOR..: TIME OUT IS USUALLY INDICATED FOR WHICH TYPE OF BEHAVIOR.. A. ATTENTION SEEKING B. ESCAPE BEHAVIOR C. SELF-STIMULATORY BEHAVIOR D. SHUT-DOWN ANSWER: A: ANSWER: A ANSWER: ANSWER Behaviors Meet Needs: Behaviors Meet Needs Attention Escape/Avoidance Sensory Stimulation Tangible Which one would NOT likely be a behavior motivated by sensory stimulation?: Which one would NOT likely be a behavior motivated by sensory stimulation? A. A behavior that occurs when no one else is around. B. A behavior directed toward a peer or an audience (i.e. getting a reaction). C. A behavior that functions as an escape mechanism D. A behavior of ingesting items Answer:B: Answer:B Directed toward peers or an audience School’s Traditional Response: Get tougher: School’s Traditional Response: Get tougher Zero tolerance policies Security guards Suspension/Expulsion Exclusionary Options (alternative programs) Progressive discipline Why is zero tolerance such a bad idea?: Why is zero tolerance such a bad idea? Which is not an element of Positive Behavioral Support ?: Which is not an element of Positive Behavioral Support ? A. Supporting students in learning responsible behavior and achieving academic success. B. Broad-based set of proactive approaches C. Views the system, setting, or skill deficiency as the problem. D. Views the child as the root of the problem. ANSWER: ANSWER Which is not an goal of a Good Functional Assessment : Which is not an goal of a Good Functional Assessment A. An Investigation into “why?” (e.g., Columbo) B. A Operational Description of Behavior C. Contributing Situational Variables and Environmental Issues D. Needs being met by the Behavior E. Treating the behavioral problem ANSWER: E: ANSWER: E Environmental Considerations: Environmental Considerations What should not be viewed as a environmental trigger or cause of the behavior? A. Being ignored B. Transitions C. Biomedical Condition D. Personality Conflicts E. Auditory or Visual overstimulation F. Frustration with task ANSWER: C: ANSWER: C Which two items would not be Restorative responses to a behavior: Which two items would not be Restorative responses to a behavior Suspension Performing volunteer work Detention and Saturday School Taking part in a school-wide bully prevention program Peer tutoring or acting as a student assistant Loss of points and privileges Peer mediation and conflict resolution Working to repay damage caused by vandalism Involvement in Anger Replacement Training Life-skills processing activities ANSWER: ANSWER Suspension, Saturday School and Loss of Points Which is not a good reason to take Data?: Which is not a good reason to take Data? A. Data can convince people of the need to change. B. Data can uncover problems that might otherwise remain invisible. C. Data can confirm or discredit assumptions about students and school practices. D. Data can get to the root of problems, pinpoint areas where change is most needed and guide resource allocation. E. Data is helpful in comparing one teacher or classroom to another F. Data can help schools evaluate program effectiveness and keep the focus on student learning outcomes. ANSWER :E: ANSWER :E E. Data is NOT helpful in comparing one teacher or classroom to another Data should be taken to enhance collaboration, trust, and good decision making!!!! Slide36: An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. What is a Setting Event?: What is a Setting Event? Answer: Answer Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that cause the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Slide39: What is a Antecedent or fast trigger? ANSWER: ANSWER Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) What is a Consequence?: What is a Consequence? ANSWER: ANSWER Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) Slide43: When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers make multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks Slide44: What is the setting event involved in Sequoia’s behavior? Answer: Answer Missing her noon medication Slide46: Building DJ’s Hypothesis(es) to the Function(s) Slide47: Provide a hypothesis statement regarding the function of DJ’s behavior Hypothesis Statement: Hypothesis Statement Given circumstance when DJ is sick, or has missed meals, missed medicine, had conflicts with certain peers and/or when Mrs. Coffey is absent, and when other students are unwilling to play/interact with him, when he is standing in line near someone with whom he does not get along , or when other students are teasing him and Mrs. Coffey is out of sight (often during unstructured times, DJ will hit, pinch. grabs others, spit on others, in order to gain peer attention, terminate/avoid undesired peer interactions, as a coping mechanism with frustration of other students unwilling to play/interact with him Slide49: Define the competing pathways approach to analyzing and treating behavior? Slide50: REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) Function Behavior What might act as a replacement nehavior for Swearing??? Slide51: REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK Behavior Function Slide52: Why is it necessary to place the problem behavior on extinction?? Slide53: REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK SWEARING !?!? EXTINCTION 1 2 Which is not a best practice use of Reinforcement? Why? : Which is not a best practice use of Reinforcement? Why? A.Reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior? B.Reinforcement has been used as a means of control, leading to resentment, and loss of motivation? ANSWER: ANSWER B. Reinforcement should build rapport and increase the behavior it follows!!! Slide56: Behavior Mantra: “It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.” Why?? Consequence Risks(to name a few…): Consequence Risks (to name a few…) Alienation Escalation Attention/Reaction Escape/Avoidance Defiance Shut Down Common Individual and System Responses to Problem Behavior: Common Individual and System Responses to Problem Behavior Clamp down on rule violators Extend continuum of aversive consequences Improve consistency of use of punishment Establish “bottom line” In-school suspension Zero tolerance policies Security guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, surveillance cameras Suspension/Expulsion Exclusionary options (e.g. Alternative programs) WHY AREN’T THESE INTERVENTIONS EFFECTIVE FOR TREATING INTENSIVE BEHAVIOR CHALLENGES??? Answer: Answer They fail to teach the child a better way of meeting the needs served by the undesired behavior. What are some of the side effects or problems with using punihment as an approach to behavior? : What are some of the side effects or problems with using punihment as an approach to behavior? Problems with Punishment: Problems with Punishment Models controlling behavior vs problem solving Tend to cause brain shift to survival mode not conducive to learning Tend to elicit judgment and anger from both staff and student Meet the needs of the care provider as opposed to the child The consequence often has no relationship to the behavior Problems with Punishment: Problems with Punishment Inconsistent application Generally quick to apply, but doesn’t have lasting results Often leads to resentment, defiance, or violence and consequently result in the need for more intrusive measures by staff Often fail to address the victim Rarely result in learning a better way Slide63: What is Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)? BARJ: BARJ Philosophy Repair the harm Victim, Offender, Community Offence against people vs breaking the rules Accountability Safety Competency Behavioral offences are wounds…Consequences should heal: Behavioral offences are wounds… Consequences should heal
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Mary Bechtel Steve Vitto Stephaine Williams Sheila Williams-White Jerry Zielinski Kim St. Martin Jennifer Rollenhagen Melissa Nantais. Upload Log in.