STEAM TURBINE LOSSES

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Information about STEAM TURBINE LOSSES
Science-Technology

Published on December 28, 2012

Author: shivajichoudhury

Source: authorstream.com

STEAM TURBINE LOSSES: STEAM TURBINE LOSSES SHIVAJI CHOUDHURY Challenges: Challenges Rising fuel costs which in most of power generating companies are passed through to customer ,caught the attention to regulating agencies. Regulating agencies are now paying more attention to efficiency of power plants. Heat Rate Definitions: Heat Rate Definitions Heat rate is defined in units of kJ/kWh and is simply the amount of heat input into a system divided by the amount of power generated by a system. Less heat rate (less fuel) means more efficient system. BENEFIT -identification of losses: BENEFIT -identification of losses Efficiency increase Green house gases emission decrease Particulate emission reduction Availability improvement Reduction in O&M cost Less capacity addition Increase profitability Steam Turbine losses: Steam Turbine losses Symptoms HP/IP/LP section efficiency less than design. Causes ( any one or more than one ) Change in internal conditions of turbine 1.Mechanical damages 2.Flow area decreases 3.Flow area bypass 4.Flow area increases Change in inlet conditions 1.MECHANICAL DAMAGES: 1.MECHANICAL DAMAGES Symptoms Sudden change in section efficiency. Sudden change in section pressure ratio. Cause Metallurgical defects. Maintenance practice. Mechanical damages: Mechanical damages 2.FLOW AREA DECREASE: 2.FLOW AREA DECREASE Symptoms Increase in pressure ratio Decrease in section efficiency Increase in up stream pressure cause Mechanical blockage Sudden increase in pressure ratio Sudden decrease in section efficiency Sudden increase in up stream pressure Blade deposits Gradual increase in pressure ratio Gradual decrease in section efficiency Gradual increase in upstream pressure Mechanical blockage: Mechanical blockage BLADE DEPOSIT: BLADE DEPOSIT DEPOSIT IN SINGLE STAGE CASING TURBINE: DEPOSIT IN SINGLE STAGE CASING TURBINE SOLUBILITY TRENDS THROUGH TURBINE: SOLUBILITY TRENDS THROUGH TURBINE 3.FLOW AREA BYPASS: 3.FLOW AREA BYPASS Symptoms Decrease in section efficiency Decrease in pressure ratio Decrease in upstream pressure Cause Hp turbine bushing leakage Main steam stop valve leakage HP gland seal leakage IP stop/intercept valve leakage IP turbine bushing leakage 4.Flow area increase: 4.Flow area increase Symptoms Decrease in pressure ratio Decrease in section efficiency Decrease in upstream pressure Cause Spill strip or packing leakage Erosion of turbine stages Solid particle erosion of nozzle block Blade mechanical damage Spill strip or packing leakage : Spill strip or packing leakage Symptoms Increased down stream extraction temperatures Sudden decrease in stage efficiency Cause Thermal stress Rubbing Vibration Operating procedures Solid particle erosion of nozzle blocks : Solid particle erosion of nozzle blocks Symptoms Increase in pressure down stream of first stage Increase in ratio of first stage to throttle pressure Cause Cycling Exfoliation in boiler tubes Condenser tube leak Poor water chemistry Erosion of turbine stages: Erosion of turbine stages Symptoms Gradual decrease in pressure ratio Gradual decrease in section efficiency Gradual decrease in upstream pressure Blade mechanical damages: Blade mechanical damages Symptoms Sudden decrease in pressure ratio Sudden decrease in section efficiency Sudden decrease in upstream pressure. Cross section of turbine –showing efficiency loss due to leakage: Cross section of turbine –showing efficiency loss due to leakage Leaking steam not contribution to power generation (in RED) SOLID PARTICLE EROSION: SOLID PARTICLE EROSION TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE FINISH OF BLADE SURFACE : TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE FINISH OF BLADE SURFACE Impact of parameter deviation on HEAT RATE (210 MW ,KWU Turbine )-operator controllable parameters..: Impact of parameter deviation on HEAT RATE (210 MW ,KWU Turbine )-operator controllable parameters.. SN PARTICULAR UNIT DESIGN PARAMETERS INCREASE OF HEAT RATE DUE TO DEVIATION IN KCAL/KWH MULTIPLICATION FACTOR 1 PARTIAL LOADING MW 210 24.7 PER 20 MW 1.235 2 MS PRESS KG/CM2 150 25.5 PER 20 KG/CM2 1.275 3 MS TEMP AT HPT INLET DEG C 535 7.5 PER 10 DEG C 0.75 4 HRH TEMP AT IPT INLET DEG 535 6.6 PER PER 10 DEG C 0.66 5 CONDENSER VACUUM mmHg 660 23.4 PER 10 mm Hg 2.34 6 FEED WATER TEMP DEG C 241 16 PER 20 DEG C 0.8 7 RH ATTEMP FLOW T/HR 0 6.4 PER 10 T/HR 0.64 8 PowerPoint Presentation: Turbine cylinder efficiency TURBINE- 500 MW PowerPoint Presentation: Turbine cycle -500 mw Controllable losses Impact of Parameter deviation LOSSES IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT (CEA): LOSSES IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT (CEA) HP CYLINDER EFFICIENCY KWU TURBINE 210 MW: HP CYLINDER EFFICIENCY KWU TURBINE 210 MW S.N DESCRIPTION UNIT DESIGN OPERATING 1 POWER OUTPUT MW 210 210 2 INLET PRESS TO HP CYLINDER KG/CM2 150 139.7 3 INLET TEMP TO HP CYLINDER DEG C 535 537.8 4 OUTLET PRESS FROM HP CYLINDER KG/CM2 38.1 38.9 5 OUTLET TEMP FROM HP CYLINDER TEMP 334.8 361.3 6 ENTHALPY OF INLET STEAM KCAL/KG 814.73 819.25 7 ISENTROPIC ENTHALPY AFTER EXPANSION KCAL/KG 719.95 728.77 8 ACTUAL ENTHALPY AFTER EXPANSION KCAL/KG 730.88 746.15 9 CYLINDER EFFICIENCY % 88.47 80.9 INCREASED THANKING YOU: THANKING YOU

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