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Published on January 16, 2008

Author: Vittoria

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Forum Mídia & Tabaco:  Forum Mídia & Tabaco São Paulo, 2000 Em comemoração do dia 31 de Maio Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco Documentos internos da indústria:  Documentos internos da indústria 1994 Documentos Brown & Williamson tornados públicos por Merrell Williams e entregue ao Congresso Americano, à imprensa e ao professor Stan Glantz da Universidade da Califórnia de São Francisco Documentos internos da indústria:  Documentos internos da indústria Mississippi (Julho, 1997) Flórida (Agosto, 1997) Texas (Janeiro, 1998) Minnesota (Março, 1998) Documentos internos da indústria:  Documentos internos da indústria Acordo de Minnesota Documentos disponíveis ao público Manutenção financiada pela indústria Minneapolis, E.U.A. Guildford, Reino Unido Perda de privilégio de confidencialidade Documentos provenientes de outras causas Documentos internos da indústria:  Documentos internos da indústria Master Settlement Agreement – Novembro, 1998 46 estados e os territórios Documentos na Internet O arquivo da BAT em Guildford:  O arquivo da BAT em Guildford Maior número de documentos “internacionais” Fonte de informação ainda pouco explorada Não disponível na Internet Acesso difícil Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos Efeitos da nicotina e vício Doenças causadas pelo fumo Efeitos à saúde do fumo passivo Manipulação de componentes do cigarro Estratégias de marketing Contrabando Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos Os documentos ilustram uma prática enganosa por parte da indústria, e oferecem uma janela de acesso às suas práticas operacionais e às suas estratégias em nível mundial. Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos iv)The Future? Thus we have an emerging picture of a fast, highly pharmacologically effective and cheap ‘drug’, tobacco.... However, it has drawbacks. The major one is that it has a ‘health shadow’ over it, which is not easy to dispel. Secondly, it is a messy habit, polluting the non-smokers breathable atmosphere, and leaving ash and debris, not to mention smells, around for hours or days. Thirdly, carelessly used, it sets fire to things.” (ca 1980s) Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos “... In the case of carcinogens, smoke contains not just one carcinogen but a galaxy of them.... Elimination of carcinogens does not therefore appear feasible. … In my view, therefore, it is most unlikely that within the scope of acceptable cigarette design, it will prove possible further to reduce substantially the risk of smoking associated disease.” (BAT, 1986) Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos “It was never likely that research which lead to the production of a non- carcinogenic cigarette would also lead to a cigarette that was both smokable and free from the potential of increasing other health risks, particularly those of cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.” (BAT, 1993) Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos “ Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a critical issue for the industry’s future. Erroneous perceptions of the issue increase the social pressure against smoking, encourage non-smokers to become anti-smokers, and foster an atmosphere conducive to both governmental and private restrictions upon smoking.” Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos   “Above all, it is imperative to communicate more vigorously and effectively with the public, the media and government. The industry is building scientific basis for its positions, but it has not yet found effective mechanisms to explain that basis. In short, we need more evidence, and we also need far better administrator, journalists, and ultimately, every citizen.” Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos “Unlike many other regional ETS consultant programmes sponsored by the industry, the Latin project was initiated in anticipation of, rather than in reaction to, the full-force arrival of ETS issues to Central and South America.” Tópicos abordados nos documentos:  Tópicos abordados nos documentos “Working with the consultants, the Latin Project aims to generate high quality scientific data, literature and commentary that can be used to respond persuasively to what is expected to be an increasing number of exaggerated media claims of adverse health effects from ETS exposure as well as to oppose government initiatives to ban or restrict smoking in public places.” Estabelecendo valores de alcatrão e nicotina:  Estabelecendo valores de alcatrão e nicotina   “To reduce the nicotine per cigarette as much as possible and thus satisfy the trend of consumer demand … might end in destroying the nicotine habit in a large number of consumers and prevent it ever being acquired by new smokers.” (1959, BAT Co.) Estabelecendo valores de alcatrão e nicotina :  Estabelecendo valores de alcatrão e nicotina “all ventilated cigarettes produce higher deliveries during human smoking than machine smoking.” (Philip Morris scientist, 1986) “There are two international organizations controlled by the industry: CORESTA and ISO… CORESTA is 100% controlled by the industry … ISO technical committee 126 is made of approximately 80% Industry… (Philip Morris executive, 1990) Souza Cruz Strategy Review 1991 (21st February 1991) :  Souza Cruz Strategy Review 1991 (21st February 1991) “Brazil’s new Government has been very active in three fronts: Anti-Trust Legislation, Consumer Protection, and Anti-Smoking Actions. …   Concerning the Anti-Smoking Actions, in August/90, a new Anti-Smoking legislation was set out by the Health Minister. …   Souza Cruz has greatly influenced the Government during the process of preparing the new regulation mainly to avoid overstatements.” Elementos Chaves da Estratégia para América Latina (PM,1992):  Elementos Chaves da Estratégia para América Latina (PM,1992) Três áreas principais Tabaco e saúde Restrições de marketing Preço e impostos Elementos Chaves da Estratégia para America Latina (PM, 1992):  Elementos Chaves da Estratégia para America Latina (PM, 1992) Preço e impostos Achieve/maintain price freedom Remove