Published on February 19, 2014
JANET J. NELSON RN
o o o o Review structures and functions of respiratory system. Analyze the physiology of respirations Define respiratory capacity terms Distinguish between respiratory disorders
Review: Pharyngeal tonsils Palatine tonsils Nasopharynx Opening for Eustachian Tube Oropharynx Laryngopharynx and Epiglottis
o o o Glottis is the space between the vocal cords Laryngeal muscles control length and size of opening by moving arytenoid cartilages Sound is produced by the vibration of vocal cords as air is exhaled
Primary Bronchus Secondary Bronchus Tertiary Bronchus Bronchiole
o o o o How many lobes on the right? How many lobes on the left? Why the differences? What is the cardiac notch?
Notice: **Diaphragm moves down and ribs move out with inspiration **Expiration is passive with diaphragm & intercostal muscles relaxing
o o o o o o o Tidal Volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve Volume Vital Capacity VC=TV+IRV+ERV Forced Vital Capacity Residual Volume
BRIEF DESCRIPTION ETIOLOGY SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS (S&S) DIAGNOSIS (DX) PREVENTION AND TREATMENT (TX) PROGNOSIS (PX)
* Eupnea * Hypoxia * Apnea * Suffocation * Dyspnea * Asphyxia * Hyperpnea * Cheyne Stokes * Orthopnea * Cyanosis * Tachypnea * Anoxia
Sneezing: Coughing: Sputum: Yellowish-green, cloudy - bacterial Rusty or dark-colored – pneumococcal pneumonia Large amounts purulent with foul odor – bronchiectasis Thick, tenacious mucous - asthma or cystic fibosis Blood tinged – chronic cough, tumor or TB Hemoptysis with frothy sputum – pulmonary edema
Breathing patterns may be altered in respiratory diseases. Normal 12-20/min Kussmauls respirations: Wheezing: Stridor: Breath sounds: Rales, Rhonchi, Absence of breath sounds
Destruction of respiratory cilia Addictive Carcinogenic (Lung and oral cancer) Emphysema COPD MI Cardiac arrhythmias CVA Peripheral Artery Disease Duodenal and gastric ulcers “Crows feet” Low birth weigh infants for a smoking mom
More than 4,000 individual compounds have been identified in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Among these are more than 60 compounds that are known carcinogens (cancer-causing agents). There are hundreds of substances added by manufacturers to cigarettes to enhance the flavor or to make the smoking experience more pleasant. Some of the compounds found in tobacco smoke include ammonia, tar, and carbon monoxide. Exactly what effects these substances have on the cigarette consumer’s health is unknown.
Smoking causes more deaths each year than all of these combined:4 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Illegal drug use Alcohol use Motor vehicle injuries Firearm-related incidents Smoking causes about 90% (or 9 out of 10) of all lung cancer deaths in men and women. More women die from lung cancer each year than from breast cancer.5
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a group of common chronic respiratory disorders that are characterized by progressive tissue degeneration and obstruction in the airways of the lung. These disorders are emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma. Fifth leading cause of death and disability in the U.S. Features in common: HO smoking Dyspnea with progression in severity Cough with frequent pulmonary infections Hypoxia with retained Carbon dioxide
A serious, chronic lung condition where the alveoli enlarge, losing elasticity and capillaries around alveoli are destroyed. (Permanently inflated alveolar air spaces). Patient loses the ability to exhale CO2 and must use incredible amount of energy to exhale. Etiology: cigarette smoking, environment pollutants, genetics.
S&S: Onset is insidious…dyspnea, hyperventilation, barrel chest, pursed lips with exhalation, anorexia with weight loss. DX: Chest X-ray, PFT. TX: Avoid irritants, stop smoking, pulmonary rehab programs, bronchodilators, O2, antibiotics with infection, maintain nutrition. PX: Some reversal of airway obstruction with S&S improvement can be obtained initially, but long term the prognosis is less favorable.
