SPATIAL PLANNING ENERGY

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Published on November 2, 2007

Author: Tatlises

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Slide1:  SPATIAL PLANNING AND ENERGY USE - CRITICAL CHOICES FOR MUNICIPALITIES 20TH CENTURY INFLUENCES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TOWNS AND REGIONS:  20TH CENTURY INFLUENCES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TOWNS AND REGIONS INFLUENCES ON DEVELOPMENT: CHEAP FUEL PRICES DOMINANCE OF THE MOTOR CAR AND EXPANSION OF THE SUBURBS SEPARATION OF LAND USES THROUGH PLANNING THE POLITICAL SEPARATION OF PEOPLE RESULTS: MASSIVE MOVEMENT EXCESSIVE ENERGY USE HUMAN HARDSHIP, ESPECIALLY POORER PEOPLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RECENT DEVELOPMENTS HAVE DONE LITTLE TO REVERSE 20TH CENTURY TRENDS :  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS HAVE DONE LITTLE TO REVERSE 20TH CENTURY TRENDS Source: State of Energy Report for Cape Town 2003 FOSSIL FUELS DOMINATE TRANSPORT DOMINATES THE MAGNITUDE AND TYPE OF URBAN ENERGY USE – CAPE TOWN EXAMPLE INEFFICIENCIES FORCE CAR USE BUT NOT ALL CAN AFFORD: USE OF CAR ON WORK TRIP -SOUTH AFRICA 1997:  INEFFICIENCIES FORCE CAR USE BUT NOT ALL CAN AFFORD: USE OF CAR ON WORK TRIP -SOUTH AFRICA 1997 Data source: R. Behrens in Dewar, D. & Todeschini, F. 2003. Rethinking urban transport after modernism: lessons from South Africa. Ashgate Only 8% of poorest households use a car on a work trip THE CURRENT SITUATION – END OF AN ERA:  THE CURRENT SITUATION – END OF AN ERA Fossil fuel use is reducing internationally, because of: Increasing scarcity; Need to reduce emissions; Need to reduce impact on climate. WHAT IS REQUIRED: MOBILIZE LOCALLY AVAILABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY:  WHAT IS REQUIRED: MOBILIZE LOCALLY AVAILABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY There is a mandate for a shift to consumption of renewable energy. It is technically possible for the KwaZulu-Natal to provide virtually all its liquid fuel requirements and become an exporter of electricity using only renewable sources of energy. Gandar, M.V. 1989. Integrated Energy Planning For Natal KwaZulu. Natal Town And Regional Planning Supplementary Report Volume 33 2. WHAT IS REQUIRED: MORE ENERGY-EFFICIENT TOWNS & REGIONS:  2. WHAT IS REQUIRED: MORE ENERGY-EFFICIENT TOWNS & REGIONS Spatial planning has a mandate to restructure inefficient towns and regions. Therefore, municipalities need to reduce the built-in energy demand through spatial restructuring: Build pedestrian-friendly environments; Commit to efficient & viable public transport; Build working local economies, therefore reducing need for unnecessary movement of people and goods. HOW TO RESTRUCTURE:  HOW TO RESTRUCTURE RECOGNIZE THAT THE TREND IS UNSUSTAINABLE CREATE A MUNICIPAL PLAN FOR: SETTLEMENT GROWTH MORE DENSE TOWNS AND CITIES SPECIAL ATTENTION TO HOW THE MORE-DENSE SETTLEMENTS ARE MADE AND STRUCTURED THEREFORE, MAKE THE FOLLOWING CRITICAL CHOICES… Source: McHarg, I.L. 1969. Design with nature. New York, Natural History Press. CRITICAL CHOICES:  CRITICAL CHOICES CRITICAL CHOICE 1: DECIDE WHERE SETTLEMENT GROWTH SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT GO IN THE MUNICIPALITY CRITICAL CHOICE 2: ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN A FIXED URBAN EDGE CRITICAL CHOICE 3: INCREASE URBAN DENSITIES AT LEAST THREE TIMES CRITICAL CHOICE 4: CREATE A WEB OF PEDESTRIAN-PUBLIC TRANSPORT MOVEMENT CRITICAL CHOICE 5: REINFORCE THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM WITH A FAMILY OF PUBLIC SPACES CRITICAL CHOICE 6: REINFORCE THE PUBLIC SPACES WITH SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS CRITICAL CHOICE 1: DECIDE WHERE SETTLEMENT GROWTH SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT GO:  CRITICAL CHOICE 1: DECIDE WHERE SETTLEMENT GROWTH SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT GO THE CURRENT TREND: EXPANSIVE, LOW DENSITY SPRAWL OVER THE COUNTRYSIDE