Standard 4 review

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Published on March 27, 2014

Author: loridelee

Source: slideshare.net

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Science 7 Standard 4 Test Review

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 1.True or False: Neck length of a giraffe is an inherited trait and cannot be changed by the giraffe's behavior.

ANSWER: TRUE! You cannot pass ACQUIRED TRAITS onto offspring.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 2. How many parents are required in asexual reproduction?

ANSWER: One. Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only. The offspring is an identical genetic copy of its parent.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 3. How do inherited traits help animals survive?

ANSWER: For example: Birds in a desert climate survive on soft parts of cactus. Scientists observed that during a drought, many of the birds died. The ones that survived had larger beaks and were able to crack open and eat hard seeds that would ordinarily not be used. The next generation of birds all had large beaks. The inherited trait of larger beaks help the birds change foods so they could survive.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 4. Define: Genetic Engineering

ANSWER The deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. Farmers benefit from the study of genetic engineering. For example: Many U.S. farmers who grow genetically engineered (GE) crops are realizing substantial economic and environmental benefits -- such as lower production costs, fewer pest problems, reduced use of pesticides, and better yields -- compared with conventional crops

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 5. The joining of an egg and sperm takes place in what type of reproduction?

ANSWER: Sexual reproduction

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 6. How does asexual reproduction occur in the human body?

ANSWER: Cells in the body divide to form new cells.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 7. Both parents of a cat have green eyes. This cat's offspring also have green eyes. This is an example of what type of trait?

ANSWER: An inherited trait.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 8. Bacteria reproduce sexually by dividing in two. How does the genetic material of the offspring compare to the parent cell?

ANSWER: The offspring are identical to their parent, as long as no mutations have occurred. They are 100% genetically the same.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 9. Genetic diseases are________ traits passed down from parent to offspring.

ANSWER: Genetic diseases are INHERITED traits passed down from parent to offspring.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 10. Is being a good basketball player an inherited trait or an acquired trait? Explain:

ANSWER: Being a good basketball player is an acquired trait. You have to work and practice to be a great basketball player. You are not born to be a great basketball player just because your parents may have been great basketball players. You cannot inherit an acquired trait.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 11. Do the following organisms reproduce sexually or asexually? • Human • Amoeba • Squirrel • Lobster

ANSWER: Human- Sexually Amoeba- Asexually Squirrel- Sexually Lobster- Sexually

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 12. Sperm and eggs are known as_______________cells.

ANSWER: Sperm and eggs are sex cells.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 13. __________chromosomes determine your gender.

ANSWER: Sex chromosomes determine your gender.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 14. Genes carry information that determine your_________.

ANSWER: Genes carry information that determine your traits.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 15. The passing of traits from parent to offspring is called _________________.

ANSWER: The passing of traits from parent to offspring is called heredity.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 16. If you cross a purple flower with the genotype pp, with a red flower with the genotype PP, the possible genotypes in the offspring are: (draw a Punnett Square)

ANSWER: All four choices of offspring on the Punnett Square would be Pp. They would all be heterozygous and would have the dominate trait of being a red flower.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 17. Male sex chromosomes are represented by which two letters?

ANSWER: Male sex chromosomes- XY

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 18. Female sex chromosomes are represented by which two letters?

STANDARD 4 REVIEW Female sex chromosomes- XX

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 19. Define phenotype:

ANSWER: Phenotype- The organisms expressed physical trait. For example: blonde hair, blue eyes, dark skin, etc. The genotype is the set of alleles that determines the expression of the trait, for example: AA, Aa, aa

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 20. Which of the following is an example of a phenotype? a. Blue eyes b. BB c. Fingers d. All of the above

ANSWER: The PHENOTYPE is the expressed physical trait, so it would be the BLUE EYES.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 21. Both of an organism's inherited alleles are its__________________.

ANSWER: The inherited alleles are its GENOTYPE. A genotype is the set of alleles that determine the expression of a particular trait. For example: AA, Aa, aa

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 22. Define homozygous.

ANSWER: Relating to a cell that has two identical alleles for a particular trait. For example: RR (two dominant alleles) rr (two recessive alleles). REMEMBER: Homo means SAME. Hetero means DIFFERENT.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 23. Define heterozygous.

ANSWER: Relating to a cell that has two different alleles for and takes on the dominate trait. For example: Rr, Pp, Ss REMEMBER: Homo means SAME. Hetero means DIFFERENT.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 24. If and organism is purebred (homozygous) for a trait it has two _______or two ________ alleles.

