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SSC Class 4

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Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Quintilliano

Source: authorstream.com

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Sensory mapping and re-mapping:  Sensory mapping and re-mapping Class III Re-mapping:  Re-mapping Brain activity → Sensation motion Blindsight: Brain activity (functionality) Sensation Brain activity Sensation Sensation Re-mapping: Touch :  Touch ‘Touch qualia’ – unlike green, motion, fear.. Ownership – this is my hand, physical self Location – in both body surface, and world Re-mapping: Is the connection Brain activity  Sensation fixed genetically or modified by experience: Ownership, Locations are modified Rubber-hand Setup:  Rubber-hand Setup Botvinick & Cohen,Nature 391, 1998 Rubber hands feel touch that eyes see Rubber Hand: Reports:  Rubber Hand: Reports Subjective reporting: Initially you feel the touch in one place, see the rubber hand touched in another. Later the report is that the locations coincide, feel it at the location of the rubber hand. Filled-in a questionnaire: ‘It seemed as if I were feeling the touch of the paintbrush in the location where I saw the rubber hand touched’. It seemed as though the touch I felt was caused by the paintbrush touching the rubber hand. I felt as if the rubber hand were my hand. Rubber Hand; Displacement:  Rubber Hand; Displacement Dispalcement: With eyes closed, the right index finger was drawn along a straight edge until it was judged to be in alignment with the index finger of the left hand. After the illusion, locations were displaced toward the rubber hand, the displacement varying significantly in proportion to the reported duration of the illusion The two effects disappeared with asynchrony. Rubber Hand and SCR:  Rubber Hand and SCR FH: Fake hand, SCR: electrodes P: partition S: Subject CSR: measure of psychological and autonomic arousal, changes by stress, arousal and anxiety. Armel & Ramachandran, Proc Roy Soc 2003 Ramachandran: Free Reports:  Ramachandran: Free Reports The illusion was very vivid for many subjects remarks such as, ‘wow’, ‘that was bizarre’ or ‘oh my God!’ I found myself looking at the dummy hand thinking it was actually my own. many subjects behaved as if they anticipated pain when the rubber finger was bent back, pulled their real hand away from the experimenter Fake Hand: bent finger:  Fake Hand: bent finger Finger bent back. Subjective rating (bar) and SCR. Rating: 0: no effect, 10: felt exactly like real hand. The effects depend on synchronous stimulation during training. Fake Hand: normal vs long :  Fake Hand: normal vs long Armel and Ramachandran 2003 Effect reduces with less realistic conditions. ‘Who decides’? – subjects know that this is a fake hand Rubber hand: fMRI :  Rubber hand: fMRI Ehrsson et al, Science 305, 2004 Rubber hand – no vision fMRI:  Rubber hand – no vision fMRI Ehrsson et al, J. Neuorscience 25, 2005 Rubber Hand, No Vision :  Rubber Hand, No Vision Subjective rating. High rating of ‘stroking my own hand’ after synchronous training, not after asynchronous training. Pointing error: ‘point to the index finger of your other hand’: pointing midway, in the direction of the rubber hand, for the illusion conditions. Ehrsson et al, J. Neuorscience 25, 2005 Rubber hand: fMRI:  Rubber hand: fMRI Premotor Cortex:  Premotor Cortex the ventral premotor cortex in both humans and monkeys has motor and cognitive functions. The cognitive functions include space perception, action understanding and imitation. Rubber-hand fMRI, Conclusions:  Rubber-hand fMRI, Conclusions Compared activation measured during the illusion to similar stimulation, without the illusion (using asynchrony in the training). Response in premotor cortex, cerebellum associated with the illusion of touching one’s own hand. The rated strength of the illusion correlated with the degree of premotor and cerebellar activity. The illusion changed the brain response to represent the stimulus as related to the subject’s own body. Activity in premotor cortex is related to the subjective feeling of body ownership