cigarettes from family basket “In Brazil, thanks to the intensive combined lobbying from both Souza Cruz and Philip Morris, has been able to dramatically recover margins and bring down the price back log…” Communicate the dangers of taxing tobacco out of business Objetivos para a América Latina Philip Morris, 1993:  Objetivos para a América Latina Philip Morris, 1993 1) Assist the affiliates in preventing passage of legislation that would ban or restrict smoking in public/private places   2) Support our Affiliates in their efforts to oppose/minimize advertising and promotional restrictions   Objetivos para a América Latina Philip Morris, 1993:  Objetivos para a América Latina Philip Morris, 1993   3) Expand our Network of Latin America journalists contacts to insure that our points of view are fairly represented in the news media   4) Improve the ability of our top Regional Executives (both at Headquarters and Affiliates level) to deal with potentially controversial issues related to our tobacco and food operations. Provide training to improve communication with the media Slide23:  Overall strategic direction: To support our affiliates through programs which seek to obtain/maintain price freedom and fair taxation while promoting greater sensitivity and tolerance of the part of governments and the public toward smoking and advertising. To prevent restrictions and/or legislation that would threaten our ability to market our food products. Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan:  Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan Objective: To prevent the passage of unfavorable legislation aimed at restricting or banning advertising and promotion of our products. Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan:  Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan Strategy/Action Plan To generate support from the advertising and media communities to oppose restrictions. Promote/strengthen advertising alliances to oppose ad bans (on-going).        Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan:  Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan Through the sponsorship of the IAA and Libertad, organize a series of symposia to promote freedom of commercial speech and raise awareness against restrictions (on-going). Develop analytical models on the economic impact of advertising (on-going). Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan:  Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan Develop advertising campaigns, brochures, white papers, and audio visuals aimed at highlighting the main arguments in favor of consumer goods (ongoing). To comply with PMI marketing codes and develop industry self-regulating marketing codes. Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan:  Philip Morris Latin America Inc. Corporate Affairs, 1994-1996 Strategic Plan Ensure compliance of self-regulating marketing codes to preempt increasing restrictive legislation (on-going). A Indústria e os Jovens:  A Indústria e os Jovens “ In view of the need to reverse the preference for Marlboros among younger smokers, I wonder whether comic strip type copy might get a much higher readership among younger people than any other type of copy…” (RJR, 1973)   A Indústria e os Jovens:  A Indústria e os Jovens “… increasing smoking incidence among young women will serve to maintain starting incidence …quitting rates will also not increase as existing smokers become increasingly reassured by the growth of Low Tar brands…” (BAT, 1979 “Year 2000) A Indústria e os Jovens:  A Indústria e os Jovens “There is no doubt that peer group influence is the single most important factor in the decision by an adolescent to smoke … Serious efforts to learn to smoke occur between ages 12 and 13 … However intriguing smoking was at 11, 12 or 13, by the age 16 or 17 many regretted their use of cigarrettes for health reasons and because they feel unable to stop smoking when they want to. By the age of 16, peer pressure to initiate others to smoke is gone.” (Imperial Tobacco, 1977)   A Indústria e os Jovens:  A Indústria e os Jovens “Younger adult smokers are the only source of replacement smokers… If younger adults turn away from smoking, the industry must decline…brand development/management must encompass all aspects of marketing mix … Marlboro’s key imagery …was younger adult identity/belonging…” (RJR, 1984)   A Indústria e os Jovens:  A Indústria e os Jovens “…it was noted that the average age of Lucky Strike smokers was generally thought to be lower than for Marlboro. However, Brazil was an exception and the Chairman suggested that action should be taken to rectify this situation with promotions at places where where young adults congregated.” (BAT, 1992)   Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991):  Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991) [The Tobacco Institute] youth program and its individual parts support The Institute's objective of discouraging unfair and counterproductive federal, state and local restrictions on cigarette advertising by: Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991):  Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991) Presenting on-going and persuasive evidence that the industry is actively discouraging youth smoking and independent verification that the industry's efforts are valid. Reinforcing the belief that peer pressure - not advertising - is the cause of youth smoking. Seizing the political center and forcing the anti-smokers to an extreme...   Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991) :  Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991) The strategy is fairly simple: 1. Heavily promote industry opposition to youth smoking. 2. Align the industry with broader, more sophisticated view of the problem... Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991) :  Criando Programas para Combater o Tabagismo entre os Jovens (1991) 3. Work with the through credible child welfare professionals and educators to tackle the "problem," 4. Bait anti-tobacco forces to criticize industry efforts.  Focus media attention on anti's extremism.  