Published on March 2, 2009
Accountability Pressures Common Formative Assessments for Career Technical Education Increased accountability February 23, 2009 NCLB Career Pathways Conference “One more thing to do” Herb Smith, ROP Instructor, Connection Graphic Arts, Glendale Unified School District Sarah Vielma, Consultant, Business Occupations, LACOROP Karen Nelson, Assistant Director, Curriculum & Instruction, LACOROP Impact The large-scale external assessment is Large Scale Assessment an assessment of the students’ Minimal impact on student academic growth learning that is summative, whereas Late received results Broad curriculum change the classroom internal assessment is an assessment for the students’ Common Formative Assessment learning that is formative. Assesses student understanding of a particular standard at that time -Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, & Chappuis, 2004 Assessment scored and analyzed collaboratively Assessment informs instruction What are Common Formative Workshop Objectives Assessments? What are common formative Periodic or interim assessments assessments? Collaboratively designed How do they connect to other powerful Administered within a CTE course instruction and assessment practices? Matches pre- and post- assessments What are the components of a quality Intentionally created and aligned common formative assessment? Reflect a blend of items What are the benefits of using Analyzed by a group of educators common formative assessments to both Provides predictive value teachers and students? 1
Manufacturing and Product How do they connect to other Development Industry Sector powerful instruction and assessment practices? Graphic Arts Technology Career Pathway What are Priority Standards? Standard Unwrapping a Standard A2.0 Students understand graphic arts Determining the Big Idea functions and copy preparation, including applications of desktop publishing and Writing Essential Questions electronic imaging software. Understanding Priority Standards Performance Indicators as a Foundation A2.3 Know desktop publishing and electronic imaging software principles and What are Priority Standards? processes used to prepare graphic arts products. Unwrapping a Standard Determining the Big Idea A2.4 Produce a printed product using Writing Essential Questions desktop publishing and electronic imaging software. Example: Medical Treatment Plan Graphic Organizer E3.0 Students understand the purpose and Concepts: Need to KNOW about Medical Treatment components of a treatment plan: Plans E3.1 Understand the roles and responsibilities, (1) UNDERSTAND [identify, define] (roles and responsibilities) within their scope of practice, that contribute to the design and implementation of a treatment (5) UNDERSTAND [prioritize, evaluate] (process of prioritizing and organizing work) plan. (4) DETERMINE (resources) E3.2 Understand the process of prioritizing and (2) KNOW [demonstrate] (process) organizing work in accordance with the patients’ and clients’ treatment plans. Roles and responsibilities E3.3. Determine the resources available for the Within scope of practice effective implementation of treatment plans for Contribute to design of a treatment plan patients and clients. Contribute to implementation of a treatment plan E3.5 Know the process for the documentation of Work process actions in accord with the facility’s protocol and Prioritizing regulatory guidelines. Organizing 2
New Bloom’s Taxonomy Example: Leadership OLD NEW 5.3: USE critical thinking skills to MAKE informed decisions and SOLVE problems. Evaluation Creating 9.1: UNDERSTAND the characteristics and benefits of teamwork, leadership, and Synthesis Evaluation citizenship in the school, community, and Analysis Analyzing workplace settings. Application Applying 9.3: UNDERSTAND how to organize and structure work individually and in teams for Comprehension Understanding effective performance and attainment of goals. Knowledge Remembering Graphic Organizer Graphic Organizer Concepts: Need to KNOW about Teamwork and (3) Use (critical thinking skills to make effective performance decisions and solve problems) Critical Thinking Skills Informed Decisions (4) Understand (characteristics and Problem Solving benefits of teamwork, leadership, and Characteristics and Benefits citizenship) – level 4 is distinguish Teamwork (5) Understand (organization and structure Leadership of work) – level 5 is justify, support, Citizenship Organization and Structure of Work evaluate Individually Teams Unwrapped Standard: Unwrapped Standard Graphic Arts Know (Know what?) desktop publishing A2.3 Know desktop publishing and electronic imaging software principles electronic imaging software principles processes used and processes used to prepare Prepare/Produce (Prepare what?) graphic arts products. graphic arts products printed product Use (Use what?) A2.4 Produce a printed product using desktop publishing principles desktop publishing and electronic electronic imaging software principles imaging software. 3
