Published on October 24, 2013
The State of the Powder Handling Industry Presented by: Joe Florkowski of Powder & Bulk Solids Joe Marinelli of Solids Handling Technologies
History Coulomb and Rankine (1773 & 1857) Janssen (1895) Jenike (1960’s)
Economy • Power plants shutting down • Upgrades to existing plants nonexistent • Staff reductions especially engineering
Education • Solids handling not taught at university level • Most new engineers not aware of the science of solids handling • International universities involved with solids handling applications • Familiarity with Bulletin 123
Research • New technology seemingly nonexistent • R & D budgets slashed to make ends meet
Economy Improving • Recovering slowly • Aging equipment will have to be upgraded • Provides opportunities for reliable vendors to help their customers
Retrofits vs. New Equipment • More companies fixing existing equipment • May be more practical to replace with new equipment • Requires knowledge of solids handling and a practical approach
Stagnation Due to Lack of Education • Engineering graduates have no knowledge of the science of bulk solids handling • Challenged addressing solids handling problems • Purdue University offers one semester course on the topic
DEM Advances • Discrete element modeling interesting tool • Predominantly for chutes • Strides being made for bins and feeders • Fine particles difficult to model in a reasonable amount of compute time
Biomass Handling • Alternative and renewable energy critical • Wood pellets or chips for heat • Soy, animal fats for biofuels • Sugarcane, corn starch, switchgrass, bamboo, palm • Agricultural and municipal waste • Estimated at 146 billion tons/yr used
Flowability measurements • Jenike Shear Tester Standard in Europe and US • Other devices available Ring shear, Brookfield, Freeman, rotational (Peschl)
Direct Shear Testers Brookfield Peschl Ring Jenike Freeman
Proper Design Technique • How to use flow properties test results • Practical designs to ensure reliable flow
A Better Understanding of Flow Promoting Devices • Vibration Vibrators, bin dischargers, etc. • Aeration Aeration nozzles, air blasters • Retrofits Wedges, liners, cone-in-cone
Pneumatic Conveying Correlation Develop correlation between solids flow properties and pneumatic conveying Is there a way to correlate pickup velocity or line pressure drop to flow properties Helpful values are: particle density, particle size distribution and shape
Silo Quaking Issues Flow of certain materials cause serious vibrations Typically occurs with incompressible materials Some possible solutions
Segregation Problems Segregation problems are common Several mechanisms that cause it Detailed study of entire process required
Ultra Conservative Rathole Calculations Rathole calculations are too conservative Jenike found conservative approach necessary An approach to determine stresses acting on solids in funnel flow is required
Testing Flaky Materials How to test elastic or flaky products These materials do not shear well Shear cells too small for large particle flakes
Education Why is solids handling not taught in universities? Industry needs to push for this topic to be taught at local universities
Future More advanced internet usage, perhaps through apps 3D printing may play a role Venues like this powder show are a necessity
Find Joe’s Powder Perspectives column online at: http://www.powderbulksolids.com/powder-perspectives
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