Anticipate and blunt anti's strongest points..." PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 Background Increasing pressure from anti-tobacco forces in Latin America has created the need to explore various options to counter negative publicity. One theme that has recently surfaced in several markets is that multinational companies target children in ad campaigns. PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 Three years ago, Ecuador took the initiative to develop a campaign addressing the issue of youth smoking. This campaign consisted of one commercial and a series of prints ads conveying the message that smoking is an adult activity. The campaign was so well received by the Ministry of health that it bore its endorsement.   PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993   Today, several markets, especially Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Uruguay, are pressing us for a public campaign in an effort to demonstrate corporate responsibility. PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993    Rationale   Taking into consideration the emerging adverse legislative climate in the region, we have an opportunity to create good will for the tobacco industry by going public with a campaign to discourage juvenile smoking. PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 Our objective is to communicate that the tobacco industry is not interested in having young people smoke and to position the industry as “a concerned corporate citizen” in an effort to ward off further attacks by the anti-tobacco movement. PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993   [the focus would be on parents] “Help your kids make the right choices. Smoking is an adult decision.” PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 :  PMI, Corporate Affairs – Latin America: Youth Campaign for Latin America, 1993 Sponsorship   We will strongly recommend to our markets that this commercial be sponsored by the industry, or a governmental ministry (as was the case in Ecuador). However, the final decision will be made in the field. Worldwide review of the issues facing Marlboro (November 1992) :  Worldwide review of the issues facing Marlboro (November 1992) “The key challenge is to keep Marlboro’s image attractive and appealing to young adult smokers, so that the advertising and quality of the product provide the value the price is demanding. The image problem is less acute in the developing markets of the world.” Worldwide review of the issues facing Marlboro (November 1992) :  Worldwide review of the issues facing Marlboro (November 1992) Summary per Region: Latin America   “Marlboro Red has high appeal to young adult smokers and beginners. Image advertising per se is important, and Marlboro’s current campaign is well received. Currently we depend too much on TV advertising, and we need to focus more attention on the point-of-sale before an ad ban arrives.” Worldwide review of the issues facing Marlboro (November 1992) :  Worldwide review of the issues facing Marlboro (November 1992)   We recognize the need to conduct more life-style research in order to understand consumers better, and specifically to understand the reasons (other than health) why the LTN segment is growing.   Key to Marlboro Red’s growth in Latin America is affordability. The real price of Marlboro needs to be watched carefully, as well as price gaps with competitive brands. PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation Summary of findings:  Formula 1 has above average appeal among young adult males and smokers 68% named Marlboro as a sponsor of Formula 1 (Brazil: 72%) Marlboro circuit signage was recalled by 33% (Brazil: 32%)   PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation Young Adult Smoker Comments   “F-1 is synonymous with Marlboro: I first learned about Marlboro through F-1; a lot of people probably learned about Marlboro through F-1.” (male smoker, Japan)   “The Marlboro sports campaign generates maximum identification among younger smokers nowadays.” (1993 in-depth research, Argentina)   PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation Young Adult Smoker Comments   “Formula 1 is a high speed sport, and speed calls attention of young people who smoke Marlboro, who enjoy adventure and different things.” (y.a. male smoker, Brazil)   “Marlboro matches with Formula 1 by the adventurous side, but there is another side of Marlboro which is the freedom and is a part of Marlboro which doesn’t go away.” (y.a. male smoker, Brazil)   PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation Conclusions: In some totally restricted markets, F-1 is the only brand communication vehicle. Formula 1 strongly contributes to Marlboro’s image profile among young adult smokers, particularly in terms of: - Freedom and adventure - Excitement and heroes - Competition, winning and modern life         PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation Among many young adults, the F-1 driver is seen as the modern cowboy taking on the hi-tech challenge of the modern horse. In summary, formula 1 is an indispensable marketing tool for Marlboro, with high appeal to target consumers in all markets. Moreover, it is of vital importance to markets with total or severe advertising restrictions.   PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation Action Plan: -  We need to be in Formula 1 to support our target market in all media and add value to the brand image, particularly in restricted markets. -  We need to continuously re-focus our Formula 1 program to YAS to give the sport a new look and make it fresh, exciting and appealing. -  We need to expand our coverage of events into more multi-media entertainment. PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation :  PMI November 1993 – Formula 1 Worldwide Evaluation  Action Plan: - We need to review the F-1 marketing mix to ensure optimum brand exposure and sponsorship awareness. -   We need to to improve coordination with markets to expand local markets’ promotional participation. -   A series of motorsports media workshops with local managers is planned to increase market participation and develop creative, new promotional ideas. Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco 31 de Maio :  Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco 31 de Maio “Não se deixe enganar: Tabaco mata”  

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