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StartPad Countdown 9 - Corporate Structures, Common Problems

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Information about StartPad Countdown 9 - Corporate Structures, Common Problems

Published on June 17, 2008

Author: startpad

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Craig Sherman from Wilson Sonsini discusses issues with incorporating.
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Corporate Start-up Fundamentals Craig Sherman Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati April 29, 2008 Startpad

CORPORATE START-UP FUNDAMENTALS Topics: Entity Selection Corporate Formation Founder Ownership Equity for Employees Securities Law Basics Pre and Post-Money Calculations Bridge Notes DOC# 2

Topics:

Entity Selection

Corporate Formation

Founder Ownership

Equity for Employees

Securities Law Basics

Pre and Post-Money Calculations

Bridge Notes

ENTITIES Using an Entity What is an entity? – legal “person” Why use an entity? – limited liability What types of entities are there? corporation partnership limited partnership limited liability company S corporation DOC# 3

Using an Entity

What is an entity? – legal “person”

Why use an entity? – limited liability

What types of entities are there?

corporation

partnership

limited partnership

limited liability company

S corporation

ENTITIES Using an Entity Corporation Most common VCs and other investors understand Negatives Two levels of tax Cannot realize losses Limited flexibility DOC# 4

Using an Entity

Corporation

Most common

VCs and other investors understand

Negatives

Two levels of tax

Cannot realize losses

Limited flexibility

ENTITIES Using an Entity Other entities (other than S corporation) Partnership – not limited liability Limited partnership – need a general partner VCs – most cannot fund pass through entity Difficult to implement option plan S corporation Pass through Limitations (# and type of shareholders) Easy transition to regular (“C”) corporation DOC# 5

Using an Entity

Other entities (other than S corporation)

Partnership – not limited liability

Limited partnership – need a general partner

VCs – most cannot fund pass through entity

Difficult to implement option plan

S corporation

Pass through

Limitations (# and type of shareholders)

Easy transition to regular (“C”) corporation

CORPORATION The Corporation – structure Where to incorporate? Delaware? Washington? Structure Owners = stockholders Overall management = board of directors Day to day management = officers Governing documents Certificate of incorporation capital structure fundamental rights Bylaws operating manual DOC# 6

The Corporation – structure

Where to incorporate? Delaware? Washington?

Structure

Owners = stockholders

Overall management = board of directors

Day to day management = officers

Governing documents

Certificate of incorporation

capital structure

fundamental rights

Bylaws

operating manual

CORPORATION The Corporation – issuing stock What is stock Types of stock Where does it come from authorized stock issued stock How to issue stock DOC# 7

The Corporation – issuing stock

What is stock

Types of stock

Where does it come from

authorized stock

issued stock

How to issue stock

SECURITIES LAWS Securities Laws Federal and state laws Every offer or issuance of a security Registration requirement Register OR find an exemption Disclosure, NOT merit review authorized stock issued stock DOC# 8

Securities Laws

Federal and state laws

Every offer or issuance of a security

Registration requirement

Register OR find an exemption

Disclosure, NOT merit review

authorized stock

issued stock

FOUNDER OWNERSHIP Founder Ownership How do founders get stock? What consideration is paid? Vesting or not vesting? investors often require avoid free-loading need the equity to replace departing founder Tax issues for vesting stock 83(b) election Options for founders? DOC# 9

Founder Ownership

How do founders get stock?

What consideration is paid?

Vesting or not vesting?

investors often require

avoid free-loading

need the equity to replace departing founder

Tax issues for vesting stock

83(b) election

Options for founders?

FOUNDER OWNERSHIP Founder Ownership Do it early Value is low tax issues accounting issues Avoid disputes as to ownership DOC# 10

Founder Ownership

Do it early

Value is low

tax issues

accounting issues

Avoid disputes as to ownership

FOUNDER OWNERSHIP Founder Issues Avoid informal promises of equity Avoid promising percentages Advanced expenses Paying back wages Avoid 50/50 partnerships DOC# 11

Founder Issues

Avoid informal promises of equity

Avoid promising percentages

Advanced expenses

Paying back wages

Avoid 50/50 partnerships

EMPLOYEE EQUITY Why give employees a stake? Motivation – the potential big payoff Team spirit – “skin in the game” Compensation – tie compensation to collective success Conserve cash – cash is king for startups DOC# 12

Why give employees a stake?

Motivation – the potential big payoff

Team spirit – “skin in the game”

Compensation – tie compensation to collective success

Conserve cash – cash is king for startups

EMPLOYEE EQUITY What is a stock option? Most prevalent employee equity Contract Right to purchase stock # shares Purchase price Term DOC# 13

What is a stock option?

Most prevalent employee equity

Contract

Right to purchase stock

# shares

Purchase price

Term

EMPLOYEE EQUITY Why options? Lock in low price Upside with no downside No current out of pocket expense Delay income tax DOC# 14

Why options?

Lock in low price

Upside with no downside

No current out of pocket expense

Delay income tax

TYPES OF STOCK Types of Stock Preferred stock vs. Common stock Preferred = special rights/preferences Common = plain vanilla Why the distinction? Outside investors demand special rights Justifies lower price for common – avoid… Tax problems Accounting problems Size of the gap DOC# 15

Types of Stock

Preferred stock vs. Common stock

Preferred = special rights/preferences

Common = plain vanilla

Why the distinction?

Outside investors demand special rights

Justifies lower price for common – avoid…

Tax problems

Accounting problems

Size of the gap

BRIDGE FINANCING Bridge Financings Convertible promissory notes “ Bridge” the company to an event (i.e. next equity financing) Convertible Convert into what? When convert? What terms to convert under? DOC# 16

Bridge Financings

Convertible promissory notes

“ Bridge” the company to an event (i.e. next equity financing)

Convertible

Convert into what?

When convert?

What terms to convert under?

BRIDGE FINANCING Bridge Financings Kicker for added risk Early = risky Less money = risky Warrants Warrant “coverage” Secured vs. unsecured Advantages Quick No valuation established DOC# 17

Bridge Financings

Kicker for added risk

Early = risky

Less money = risky

Warrants

Warrant “coverage”

Secured vs. unsecured

Advantages

Quick

No valuation established

STARTUP HORROR STORIES Unaccredited investors in the angel round Founder who's gone but owns a large chunk of the company Promised payment of back salaries to executive team/employees Paying employees equity only versus minimum wage (WA state gotcha) Founder deadlock Poor corporate records that kill the deal DOC# 18

Unaccredited investors in the angel round

Founder who's gone but owns a large chunk of the company

Promised payment of back salaries to executive team/employees

Paying employees equity only versus minimum wage (WA state gotcha)

Founder deadlock

Poor corporate records that kill the deal

STARTUP ISSUES Questions? DOC# 19

Questions?

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