Published on November 6, 2007
Addressing Containment in API Standards for Low Temperature and Cryogenic (LT&C) Storage Tanks: Addressing Containment in API Standards for Low Temperature and Cryogenic (LT&C) Storage Tanks API Subcommittee PVT Special Issues Session – May 1, 2006 FACT: FACT API 620 does not provide a complete tank standard for approximately 70% (13 of 19) of the CB&I LNG tanks of the last 2 years. (Coverage for Leak Containment is missing) If API standards on these tanks are to retain influence, they cannot ignore this. Presentation Outline: Presentation Outline Information Containment for LT&C Tanks LT&C Tanks Today API 620 Today European Standards Development American Standards Development Call to Action API Standards Coordination Discussion Containment for LT&C Tanks: Containment for LT&C Tanks Containment addresses the question: What if the tank leaks? In API 650: Environmental Protection is the main issue Addressed in 650 - Appendix I Leak Detection Containment for LT&C Tanks: Containment for LT&C Tanks Containment addresses the question: What if the tank leaks? In LT&C Tanks: SAFETY is the main issue Products boiling, extremely cold, and extremely flammable Containment expectations are very high Containment design is complex Yet API 620 has NO CONTAINMENT PROVISIONS Today’s LT&C TankTypical Single Containment(App. R and Q address): Today’s LT&C Tank Typical Single Containment (App. R and Q address) Holds Insulation and Vapor Holds Cold Liquid Containment Bund Holds Leaked Liquid Today’s LT&C TankDouble Containment : Today’s LT&C Tank Double Containment Holds Cold Liquid Secondary Containment Holds Leaked Liquid ----- (Often Concrete) Today’s LT&C TankDouble Containment : Today’s LT&C Tank Double Containment Holds Cold Liquid Secondary Containment Holds Leaked Liquid ----- (Sometimes Steel) Today’s LT&C TankFull Containment : Today’s LT&C Tank Full Containment Holds Cold Liquid Secondary Containment Holds Leaked Liquid and Vapor ----- (Often Concrete) Today’s LT&C TankFull Containment : Today’s LT&C Tank Full Containment Holds Cold Liquid Secondary Containment Holds Leaked Liquid and Vapor ----- (Sometimes Steel) API History & Status: API History & Status API 620 (for Low Pressure Storage Tanks) Began in 1956 Appendix R - for Refrigerated Products Began in 1965 Appendix Q - for Cryogenic Products Began in 1970 Only Single Containment addressed European Standards Development: European Standards Development European Standards More recent than API Address Single, Double, Full Containment BS7777 Began in 1993 PD7777: Began in 2000 EN14620: About to be published (2006) Timeline: Timeline European Standards Content: European Standards Content Outline of BS7777 and EN14620 Part 1: General Part 2: Metallic Components Part 3: Concrete Components Part 4: Insulation Components Part 5: Testing, Drying, Purging, and Cooldown Today’s LNG Tank Marketplace: Today’s LNG Tank Marketplace Today’s Tank Marketplace: Today’s Tank Marketplace All USA new and proposed grassroots LNG facilities are full containment Not just an LNG issue Products more dangerous than LNG Ammonia Ethylene Today’s Ammonia tks mostly full containment. American Stds Development- NFPA -: American Stds Development - NFPA - National Fire Protection Association NFPA59A is Production, Storage, and Handling of LNG 2006 Edition Defines single, double, full containment Double and Full containment requires no design spill Single containment requires greater space American Stds Development- American Concrete Institute -: American Stds Development - American Concrete Institute - NFPA59A requested ACI to create standard for Concrete Structures for Refrigerated Liquefied Gas Containment ACI 376 started work in 2003 ACI considering a broad scope ACI 376 Development: ACI 376 Development ACI 376 draft outline Chapter 1: General (includes overall tank concepts as in BS7777, part 1) Includes for primary concrete tank. Chapter 2: Materials and Tests Chapter 3: Design Loads Chapter 4: Minimum Performance Criteria Chapter 5: Load Factors & Strength Reduction Factors Chapter 6: Analysis and Design Chapter 7: Detailing Chapter 8: Foundations (applicable to steel tanks also?) Chapter 9: Construction Chapter 10: Commissioning Chapter 11: References Recommended Goals for API: Recommended Goals for API API LT&C Tank Standards Providing a Complete Solution API LT&C Tank Standards Continuing as World Leaders Recommended API Actions: Recommended API Actions Modernize our LT&C tank standard Address the range of containment types Revise terminology consistent with other stds e.g. API’s secondary component is not a secondary containment Coordinate with ACI and NFPA Consider FERC/DOT acceptability for LNG Possible Approaches: Possible Approaches Revisions to API 620 R and Q OR Create a new Standard for LT&C tanks Consider other scope additions in areas of: External blast loads External projectile loads OBE and SSE earthquake Design of Thermal Corner Protection Pumptubes and Standpipes Commissioning Concept for LNG Stds: Concept for LNG Stds NFPA 59A Steel tank shall be per API When you need single, double, full containment Concrete containment shall be per ACI 376 API LT&C Tank Standard Steel tank req’mts as affected by containment Reference to ACI 376 and other stds ACI 376 Containment Standard Necessary Coordination: Necessary Coordination NFPA: Make sure API improvements meet NFPA and regulatory (FERC, DOT) needs. ACI Reference ACI 376 in API standards Coordinate coverage of subjects of joint interest (such as testing/commissioning). Conclusion: Conclusion A number of options exist, But doing nothing is not one of them ??? Discussion ???