Permanently inflated Alveoli Barrel Chest
DISTENTED ALVEOLI IN EMPHYSEMA. NOTICE THE CO2 TRAPPED IN THE ALVEOLI EVEN AFTER DEATH
The mucosa of the LR tract become severely inflamed and produce excessive mucous. Impaired ventilation is the result, with increase risk of pneumonia. (Remember smokers are missing cilia). Etiology: HO cigarette smoking or living in urban industrial area. S&S: constant cough, tachypnea, SOB, thick & purulent sputum, rhonchi & cough worse in a.m., cyanosis, weight loss and signs of cor pulmonale.
DX: History, chest X-ray, PFT and bronchoscopy. View: MedlinePlus Interactive Tutorials: Bronchoscopy TX: Reducing exposure to irritants, prompt treatment of infection, Use of expectorants, bronchodilators and low flow O2. PX: Guarded; although consistent treatment can slow the progression.
Voluminous sero-mucinous secretion in the trachea in a patient with chronic bronchitis.
Chronic condition of increased reactivity of the tracheobronchial tree. Two types: Extrinsic-involves acute episodes triggered by a hypersensitivitiy reaction to an inhaled allergen. Intrinsic, with an adult onset, is a response to other stimuli, e.g. cold, exercise, stress, irritants like smoke. Genetics plays a part in etiology. Characterized by episodes of reversible airway obstruction, due to, bronchoconstriction, mucous production and mucosa edema.
S&S: cough, dyspnea, wheezing, possible sternal retractions, thick and tenacious mucous, tachycardia, hypoxia. DX: The best tool is a PFT during attack, then chest X-ray shows hyperinflation, allergy test, and a CBC with elevated eosinophils. TX: Minimize attacks, use of bronchiodilators. PX: Acute episodes can be life threatening. Status astmaticus: is a persistent severe attack of asthma that does not respond to therapy. It may be fatal.
Lung cancer is common site of both primary and secondary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer is 90% HO smoking. Low cure rate-less than 7% survive over 5 years. Secondary: Metastasis develop as cancer cells travel in blood and lymph from heart to first small vessels in the the lungs. Etiology: Smoking (cilia missing and not able to remove the carcinogens caught in mucous), occupational exposure of chemicals e.g silica, asbestos.
S&S: Insidious, because “smokers cough” masks S&S. Early: persistent productive cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, + Chest X-ray. Chest pain as the pleura and/or mediastinum involved. DX: Chest X-ray, bronchoscopy with biopsy. TX: Complete resection of the diseased lung, but with rapid metastasis, often not a choice. Radiation and chemotherapy but many tumors are not responsive. PX: Continues to be poor, unless tumor is in very early stages of development.
Left lung cancer
The lymphatic and circulatory system can deliver cancer cells to the lung = secondary cancer
An infectious and inflammatory disease of the lungs, acquired by inhaling droplets containing bacteria. Etiology: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is causative agent. The primary lesion is usually in lung with bacteria surviving in dried form for months. . The infection begins with a primary lesion which causes necrosis, fibrosis and calcification. The infection than goes dormant for possible years. S&S: Vague with anorexia, malaise, fatique, weight loss. Later- low grade fever, night sweats,hemoptysis, chest pain and weakness.
DX: Mantoux test, Chest X-ray, (walled off lesions are identified), positive sputum culture. TX: Drug therapy with multiple antituberculosis agents. Contacts of patient must receive prophylactic treatment for one year and receive TB testing. TB is considered infectious; therefore good handwashing and respiratory precautions must be practiced. Place patient in isolation with HCW using N-95or HEPA respirator mask & room air is vented for UV ray exposure. PX: Early and complete treatment offers an excellent prognosis. Other organs can be involved without adequate treatment.
Typical X-ray of TB After treatment
This viral, infective condition is most common in young & elderly. RSV is one of the most important causes of lower respiratory tract illness and can be fatal. Etiology: RSV is the causative agent. The greatest occurrence is during the winter months. Premature infants are at greatest risks. Most people have experienced several RSV infections in their life. Most are self limiting. RSV is spread by contact with infective secretions.
S&S: Cold-like symptoms with nasal congestion, otitis media, cough and URI. As the virus progresses downward to the lower respiratory tract, the patient experiences fever, malaise, lethargy, cough and dyspnea. DX: The clinical picture and thorough PE are key. If necessary a nasal lavage with viral culture can be ordered. TX: Palliative. Hospitalization may be necessary to ensure adequate respiration.