Understanding Priority Standards Instructional Tasks as a Foundation Know What are Priority Standards? Prepare/ Unwrapping a Standard Produce Determining the Big Idea Writing Essential Questions Use BIG IDEAS Example: Medical Treatment Plan 2. Implementing a treatment plan by STANDARD importance and in order is efficient for E3.1 Understand the roles and the patient. responsibilities, within their scope of practice, that contribute to the design and 3. There are many things available in implementation of a treatment plan. effectively implementing a treatment plan. BIG IDEA The appropriate staff is essential in 4. Documentation is important for keeping providing a proper treatment plan. the patient alive and you out of jail. Understanding Priority Standards BIG IDEA: Graphic Arts as a Foundation You can do effective work What are Priority Standards? when you know the goals of Unwrapping a Standard the work you want to Determining the Big Idea produce. Writing Essential Questions 4
Example: Medical Treatment Plan Example: Medical Treatment Plan STANDARD Implementing a treatment plan by importance E3.1 Understand the roles and responsibilities, within their scope of practice, that contribute to the design and and in order is efficient for the patient. implementation of a treatment plan. ESSENTIAL QUESTION How do you determine what comes first in UNWRAPPED patient treatment? (1) UNDERSTAND [identify, define] (roles and responsibilities) BIG IDEA Documentation is important for keeping the The appropriate staff is essential in providing a proper patient alive and you out of jail. treatment plan. ESSENTIAL QUESTION What are the rules of documentation and why ESSENTIAL QUESTION are they important? Who is involved with a patient and why is it important? Assessment Writing and Essential Question: Graphic Arts Scoring Guides What good does a flyer do? Why would anyone need to use one? Assessment Formats Item Writing Guidelines How can you get people to Creating Scoring Guides notice your flyer first? Types of Assessment When (teachers) …know and understand principles of sound Large-scale or external assessments assessment, know how to translate Small-scale or internal assessments those principles into sound Norm-referenced assessment assessments and quality information Criterion-referenced assessment about students…a range of benefits will accrue to all. Selected-response assessment -Stiggins, 1997 Constructed-response assessment Performance assessment 5
Constructed-Response Selected-Response Multiple choice Short Constructed-Response True/False Matching Extended Constructed-Response Fill-in (with answers provided) What are the components of a What are the components of a quality common formative quality common formative assessment? assessment? 1. Identify Priority Standards 8. Administer pre-assessment 2. Identify Interdisciplinary Standards 9. Plan learning activities 3. Unwrap Standards 10. Teach 4. Determine Big Ideas 11. Administer post-assessment 5. Write Essential Questions 6. Review Assessments Types & Formats 7. Select those that will provide the most credible evidence of student achievement Selected-Response Selected-Response Example: Leadership Example: Medical Treatment Plan As a manager you will need to make many informed decisions throughout the day, which of (1) UNDERSTAND [identify, define] (roles and the following will allow you to make the best responsibilities) decision: Which of the following is the responsibility of the past experience a. critical thinking skills Nursing Assistant? b. analysis of options a. transcribes information from the treatment plan to their c. In the workplace there is diversity, differing worksheet. opinions, many ideas and points of view. This b. carries out all patient care duties as prescribed in the represents the power of: treatment plan. teamwork c. transcribes information from the patient’s chart to the a. racial tension treatment plan. b. gender differences d. contacts other departments to schedule tests and c. leadership procedures. d. 6