ANSWER: For an organism to be purebred, it would have to have two dominant or two recessive alleles. For example: RR or rr It would NOT be heterozygous: Rr

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 25. How does adaptation help an organism?

ANSWER: Adaptations help to improve the organism's ability to survive and reproduce new offspring.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 26. Why would a farmer use selective breeding?

ANSWER: In plants, a farmer may use selective breeding to produce larger fruits, make plants more disease resistant, or have a better yield (produce MORE fruit). In animals selective breeding may be used to breed the cows that give the most milk, or chickens that lay the most eggs, etc.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 27. What is a chromosome?

ANSWER: Chromosomes are the structures in a cell that are made of DNA.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 28. Define gamete:

ANSWER: A cell that fuses with another reproductive cell of the opposite sex during fertilization. (a sex cell)

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 29. Who is Gregor Mendel? Where did he do his research?

ANSWER: Gregor Mendel is known as the Father of Genetics. He was a monk who did his research in a monastery. He crossbred pea plants to learn more about how traits are passed on from parent to offspring.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 30. What is a Punnett Square used for?

ANSWER: A Punnett Square is a tool used to predict possible offspring combinations of two parents through sexual reproduction.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 31. In eukaryotic cells, which organelle contains the DNA?

ANSWER: DNA is found in the NUCLEUS of a cell.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 32. How do the large flat teeth of a cow help it to survive?

ANSWER: The large flat teeth of a cow help it to more easily grind grasses better. Eating grass helps the cow to survive.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 33. What adaptive advantage do the stripes on the tiger provide?

ANSWER: The stripes on a tiger provide camouflage in tall grass.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 34. Why do wolves have large, sharp teeth?

ANSWER: Wolves have large, sharp teeth to help them kill their prey.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 35. Can a fish live on land? Why or why not?

ANSWER: A fish has traits adapted for a water environment but not a land environment. So, a fish cannot live on land.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 36. What characteristic would you expect an insect to have? a. High adaptability b. Low reproductive rate c. Few different kinds d. Ability to fly

ANSWER: A- HIGH ADAPTABILITY Insects are extraordinarily adaptable creatures, having evolved to live successfully in most environments on earth, including deserts and the Antarctic. The only place where insects are not commonly found is the oceans. If they are not physically equipped to live in a stressful environment, insects have adopted behaviors to avoid such stresses. Insects possess an amazing diversity in size, form, and behavior.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 37. Why would an insect be more likely to survive than a monkey if placed into another ecosystem?

ANSWER: Insects are extraordinarily adaptable creatures, having evolved to live successfully in most environments on earth, including deserts and the Antarctic. The only place where insects are not commonly found is the oceans. If they are not physically equipped to live in a stressful environment, insects have adopted behaviors to avoid such stresses. Insects possess an amazing diversity in size, form, and behavior. The adaptablitly of insects would make them more likely to survive than a monkey placed into another ecosystem.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 38. Why do dairy cows produce more milk per cow than ever before?

ANSWER: People have changed the genetic make-up of cows.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 39. When a genetic trait allows a group of animals to be more likely to survive and reproduce, what happens to that trait?

ANSWER: That trait will become more common because the animals with the trait will reproduce and their offspring will inherit the trait.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 40. Why are the bones of a bird hollow?

ANSWER: The hollow bones make the bird lighter and so it is easier for the bird to fly.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 41. Why do dogs grow thicker fur in the winter and shed it in the summer?

ANSWER: The ability to grow and shed hair gives dogs the ability to survive in different weather patterns.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 42. List four examples of adaptations that animals might have to make them better able to survive their environment.

ANSWER: There are MANY examples. Here are a few: • A snow-shoe hare has a white coat in winter to blend in with the snow. • A cheetah can fun really fast and get away from predators or catch prey. • A skunk sprays a really bad smell to warn off predators. • A porcupine has quills to defend itself from predators.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 43. Define natural influences

ANSWER: Natural Influences explain how organisms in a population develop traits that allow them to survive and reproduce. These traits will most likely be passed on to their offspring. The trait becomes more common. REMEMBER- Pepper Moths example.

STANDARD 4 REVIEW 44. Define man-made influences.

ANSWER: Artificial selection or man-made influences occur when humans select which plants or animals to breed to pass specific traits on to the next generation. For example, a farmer may choose to breed only cows that produce the best milk and not breed cows that produce less milk. The trait becomes more common.

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