Published on August 6, 2013
PRESENTED BY: SARBOTTAM SILWAL IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRENMENT FOR MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS-MHM
WHAT IS STATE? The state is a political and geopolitical entity Which is operated either following Economic ideologies like:
Capitalism is an economic system in which capital assets are privately owned and items are brought in market for profit. Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy Communism is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneylessand stateless social order structured upon common ownership in means of production
WHAT IS CAPITALISM?
STATE CAPITALISM As per Wikipedia- its an economic activity undertaken by the state with management of productive forces in capitalist manner. Dominance of state owned business enterprises in national economy A form of capitalism, in which all sectors of national production and important social institutions are managed by the state
ACCORDING TO Marxist literature: One where government controls the economy and all essential acts. Friedrich Engels: It would be final stage of capitalism consisting of ownership and management of large scale production and communication by the state.
CAPITALISM (THEN & NOW)
Number of State-owned Enterprises in following countries, 2005 Australia 12 Japan 77 Austria 78 Korea 30 Belgium 15 Netherlands 44 Canada 100 New Zealand 34 Czeh Republic >1000 Norway 26 Denmark 27 Poland 1189 Finland 55 Slovak Rep. 115 France 100 Spain 40 Germany 37 Sweden 58 Greece 50 Turkey 39 Italy 25 United Kingdom 80
WHY STATE CAPITALISM? It provide stability as well as growth Explore foreign investments Proper allocation of resources Quality production Overall development Consumers beneficial Safe investments
Tourism & State-Capitalism To understand the relationship between state capitalism and tourism, lets have a small Insight tour of world’s biggest Communist turn State-capitalist country
CHINA China is the third most visited country in the world No. of overseas tourists was 55.98 million Foreign exchange income was 45.8 billion U.S. dollars World's fourth largest in Tourism Earners number of domestic tourist visits totaled 1.61 billion, with a total income of 777.1 billion yuan According to the WTO, in 2020, China will become the largest tourist country and among the largest for overseas travel
But how was it possible?? Between 1949 and 1974, the People's Republic was closed to all but selected foreign visitors After Mao’s death, Deng Xiaoping led china towards a market economy Over 250 cities and counties had been opened to foreign visitors by the mid-1980s In 1985 approximately 1.4 million foreigners visited China, nearly US$1.3 billion earned from tourism. ABSOLUTE COMMUNISM TO STATE- CAPITALISM
RESULTS OF STATE CAPITALISM IN CHINA After 1974, the change in government policy bought great change in Chinese Tourism Average growth rate of 9.5% a year in GDP Increase by 18% in International Trade 2nd biggest economy of present world Chinese state hold more than 150 biggest companies Guides 1ooos more Lastely 3rd most visited country
BUT EVEN A COIN HAVE OTHER SIDE When Gov. supports one lot of company- others suffers. State companies use capital less efficiently than private ones-slow grow Miss-use the Gov. clout State companies have unfair distribution of nations resources Chances of inequality and eventually discontent
NEPALESE TOURISM Nepal opened its borders to the world in 1949 Nepal is the country where Mount Everest, the highest mountain peak in the world are located 8 of the 10 highest mountains in the world Nepal is the most preferred eco-tourism destination in the world Nepal is the only country with altitudinal variation that ranges from 70 meters to 8848 meters
STATE CAPITALISM IN NEPAL State capitalism have obvious appeal in Nepal Can boost the resources in tourism sector better than private sector State companies can work freely in market as they are state operated Over all development of nation
BUT??? Since Nepal is democratic country, its not possible for Gov. control over all productive sector Handful of bureaucrats can misuse power, decide taxation and unfair distribution of resources. Even distribution of wealth to poor doesn’t eliminate poverty It makes richest the poor Creates negative feelings to hard workers as lazy bones are also equally paid
NEPALESE MAY REPLACE THEM
One of the first cases to determine the shift in legislation regarding LGBTI rights in Nepal was ... State as well as within Nepalese ... Tourism The Nepal ...
Democratic Socialism in Nepalese ... capitalism and communism, had ... which philosophy the state should adopt and how the federal ...
Economy of Nepal ... and 17 state enterprises have ... Tourism etc. Nepal has huge capacity of Hydroelectricity due to which huge number ...
• Focusing on expansion of tourism, ... role in the underdevelopment and retrogation of the Nepalese ... industrial capitalism to ...
Tourism; Health; Review; Trends ... Public Policy on State-Building ... stakeholders on policy process of post-conflict state. Nepalese leaders can achieve ...
• Experience in leading tourism as well as education operations and able to support the daily management of the portfolios
Nepal’s natural resources. ... the Nepalese geological conformation offers an ... on the other also the state of conservation of the soil suffers ...