Selected-Response True/False Example: Medical Treatment Plan (5) UNDERSTAND [prioritize, evaluate] Write several questions (process of prioritizing and organizing Entirely true or entirely false work) Write so students must think What would be the first procedure a CNA Write items in pairs would provide to a bed-ridden patient? Equal number T and F a. Vital signs Equal item length b. Skin care Avoid negative language c. Feed Use A for True and B for False d. Change clothes Example: Matching Example: True/False Select the appropriate branch of government for each function below. Write your response in the Level 4 – DRAW (inferences, conclusions, blank next to the number. You will use an answer generalizations) more than once. __ 1. Ratifies foreign treaties _____ The little frog knew the milk would __ 2. Creates laws a. Executive turn into butter if he kept paddling. __ 3. Has veto power b. Legislative __ 4. Decides if laws are c. Judicial working fairly _____ The little frog hoped that if he kept __ 5. Represents US in the paddling, he would live. world Example: Fill-In with Answer Choices Provided Short Constructed-Response ______________, we recommend following the sequence of 10 steps for improving the use of common formative assessments that teacher teams design, administer, score, and analyze. Recall and understanding Good source of common errors Which word or phrase could best provide a Easy to score transition that would unify its ideas with the previous sentence? Ask direct question A. After that B. For example C. In addition D. To accomplish this 7
Extended Constructed-Response Example: Example: Medical Treatment Plan Soil Composition & Management (1) UNDERSTAND [identify, define] (roles and responsibilities) 1. What are the four major characteristics (5) UNDERSTAND [prioritize, evaluate] (process of prioritizing and one use for each of the soil types? and organizing work) (4) DETERMINE (resources) 2. What are four major soil categories (2) KNOW [demonstrate] (process) detailed on a soil map and explain how each characteristic influences best-use As a CNA, you are given a bed-ridden patient and decisions? her/his treatment plan. Fill-in your worksheet 3. What are the three major soil sections identifying the care you need to provide on the AM shift. List the tasks in order, identify the resources and components of each section? needed, and explain the need for each resource. Evaluate and document the patient’s response to your care. Assessment Writing Example: Medical Treatment Plans and Scoring Guides As a CNA, you are given a bed-ridden patient and their treatment plan. Fill-in Understanding Scoring your worksheet identifying the care you Guides and Rubrics need to provide on the AM shift. List the tasks in order, identify the resources needed, and explain the need for each resource. Document the patient’s Writing Rubrics response to your care. Exemplary Proficient Level All “Proficient” criteria plus: Identifies the duties of the RN related to AM care. Orally discusses personal interpretation of each patient response with charge nurse Worksheet includes all CNA AM care. Proficient Worksheet includes all CNA AM care. All AM duties listed All AM duties listed Duties prioritized Duties prioritized All resources identified All resources identified Purpose of each resource explained Purpose of each resource explained Response is documented for each task Spelling counts! Response is documented for each Progressing task Meets 5 of the “Proficient” criteria Spelling counts! Beginning Meets fewer than 5 of the “Proficient” criteria Task to be repeated after re-teaching 8
Using Data Data 1. Collect and chart data and results 2. Analyze results Teachers # Stud. # Prof. + #Prof. - % Prof.+ Tom 25 3 22 12% 3. Write S.M.A.R.T. goal 4. Select effective teaching strategies Betty 27 5 22 19% 5. Results indicators Susan 25 5 20 17% TOTALS 77 13 64 17% Putting the Pieces Together What are the benefits of using common formative Schools are busy places Decisions are student-centered assessments to both Meet student needs teachers and students? Gain confidence Information on Training Resources to Ponder Ainsworth, Larry and Viegut, Donald, “Common Formative Assessments: How to Connect Standards-Based MakingStandardsWork.com Instruction and Assessment,” Corwin Press, 2006 Popham, W. James, “Test Better, Teach Better: The Instructional Role of Assessment,” Association for Center for Leadership and Learning Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003 Englewood, Colorado Pollock, Jane E. and Ford, Sharon M., “Improving Student Learning One Principal at a Time,” Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2009 9
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