Published on March 8, 2014
STEM CELL -SUTHAR HARSHIL -F.Y.B.SC.BIOTECHNOLOGY -GOVERNMENT SCIENCE COLLEGE
Definition A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s) of cells/tissues
Introduction Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. Self-regeneration is the ability of stem cells to divide and produce more stem cells. During early development, the cell division is symmetrical and as well as a symmetrical. The ability to differentiate is the potential to develop into other cell types
History 1968 : Bone marrow transplant between two siblings successfully treats SCID 1978 : Haematopoietic stem cell are discovered in Human cord blood 1992 : Neural stem cell are cultured in vitro as neurospheres 1997 : Leukemia is shown to originate from a haematopoietic stem cell the first direct evidence for cancer stem cell 1998 : James Thomson and coworkers derive the first human embryonic stem cell line.
Kind of stem cell TOTIOPOTENT PLURIPOTENT MULTIPOTENT Totipotent stem cells are found only in early embryos. Each cell can form a complete organisms These cells are like Totipotent stem cells in that they can give rise to all tissue types. Multipotent stem cell can produce only of a closely related family of cell Like a Muscle cell ,Liver cell ,Blood cell
Totiopotent TotiopotentT Scs Pluriopotent Pluripotent Multipotent
What are embryonic stem cells? Embryonic stem cell are stem derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst ,an early stage embryo These cells have the ability to self-renew through mitosis. They are also pluripotent, which means they have the potential to differentiate into a more specialized, mature cell type performing distinct functions.
Adult stem cell An adult stem cell is thought to be an undifferentiated cell, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ. That can renew itself and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues. there is a very small number of stem cells in each tissue, and once removed from the body, their capacity to divide is limited, making generation of large quantities of stem cells difficult.
Application of stem cell Brain Damage Cancer Spindle core Bone marrow Cloning Diabetes Sickle cell anemia
Disadvantages Stem cell treatments may require immunosuppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the patient's previous cells, or because the patient's immune system may target the stem cells. Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells.
Reference http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2002_Gro ups/pancstems/stemcell/challengesofstemcellresearch. htm http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/stemcell/overvie w.php http://www.stemcellhistory.com/stem-cellglossary/#more-83
This article is about the cell type. For the medical therapy, see Stem cell therapy.
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