Premotor and ownership:  Premotor and ownership The feeling of ownership of our limbs is a fundamental aspect of self-consciousness. Our results associate activity in the premotor cortex with the feeling of ownership of a seen limb. Condition of people denying their limbs – associated with premotor dysfunction. Recording from area 5:  Recording from area 5 Gaziano et al Science (290) 2000 Rubber Hand: Monkey physiology:  Rubber Hand: Monkey physiology Gaziano et al Science (290) 2000 Real hand always invisible, FH always visible Some enhancement for Real=L and FH=L Monkey physiology With ‘rubber-hand training’:  Monkey physiology With ‘rubber-hand training’ Slide23:  Cells in area 5 of the parietal cortex. No touch of the hidden or visible arm, just responses to these configurations. 30% showed significant effect of the fake arm. No effect of the fake arm if the arm was not realistic enough, or used the opposite arm. Also tried Rubber hand training, with touch: The effect increases. No increase without synchrony. Coding the Location of the Arm by Sight Michael S. A. Graziano,* Dylan F. Cooke, Charlotte S. R. Taylor Science 290, 2000 Re-mapping: Conclusions:  Re-mapping: Conclusions Touch qualia’ – unlike green, motion, fear.. Ownership – this is my hand Location – in both body surface, and world Location can change Ownership can change Ownership related to activity in pre-motor cortex Can the qualia itself change? Will examine next Re-mapping: depends on co-activation, vision dominates. :  Re-mapping: depends on co-activation, vision dominates. Stimulation-Visual → C(x) Stimulation-Touch → C(x’) Stimulation-Visual → C(x) Stimulation-Touch C(x’) Two components to touch location: Skin (S), and W (world). S → W changes Re-mapping: Related Phenomena Re-calibration of vision and touch:  Re-mapping: Related Phenomena Re-calibration of vision and touch Prism adaptation: in the long term vision is re-calibrated Prism inversion (Stratton 1987) Vision without inversion of the retinal image. In the short term, vision wins (Rock-Victor Science) Related phenomena: Phantom Limbs :  Related phenomena: Phantom Limbs Amputees can have sensations in the missing limb. Can happen spontaneously. Can be generated by touching the face. Enhances with eyes closed. Enhanced with mirror illusion Hunter et al Brain 2003 The Physical self: Rejecting (rather than incorporating) a limb:  The Physical self: Rejecting (rather than incorporating) a limb Limb denial: A patient with lesions in right parietal cortex, resulting in loss of sensation and movement on the left side of the body, may firmly deny that her left limbs are in fact hers. On occasion, a patient with limb denial will use the normal right arm to try to throw the paralyzed left leg out of the bed, insisting it is alien. Alien hand Syndreome: Patients with lesions in the anterior cingulate region may exhibit alien hand syndrome. Patients can feel normal sensation in the hand, but feel that they have no control over the movements of the 'alien' hand. Instead, the hand has the capability of acting independent of their conscious voluntary control. The ‘‘Pinocchio illusion’’ :  The ‘‘Pinocchio illusion’’ The ‘‘Pinocchio illusion’’ Subjects feel that a body part changes size and shape. Vibration of the skin over the tendon of a joint extensor muscle elicits a vivid kinaesthetic illusion that the joint is passively flexing. The illusory movements are caused by the excitation of muscle spindles in the vibrated muscle. If the hand is grasping the nose and the biceps tendon is vibrated, one experiences the illusion that the hand is moving away from the face and the nose is becoming elongated. Slide32:  Ehrsson et al PLOS 2005 The perception of the body image changes. This is accompanied mainly by activity in pre-motor cortex. Incorporating tools into the body representation :  Incorporating tools into the body representation Iriki & Maravita TICS 2004 Bimodal neurons in intraparietal cortex Re-shaping bimodal representation:  Re-shaping bimodal representation Visual RF move to the display, and are re-shaped (Similar to rubber hand)

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