# Steps in design classfication scheme

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Published on March 8, 2014

Author: LijaKJohn

Source: slideshare.net

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Presentation on Theory of Classification, Depth Classification based on Colon Classification, Library and Information Science

STEPS IN DESIGNING A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR MICRO SUBJECTS

PRESENTED BY LIJA K JOHN NO: 15 MLISC SEM 1

INTRODUCTION  Classification is a logical separation  Integration with whole of knowledge  Scheme is influenced by the designer  He is influenced by the intellectual and social environment  As Knowledge is dynamic, mapping of knowledge is neither stable nor universally acceptable.

ANALYTICO SYNTHETIC CLASSIFICATION  Indian Approach  Designed and developed by Dr. S R Ranganathan  Provides models , tools and techniques analysis of subjects into elemental structure  Synthesize ideas into a group appropriate to user needs

COLON CLASSIFICATION  Postulates are assumptions never put to test  PMEST  Thoroughly faceted theory based scheme  Particular about the order of Main class and the facets in Class Number  Postulates and principles for ordering classes in arrays and chains and facets

DIVISION OF KNOWLEDGE IN CC Basic Subjects : Unitary Subjects eg : Law, Physics  Compound Subjects : BS with subdivisions or additional facets (infinite in nature) eg: Velocity of Light, Guitar Music  Complex subjects : Interdisciplinary Subjects eg: Psychology for Librarians 

CONTINUATION… Every document has a BS which forms the first facet  Universe of Knowledge according to modes of formation of subject according to7th edition   Main Basic Subject  Traditional {Law, Physics}  Newly Emerging {Journalism, Library Science}  Fused {Biochemistry}  Distilled {Research Methodology}  Clustering {Chandrayaan}  Agglomerates {Social Sciences}

CONTINUATION…  Non Main Basic Subject  Canonical Classes {Algebra, Geometry}  System Constituents {Marxian Economy}  Environment Constituents {Space medicine}  Special Constituents {Co-operative Economy} Sciences A – M  Mysticism and Spiritual experience Δ  Humanities N – S  Social Sciences T - Z 

DEPTH CLASSIFICATION Development began in 1953  For co extensiveness and expressiveness  Micro thoughts with many levels and rounds of facets  Micro subjects have small extension and high intension  Special Classification scheme 

METHODOLOGY ADOPTED IN CONSTRUCTING THE DEPTH CLASSIFICATION SCHEDULE  Selection A of a Model Scheme scheme should be studied for a specific model A theory based scheme is a better model Freely faceted model is more versatile and helpful

STEPS IN DESIGNING THE DEPTH SCHEDULE  Preliminary works  Collection of Terms  Sorting of terms  Allocation of Notation  Preparation of Indexes  Finalizing the Schedule

PRELIMINARY WORKS  Understanding of the Subject  The structure and development of the subject  To select candidate terms and determining the relationships between them  Denotation of the terms in the subject  Scope recognized by different authorities  Its division and subdivisions

CONTINUATION…  Sources used for studying the subjects  Standard and general dictionaries & technical glossaries (definition of the subject)  Encyclopedia – general & specific (comprehensive information, scope of the field)  Representative textbooks (Reliable and educative information)  Classification Scheme – general & special (Structured representation)  Periodicals ,Review articles & journals (information on research of the subject)  Conference proceedings (nascent thoughts)  Directory of institutions ( changing specialists in research & development of the subject)

CONTINUATION…  Identification of the user needs  Understanding user approach  Schedule should satisfy the user’s browsing and retrieval needs  User characteristics should be identified  Designer should specify  The user types   Direct /Indirect user ,Discipline / mission oriented user Problem solvers /Decision makers, Learners The type of use or problems  The helpfulness or limitations of devices or aids adopted  The interrelationship of classification schedule with other information storage & retrieval devices in the system  The ways of manipulating the structure of the class number   Knowledge of user behavior will enrich the schedule in performing the functions

CONTINUATION…  Librarians  Ease Professional Approach of classifying  Capable to update new subjects  Notation should be brief, simple, familiar and expressive  Minimum revision of notation of already assigned class numbers  Update schedule periodically  Well defined procedure for classifying the subject  Balanced indexes to the schedule

CONTINUATION…  Resources Needed  Finance  Depends on the type and size of the organization  Manpower Information scientists / Librarians with subject knowledge  Subject specialists with knowledge of library and information  Semi-professional workers  Typists , clerical staffs  Programmers & system analyst for use of computers for indexing  Number of staff depends on the size of the schedule and time allowed to develop it.

COLLECTION OF TERMS  Analysis of data  Selection of Candidate Terms  Relevancy of a concept or term  Terms selected from the sources discussed above will be standardized one  Indicates the literary warrant for the term  Select from dictionaries, glossaries, indexes, classification schemes, thesaurus  Facet analysis of articles in encyclopedia, handbooks, periodical publications & textbooks

CONTINUATION…  Criteria for choosing the term  Relevancy of the term in the subject  Formally accepted usage  Terms in current usage  Frequently used terms  Anticipated terms in retrieval queries  Terms emerging in literature Combination of documentary sources, subject specialists and librarians gives comprehensive collection

CONTINUATION…  Analysis into facets and other components  Correlate terms to other terms in subject  Postulate of fundamental category is applied  Subject strings  Subject literature facet analyzed to subject strings  Appropriate fundamental categories & indicators are assigned  Separate serially numbered records for each analyzed article

CONTINUATION…  Identifying the relationships  Facet analysis is based on PMEST  Nonhierarchical relations between terms are identified  Indicated by RT(related term)  Cross reference like ‘see also‘  RT links are between Speciator to speciator in facet  Speciator to main isolate in facet  Main isolates in different facets   Term’s Role in context of a subject is specified for sorting

