SpltCENS2

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Published on April 10, 2008

Author: Sigismondo

Source: authorstream.com

SpotLight : Focusing on Energy Consumption of Individuals:  SpotLight : Focusing on Energy Consumption of Individuals Younghun Kim Zainul M. Charbiwala Akhilesh Singhania Mani B. Srivastava What is SpotLight?:  What is SpotLight? An WSN application Profile individual’s energy consumption Provide real-time energy profile Help users identify areas of inefficient power consumption A prototype implementation May not be a thorough solution May have many limitations But can point out interesting points and observations Overview:  Overview Motivation Problem description and discussion Related work Prototype system implementation and design Evaluations Conclusion Future work Motivation:  Motivation How much energy do I consume? What about in the lab and home? I am unaware of my energy usage pattern Hard for me to optimize energy consumption What about other resources? Water and Gas Levels of Electricity Monitoring:  Levels of Electricity Monitoring Fundamental Questions:  Fundamental Questions How to measure energy consumption of an appliance Direct Measurement Easy and precise but may not be scalable Indirect Measurement Hard and less precise but may be scalable How to know who is using it Annotation : Users write down when and which Inference From absolute position From relative position among users and appliances And on/off status of appliances Intuitive Ways to Answer to the Questions:  Intuitive Ways to Answer to the Questions How do we know someone is using appliances An appliance is on A is in front of the appliance and interacts with it How do we say someone is wasting energy A turned on a light A left it on and went somewhere Some ambiguities from socio-economical reasons On behalf of B, A is using an appliance. Who is responsible for the energy consumption? A cooks for others, who is responsible? Objectives:  Objectives Give some useful information for users Amount of wasted energy Amount of useful energy per each appliance or each person Construct fair and comprehensive policy Less arguable policy Agreeable policy Reliable policy Develop an easy deployable and usable system Less human intervention Off-the-shelf experience Related Works:  Related Works Intelligent Powermeter, Der intelligente Stromzähler, Germany Real-time Powermeter monitoring device From http://www.enbw.com Related Works:  Related Works Demand response system, Berkeley Control HVAC/Lighting Based upon occupancy or demand From Demand Response Enabling Technology Development Tech report, Berkeley Related Works:  Related Works MEMS nonintrusive electrical monitoring device, Leland et. al., Berkeley Electrical monitoring Energy scavenging for motes From Energy scavenging power sources for household electrical monitoring, Eli S. Leland et al., Berkeley Related Works:  Related Works At the Flick of a Switch, Shwetak N. Patel et al., Gatech Detecting and Classifying Unique Electrical Events on the Residential Power Line Less intrusive, real-time From At the Flick of a Switch, Shwetak N. Patel et. al, Gatech Related Works:  Related Works Ambient Devices Provide users with customized information From http://www.ambientdevices.com Classes of Appliances:  Classes of Appliances Underlying Assumptions Someone, using appliances, is benefiting from them Indirect use, ambiguous use: not a technical question or even harder to be addressed Classification of appliances Class I: Serviced inside physical vicinity. E.g. Television, coffee machine and most of home appliances. Focus of our work Class II: Serviced with remote access. E.g. servers, networked printers and some office appliances Class III: Serviced independent of access. E.g. Refrigerator, alarm clocks Definition : Service Range:  Definition : Service Range Service range of an appliance is a user defined vicinity boundary Token : Abstraction that indicates current status of usage Token Issue/Expire : Case I:  Token Issue/Expire : Case I Token Issue/Expire : Case II:  Token Issue/Expire : Case II Prototype System Implementation:  Prototype System Implementation Users carry tag motes Appliances instrumented with a power meter and tag reader Server to store and process data Hardware Prototype:  Hardware Prototype MicaZ ‘appliance’ motes MicaZ+COTS Power Measurement device Measuring power consumption and RSSI value MicaZ ‘tag’ motes MicaZ+Accelerometer Triggered by accelerometer and broadcast its ID MicaZ ‘base’ mote MicaZ+Laptop Processing and backup Sensorbase Remote spatio-temporal DB Service Range and Radio Signal Strength:  Service Range and Radio Signal Strength MicaZ Mote as Tags and Readers RSSI values give rough range information RSSI based localization technique makes use of it RSSI gives rough range information between a tag and reader Relative position could be inferred Limitation : Service Range cannot be arbitrary Note : Home and office setting is static Technical Challenges :  Technical Challenges RSSI values vary depending upon Antenna characteristics, users movement, obstruction of LOS and others Simple threshold may not be good In some cases, Calibration helps : Antenna Characteristics Hysteresis helps : Noise along boundary Those hamper usability issues Evaluation Setting : Ideal Service Range:  Evaluation Setting : Ideal Service Range 4 ‘appliance’ Motes Three SOS S/W modules : PM, tag reader, UART 2 ‘tag’ Motes One SOS S/W module : tag 1 BaseNode Mote One SOS module : Snooping Measured Service Range : Coffee Maker:  Measured Service Range : Coffee Maker Measured Service Range : Bedroom Lamp:  Measured Service Range : Bedroom Lamp Measured Service Range : Livingroom Lamp:  Measured Service Range : Livingroom Lamp Measured Service Range : TV:  Measured Service Range : TV Some Observations:  Some Observations Service Range for RFID tag I about -26 of the living-room lamp about -20 of the TV about -5 of the coffee machine Service Range for RFID tag II about -22 of the living-room lamp about -14 of the TV about -8 of the coffee machine => Need to calibrate tag characteristics => Need to reject noise effect Three Schemes:  Three Schemes Unified Token Scheme Service range = Single RSSI value Calibrated Token Scheme Service range = Tag specific RSSI value Hysteresis Token Scheme Service range = Tag specific RSSI value Expire tokens when RSSI overcomes Hysteresis Ground Truth:  Ground Truth Using Campaignr with a local Sensorbase Took Pictures and annotated users’ status Sampling rate : 10s Ground Truth tells us Who is/are using appliances Who has/have left appliances on/off Evaluation in terms of False Positive and Negative : TV:  Evaluation in terms of False Positive and Negative : TV Evaluation in terms of False Positive and Negative : Bedroom Lamp:  Evaluation in terms of False Positive and Negative : Bedroom Lamp Evaluation in terms of False Positive and Negative : Livingroom Lamp:  Evaluation in terms of False Positive and Negative : Livingroom Lamp Performance of Various RSSI, Vicinity, Token Mechanisms:  Performance of Various RSSI, Vicinity, Token Mechanisms Appliance Power and Energy Consumption per User:  Appliance Power and Energy Consumption per User Useful/Wasted Power and Energy for TV:  Useful/Wasted Power and Energy for TV Useful and Wasted Consumption for all Appliances:  Useful and Wasted Consumption for all Appliances Conclusion:  Conclusion Proof-of-concept implementation Presented a system that profiles energy consumption pattern in individual level Detection scheme was reasonably successful under simple evaluation setting Presented various information that encourages people optimize their energy consumption pattern But the system needs to Be easy to deploy and use Have comprehensive and fair policy Future work:  Future work More comprehensive view needed Deployment under more complex setting needed Monitor other resources : Water Cope with various RSSI uncertainties or try other localization technique? Improve usability and scalability Cope with various limitations

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