Stability & Instability

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Information about Stability & Instability

Published on November 19, 2008

Author: maliadamit

Source: slideshare.net

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Mass movement (Paper 1)

Stability & Instability

Does forced uplift trigger continued uplift? Yes - unstable atmosphere No - stable atmosphere Does rising air cool more or less rapidly than environment it is rising through? Cooler parcel -> denser -> sinks back toward initial position Warmer parcel -> lighter -> continues rising

Yes - unstable atmosphere

No - stable atmosphere

Does rising air cool more or less rapidly than environment it is rising through?

Cooler parcel -> denser -> sinks back toward initial position

Warmer parcel -> lighter -> continues rising

Parcel cooling rate depends only on whether parcel is saturated or not Unsaturated parcel cools at constant dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) - no condensation occurring Nearly constant at 1.0C / 100m Saturated parcel cools at slower saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR) condensation is occurring

Unsaturated parcel cools at constant dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) - no condensation occurring

Nearly constant at 1.0C / 100m

Saturated parcel cools at slower saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR) condensation is occurring

Unsaturated parcel cools at constant dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR)

Saturated parcel cools at slower saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR) condensation is occurring Condensation releases latent heat into atmosphere, reducing rate of cooling Typical value of about 0.6C / 100m

Saturated parcel cools at slower saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR) condensation is occurring

Condensation releases latent heat into atmosphere, reducing rate of cooling

Typical value of about 0.6C / 100m

Saturated parcel cools at slower saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR)

Environmental lapse rate (ELR) Vertical change in temperature moving through a free atmosphere Highly variable, depends on many different factors

Vertical change in temperature moving through a free atmosphere

Highly variable, depends on many different factors

Adiabatic processes Adiabatic processes are reversible Adiabatic processes in atmosphere mainly related to vertical motion Vertical motion subjects air parcels to changes in pressure Rising air parcels expand due to reduced pressure and cool Sinking air parcels contract due to increased pressure and warm

Adiabatic processes are reversible

Adiabatic processes in atmosphere mainly related to vertical motion

Vertical motion subjects air parcels to changes in pressure

Rising air parcels expand due to reduced pressure and cool

Sinking air parcels contract due to increased pressure and warm

Stability ELR < SALR Rising parcel always cools more rapidly than environment Becomes denser than the environment and sinks Environment becomes more stable when lower levels cooled or upper levels warmed

ELR < SALR

Rising parcel always cools more rapidly than environment

Becomes denser than the environment and sinks

Environment becomes more stable when lower levels cooled or upper levels warmed

 

Instability Absolute instability: DALR < ELR Rising parcel always cools more slowly than environment Becomes less dense than environment and continues to rise

Absolute instability: DALR < ELR

Rising parcel always cools more slowly than environment

Becomes less dense than environment and continues to rise

 

Conditional instability Conditional instability: SALR < ELR < DALR Unsaturated parcel cooling at DALR cools more rapidly than environment Saturated parcel cooling at SALR cools more slowly than environment Stability or instability conditional on whether parcel is saturated or not

Conditional instability: SALR < ELR < DALR

Unsaturated parcel cooling at DALR cools more rapidly than environment

Saturated parcel cooling at SALR cools more slowly than environment

Stability or instability conditional on whether parcel is saturated or not

 

Summary .                                                                                                                      

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