CF is a chronic dysfunction of the exocrine glands affecting multiple body systems; it is the most common fatal genetic disease. Etiology: It is an inherited disorder and is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Each of us inherits two CFTR genes, one from each parent. Children who inherit an abnormal CFTR gene from each parent will have CF. •Children who inherit an abnormal CFTR gene from one parent and a normal CFTR gene from the other parent will not have CF. They will be CF carriers.
S&S:May be apparent soon after birth or develop in childhood.Primarily attacks the lungs and digestive tract with production of copious thick and sticky mucous that accumulates and blocks glandular ducts. Meconium ileus Salty sweat (Mom notices with kiss, positive sweat test) Signs of malabsorption (steatorrhea,& abd.distention) Chronic cough and respiratory infections Failure to meet normal growth milestones DX: Sweat test, check stools for fat content and trypsin (pancreatic enzyme) PFT, Chest X-ray, ABG.
TX: CF is considered a fatal disease. However, with early diagnosis and treatment, the life expectancy has improved greatly during the past few decades. High calorie, high NaCl diet, postural drainage, pancreatic enzyme supplementation, O2 prn. Lung transplants are a last resort.
Include: coryza, sinusitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, epiglottitis, & influenza. Viral etiology for cold, croup and influenza. Bacterial for sinusitis and epiglottitis. Secondary bacterial infection may follow viral. S&S: Cold and flu-red, swollen mucous membranes of nose & pharynx with increase secretions, rhinorrhea, maybe sore throat and fever. The infection advancing to larynx causes hoarseness and cough (bronchi).
S&S: Colds are usually 7 days in duration while the flu is sudden with fever, fatique lasting for weeks. Croup-barking cough,(due to edema and mucous with possible obstruction) with hoarse voice and inspiratory stridor. Epiglottitis-”red ball obstruction”, severe sore throat, refuse to swallow, anxious breathing and inspiratory stridor. DX: History and exam. TX: Viral-palliative, Prevention of influenza with immunization. Bacterial-antibiotics, supportive care. PX: Good with treatment. Secondary infections common.
What is the clear 7.0 tube???
Include: bronchiolitis (RSV), acute bronchitis, & pneumonia. Etiology: Acute bronchitis may be bacterial secondary infection following URI, or result of irritative inhalants. Pneumonia may be primary or secondary, bacterial or viral. May follow aspiration when fluids pool or cilia are reduced. Classifications of pneumonia: The causative agent Anatomic location Pathophysiologic changes.
S&S: Acute bronchitis is often preceded by URI. Cough is initially dry and nonproductive and then changes to viscid and later abundant and mucoid or mucopurulent. Pneumonia S&S vary: cough, fever, SOB while at rest, chills, chest pain, cyanosis and hemoptysis. DX: History, exam, chest X-ray, sputum C&S. TX: antibiotics, expectorants, broncholdilators. PX” Bronchitis can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia can range from mild to life threatening, being the 5th leading cause of death in the US.
Pneumonia fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, keeping oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. The alveolus on the left is normal, while the alveolus on the right is full of fluid from pneumonia.
Pneumonia as seen on chest x-ray. A: Normal chest x-ray. B: Abnormal chest x-ray with shadowing from pneumonia in the right lung (left side of image).
Refers to fluid collecting in alveoli and interstitial spaces. This results in decreased oxygen to blood and reduces lung expansion Often a consequence of CHF but there are other etiologies S&S Mild cough orthopnea and rales. Hemoptysis often occurs. As the disease progresses the breathing becomes more labored, hypoxemia increases and cyanosis develops TX: Treat the etiology and palliative care
http://msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/webanatomy/ timed/default.asp Respiratory #1 Upper Respiratory #1 Bronchial Tree #2 Respiratory Review Sheet The Incredible Journey
#1 Pharyngeal Tonsil #3 Lingual Tonsil #2 Palatine tonsil #4 Epiglottis
o http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia /em_DisplayAnimation.aspx? gcid=000039&ptid=17
o http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia /em_DisplayAnimation.aspx? gcid=000018&ptid=17
o o o o Medulla Oblongata Pons Phrenic Nerve Intercostal Nerves