Spirochaetes

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Information about Spirochaetes
Health & Medicine

Published on March 4, 2014

Author: aashuvj1234

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This is a series of lectures on microbiology useful for undergraduate medical and paramedical students

SPIROCHAETES Dr. Ashish Jawarkar M.D.

Spirochaetes   Spiro = flexible, motile Three families    Treponema – syphilis Borrelia – relapsing fever, Lyme disease Leptospira - leptospirosis

Treponema pallidum     regular spirals Cannot be seen by ordinary microscopy in wet films, cannot be stain by ordinary stains Can be seen under dark ground microscopy Can be stained by silver impregnation

Syphilis       Acquired by sexual contact Enter through abrasions Multiply at site of lesion Primary Secondary Tertiary

Primary syphilis      Hard chancre – at site of entry Usually on genitalia Covered by thick pus – rich in treponemes Regional lymphnodes swollen and rubbery Heals in 2 weeks – leaving a scar – without treatment

chancre

Secondary syphilis    1-3 months after chancre Rashes in oro pharynx, condylomata at mucocutaneous junctions Spirochetes are abundant in lesions

Condyloma acuminata

Latent syphilis   Following secondary syphilis, there is a latent period During this time, diagnosis is possible only by serological tests

Tertiary syphilis     Months to years after primary lesion Represents delayed hypersensitivity Organisms are not present in lesions Include aneurysms, gummata, neurological manifestations

aneurysm

gumma

Dementia paralytica

Lab diagnosis      Sample – serum from chancre, gumma Collected by scraping base/margin Highly infectious – handle with care Wet films examined under dark background DFA-TP – direct fluoroscent antibody test for Treponema pallidum

Serological tests  Non specific     VDRL (veneral disease research laboratory) RPR (rapid plasma reagin) TPI Specific    FTA-ABS TPHA EIA

VDRL    We use cardiolipin antigen obtained from bovine heart Look for antibodies in serum of patient Mix serum with antigen – look for agglutination under microscope

RPR – rapid plasma reagin test  Antigen is attached to carbon particles – can see agglutination with naked eye

False positive reactions       Leprosy Malaria Relapsing fever Infectious mononucleosis Hepatitis Tropical eosinophlia

FTA-ABS    Fluoroscent treponemal antibody absorption test Mix patients serum with artificial treponemes The artificial treponemes are immotile under dark field microscope

Treatmemt    Penicillin G injection single shot is sufficient in early cases Doxycycline Ceftriaxone in neurosyphilis

Borrelia     Transmitted to humans through skin Bite of lice or ticks B. recurrentis – relapsing fever B. burgdorferi – Lyme disease

Lyme disease

Leptospira   Lepto – thin Delicate spirochaetes with large number of closely wound spirals and characteristic hooked ends

L. Interrogans - leptospirosis

Selective media  EMJH MEDIUM – (Ellinghausen, Mc Cullough, Johnson, Harris)

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis    Fever Jaundice Hepato renal damage (Weil’s disease)

Lab diagnosis   Demonstration of leptospira in urine Serological tests like sensitized erythrocyte lysis test complement fixation agglutination indirect immunofluorosence

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