CONTINUATION…  Hierarchical relationship  Relationship of super and subordination concepts  Cross-reference of BT(Broader term) and NT (Narrower Term)  Generic relation: Super-ordinated(generic) term denotes class of concepts of which subordinated (specific) term is a member. Differ by at least 1 characteristic  Part-whole relation: Super-ordinated(whole) term denotes an object or concept of which the subordinated(part) term is part

CONTINUATION…  Preferred term and standardization  Inclusion of a term should satisfy certain criteria  Most understood by user  Current terms rather than superseded terms  One term is used & other kept as lead in terms(indicated by U & UF- use for) Should avoid confusion at role determining & sorting stage  Scope notes are given  Meaning not clear  Meaning different for different people (eg Charge)  Exercise control over usage of a term 

CONTINUATION…  Singular terms are preferred for isolate ideas Type of form 1 Use singular form Use plural form Material terms When term is specific When term is generic When term is specific When term is generic 2 Terms representing Properties, Conditions, Characteristics 3 Class of term Don’t use singular Use plural eg: Solids, Liquids 4 Process term Use singular Don’t use plural 5 Proper noun Use Singular Don’t use plural 6 Disciplines, fields and subject areas Use singular Don’t use plural 7 Events or occurrences Don’t use singular Use plural

RECORDING OF TERM PROFILE No Term profile 1 Serial Number 2 Reference 3 Term Term in the form found in literature 4 Note Term with role is entered 5 Context 6 Definition 7 Source of definition 8 Role 9 Broader term 10 Narrower term 11 Related term 12 Synonym 13 Standard/ preferred term Serially numbered using Indo Arabic numerals Accession number of the source Context in which the term is used Selected from the source Source of definition is recorded Appropriate PMEST manifestation is recorded Various BTs are entered with the source Various NTs are entered with the source RTs from thesaurus and subject strings are entered Synonyms, quasi synonyms, antonyms are entered Preferred term as per the criteria is entered here 14 Recorded by Name of the classifier is entered 15 Checked by Classifier / subject expert who cross-check the entry

SORTING OF TERMS Term profiles are scrutinized  Relevancy of the terms for host subject is examined  Classificationist by experience have judgment of relevancy  Subject experts are approached when needed  Grouped into   Relevant(R)  Relevant (doubtful)(RD)  Non Relevant(NR)

CONTINUATION…  Grouping by facets  Relevant terms are sorted into following 7 groups according to the 4 and 7 columns of the term profile  Basic Subject facet  Personality  Matter Material  Matter Property  Energy  Space  Time

CONTINUATION…  Formation of arrays and chains Step 1: Choose appropriate characteristics for grouping , using Canons of Characteristics  Step 2: Sequence of characteristics is determined by Canons of succession of characteristics, wallpicture principle and its corollaries  Step3: Canons of exclusiveness and exhaustiveness are checked. Principle of Helpful sequence is used to arrange the facets in a helpful manner to majority of the users Schedules of model schemes are studied for arranging the isolates Draft schedule in Idea plane is thus prepared 

ALLOCATION OF NOTATION   Assign numbers in notational plane Canons of Notational Plane     Basic Canons Mnemonics Hospitality Notations should be      Capable of providing unique class numbers Able to coextensively represent every component idea Able to provide infinite hospitality Able to provide provision for devices Brevity and economy should be respected

BASE TO THE NOTATIONAL SYSTEM CC is the model scheme  Notational base similar to CC   Roman Smalls  Indo Arabic Numerals  Roman Capitals

PREPARATION OF INDEXES An alphabetical Index is to be created  Isolate ideas are listed with the fundamental category and index number  Synonyms and antonyms are also included 

COMPLETING THE SCHEDULE Pilot tests are conducted with classifiers and target users of the schedule.  Schedule is completed with  A Preface  Importance and scope of depth schedule  Guidance to the classifier  Worked out examples  Bibliographical reference

CONCLUSION Depth classification schedule is a special classification scheme for Micro subjects  The major steps in designing a scheme for depth version is as follows  Preliminary Work  Collection of Terms  Sorting of Terms  Allocation of Notations  Preparation of Indexes  Completing the Schedule 

PROCEDURE FOR CLASSIFYING Steps Details 1 Identifying the expressive subject of the document 2 Identifying the substantive terms in the title 3 Identifying the roles of the substantive terms in the context of subject under consideration via (BS), (P), (M), (E), (S) & (T) 4 Rearranging the ideas according to the sequence of (BS), (P), (M), (E), (S) & (T). Levels and Rounds are determined by the Wall Picture Principle. Qualifiers are arranged with respective (FC ) and between them with the help of Wall picture principle. Similarly qualifiers of order 2 with the respective qualifiers of order 1. 5 The substantive terms may be checked to have the appropriate standard terms used in the schedule 6 Have the terms to represented by the respective numbers given in the schedule 7 The class number may be formed using the schedule and the indicator digits while synthesizing the notation

REFERENCE  M A Gopinath(1986),Construction of Depth Version of Colon Classification: A manual, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern,  Shabahat Husain(2004), Library Classification: Facets and Analyses , New Delhi, B.R. Publishing Corporation  Dr S R Ranganathan (2006), Colon Classification, Bangalore, Sarada Ranganathan Endowment Trust Dr S R Ranganathan & A Neelameghan, Depth Classification of a Bibliography, 1963, Bangalore, DRTC   Speciator based faceted depth classification’s application in thesaurus construction Rajendra Kumbhar (Annals of Library and Information Studies 53,l;2005 pg 15-24)

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