THIS INVOLVES ALL FORMS: LOW-INCOME RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT, HIGH INCOME RESIDENTIAL, INFORMAL HOUSING; RESIDENTIAL ESTATES… The following slides show this in the coastal areas of KwaZulu-Natal Slide11:  Sprawling low-density settlement growth… Slide12:  ..impossible to service economically with urban infrastructure; environmentally destructive; brutal to its inhabitants… Daily cost of public TP to commuter {R/day}:  Daily cost of public TP to commuter {R/day} ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management Slide14:  Financial sustainability dictates that more ( fully serviced) housing projects occur inside urban edge AND more projects inside the Urban Core Housing Location ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management Slide15:  Source: ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management 4. Results: Infrastructure costs in North Slide16:  Source: ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management 4. Results: Infrastructure costs in North Slide17:  Source: ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management Slide18:  Source: ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management 4. Results: Infrastructure costs in North Slide19:  Source: ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management 4. Results: Infrastructure costs in North LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES IN KZN: COMPARISON OF THE 1994 & 2000 CLASSIFICATIONS OF LANDUSE Source: Natural Resources Section: DAEA:  LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES IN KZN: COMPARISON OF THE 1994 & 2000 CLASSIFICATIONS OF LANDUSE Source: Natural Resources Section: DAEA What is the Trend in Conservation Status?:  What is the Trend in Conservation Status? Source: EZEMVELO KZN WILDLIFE IT IS NECESSARY TO PLAN WHERE SETTLEMENT GROWTH SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT GO:  IT IS NECESSARY TO PLAN WHERE SETTLEMENT GROWTH SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT GO Not all places are the same - growth cannot go everywhere. Therefore, draw up a plan for settlement growth in the municipality. Source: Natural Resources Section: DAEA Slide23:  WHAT THE LAND SUGGESTS - EXAMPLE OF THE KIND OF ANALYSIS THAT PLANNERS MUST DO Source: McHarg, I.L. 1969. Design with nature. New York, Natural History Press. THE PLAN SHOULD SHOW URBAN, RURAL AND WILD AREAS:  THE PLAN SHOULD SHOW URBAN, RURAL AND WILD AREAS People’s environment comprises urban, rural and wild areas - to be full person, access to all is a basic human requirement. This is also the basis of a diverse local economy. Therefore, the plan shows the full range: THE URBAN PART FOLLOWS THE ROUTES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT & BULK INFRASTRUCTURE:  THE URBAN PART FOLLOWS THE ROUTES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT & BULK INFRASTRUCTURE Urban development naturally tends to follow the lines of movement: The following examples show linear development of the urban settlement along the movement routes… Slide26:  China: Urban development follows the route in a linear manner… Source: Sinclair, K. et al. 1988. OVER CHINA. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Slide27:  China: Settlements form ‘beads-on-a-string’ – this energy efficient pattern is the most efficient for provision of bulk services, social facilities and public transport. Source: Sinclair, K. et al. 1988. OVER CHINA. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. NEED FOR A CLEAR DISTINCTION BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL:  NEED FOR A CLEAR DISTINCTION BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL A clear distinction: Allows decision on where urban services should and should not go; Shows where to place decentralized, ‘off-grid’ services in rural areas e.g. stand-alone power generation, rural water supply…; Conserves agricultural resources and biodiversity; Supports development of local agricultural economies & tourism economies – not undermined by urban sprawl. Combined Bulk infrastructure Costs :  Combined Bulk infrastructure Costs ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY: Corporate Policy Unit – Development Planning & Management Slide30:  ‘Extension of the electricity network to low-density settlements is economically unsustainable – will need to be supplemented with off-grid options, such as solar power’ (NSDP) OVER TIME, ‘OFF-GRID’ RURAL SERVICES MAY INTEGRATE WITH URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE IF DESIRED :  OVER TIME, ‘OFF-GRID’ RURAL SERVICES MAY INTEGRATE WITH URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE IF DESIRED Source: Miller, G. T. Living in the environment. Brooks/Cole. CRITICAL CHOICE 2: ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN AN URBAN EDGE :  CRITICAL CHOICE 2: ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN AN URBAN EDGE THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL MUST BE PRESERVED ON THE URBAN EDGE: THIS GIVES LOCAL ACCESS TO NATURE; CLOSE URBAN AND AGRICULTURAL LINKAGES; CONTAINS SPRAWL AND RELEASES URBAN POTENTIAL OF DENSE POPULATIONS; REMOVES CONFLICTS WITH NATIONAL POLICIES OVER AGRICULTURAL LAND AND ECOLOGICAL RESERVES Slide33:  SHIFT AWAY FROM THIS….. Slide34:  ..to urban containment and a clear urban edge Source: Tilleray B. & Turpin, R. undiscoveredfrance Cassell WHAT SHOULD BE DONE:  WHAT SHOULD BE DONE DEFINE AN URBAN EDGE THAT CONTAINS CITY SPREAD PROTECT THE URBAN EDGE WITH A BAG OF REINFORCING POLICIES AND LEGISLATION (NATIONAL, PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL) AN INTERNATIONAL EXAMPLE FOLLOWS – IT SHOWS THE NEED FOR OVERLAPPING PROVISIONS… PREVENTING SPRAWL – AN INTERNATIONAL EXAMPLE:  Source: Miller, G. T. Living in the environment. Brooks/Cole. PREVENTING SPRAWL – AN INTERNATIONAL EXAMPLE CRITICAL CHOICE 3: INCREASE URBAN DENSITIES at least THREE TIMES:  CRITICAL CHOICE 3: INCREASE URBAN DENSITIES at least THREE TIMES DENSITY CONCERNS THE NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS PER HECTARE HIGHER DENSITIES ARE THE BASIS FOR: HIGH LEVELS OF URBAN OPPORTUNITIES; GREATER SUPPORT FOR SERVICES; LESS MOVEMENT TO REACH THE OPPORTUNITIES; MORE EFFICIENT PUBLIC TRANSPORT; AND LESS ENERGY USE. WAYS OF INCREASING DENSITY:  WAYS OF INCREASING DENSITY Increasing NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS ON THE RESIDENTIAL LAND; REDUCING UNNECESSARY USE OF NON-RESIDENTIAL LAND BY: Planning for pedestrians; Reducing road widths; Using wasted space infill; Revising wasteful standards for facilities etc; Multi-functional use of facilities. Slide39:  MOVE AWAY FROM THIS…. Slide40:  …TO DENSITIES SIMILAR TO THIS MOROCCO EXAMPLE Source: National Geographic Magazine QUALITY OF THE DENSE RESIDENTIAL CONDITION – THE URBAN COURT-YARD, MOROCCO:  QUALITY OF THE DENSE RESIDENTIAL CONDITION – THE URBAN COURT-YARD, MOROCCO Source: Gardens of delight: the great Islamic gardens: edited by Christa von Hantelmann. Koln,  DuMont Publishers.  2001. Slide42:  …A COURTYARD IN SPAIN Source: Cheneviere, A. 1997. THE MEDITERRANEAN. VILO Slide43:  TUNISIA, NORTH AFRICA… Source: Cheneviere, A. 1997. THE MEDITERRANEAN. VILO Cyprus – a modest residential space of high urban quality..:  Cyprus – a modest residential space of high urban quality.. Source: Cheneviere, A. 1997. THE MEDITERRANEAN. VILO Slide45:  CHINA: COURTYARDS OF AN AGRICULTURAL VILLAGE Source: Sinclair, K. et al. 1988. OVER CHINA. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. WOODSTOCK, CAPE: From 17 condemned units to re-design of 126 NEW UNITS for ownership and 64 RENTED ROOMS Source: Dewar, D. & Uytenbogaard, R.S. 1991. South African cities: a manifesto for change. Urban Problems Research Unit,UCT.:  WOODSTOCK, CAPE: From 17 condemned units to re-design of 126 NEW UNITS for ownership and 64 RENTED ROOMS Source: Dewar, D. & Uytenbogaard, R.S. 1991. South African cities: a manifesto for change. Urban Problems Research Unit,UCT. REMEDIAL ACTION: EXAMPLE OF RESIDENTIAL INFILL REMEDIAL ACTION: EXAMPLE OF RECLAIMING LAND FROM EXCESSIVE ROAD RESERVES:  REMEDIAL ACTION: EXAMPLE OF RECLAIMING LAND FROM EXCESSIVE ROAD RESERVES Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. Slide48:  THIS STREET IS ABOUT AS WIDE AS AN ACCESS DRIVEWAY IN A KZN SCHEME Source: Tilleray B. & Turpin, R. undiscoveredfrance Cassell STREET AS AN URBAN ROOM – PAROS, GREECE:  STREET AS AN URBAN ROOM – PAROS, GREECE Source: PAROS ANTIPAROS Toubi’s, Athens Slide50:  This street is part of a regional hiking trail in Nepal Remedial action: Growth of a ‘street’: from a single function road space to an urban ‘room’ or public space of many functions:  Remedial action: Growth of a ‘street’: from a single function road space to an urban ‘room’ or public space of many functions Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. CRITICAL CHOICE 4: CREATE A WEB OF PEDESTRIAN - PUBLIC TRANSPORT MOVEMENT:  CRITICAL CHOICE 4: CREATE A WEB OF PEDESTRIAN - PUBLIC TRANSPORT MOVEMENT Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. A spatial concept, based on a movement system, has a profound influence on the urban environment STRUCTURING THE CITY – POWER OF THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM:  STRUCTURING THE CITY – POWER OF THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM Increased density is an essential step towards energy efficiency and releasing the benefits of urban life – but alone, it is not enough. How the city is made and structured profoundly affects this. The key to this is: Creating a system of continuous routes to carry pedestrians and public transport; Putting development along these: economic activities, social and commercial facilities Over time, these routes become activity corridors and life-supporting systems. Slide54:  The existing concept of movement is one of draining people, money and activity to distant elsewhere's Slide55:  SALT RIVER – WOODSTOCK, CAPE: MOVEMENT ROUTES ARE ACTIVITY ROUTES Source: Dewar, D., Uytenbogaardt, R.S. et al. circa 1976. Housing A comparative evaluation of urbanism in Cape Town. Dave Philip, Cape Slide56:  SALT RIVER – WOODSTOCK: Mixed uses support movement routes and visa versa; denser residential in close proximity Source: Dewar, D., Uytenbogaardt, R.S. et al. circa 1976. Housing A comparative evaluation of urbanism in Cape Town. David Philip, Cape SALT RIVER – WOODSTOCK: RESIDENTIAL DWELLINGS OFF THE ACTIVITY ROUTES:  SALT RIVER – WOODSTOCK: RESIDENTIAL DWELLINGS OFF THE ACTIVITY ROUTES Source: Dewar, D., Uytenbogaardt, R.S. et al. circa 1976. Housing A comparative evaluation of urbanism in Cape Town. Dave Philip, Cape Slide58:  A SYSTEM DOMINANTLY PEDESTRIAN ORGANIZES ACTIVITIES IN SPACE, KATHMANDU Slide59:  KATHMANDU, NEPAL Slide60:  Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. EXAMPLE OF REMEDIAL ACTION:  EXAMPLE OF REMEDIAL ACTION DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVITY ROUTE OVER TIME Source: City of Cape Town MUNICIPAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK draft 1999 REMEDIAL ACTION: EXAMPLE OF SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVITY ROUTE:  REMEDIAL ACTION: EXAMPLE OF SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVITY ROUTE Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. CRITICAL CHOICE 5: REINFORCE THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM WITH A FAMILY OF PUBLIC SPACES :  CRITICAL CHOICE 5: REINFORCE THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM WITH A FAMILY OF PUBLIC SPACES Photo: Natalie Astrup WHY PUBLIC SPACES ARE IMPORTANT:  WHY PUBLIC SPACES ARE IMPORTANT Local economies happen in public places; For poorer people, all of life cannot be lived in the private dwelling; These places house the main social institutions of the time; They are the primary elements that affect the quality of towns as experienced by people. Slide65:  IS THIS SUPPORTING A VIBRANT LOCAL ECONOMY?.... Slide66:  …OR IS THIS? Slide67:  MOST SQUARES ARE NOT VERY BIG Slide68:  NOT ALL ARE INTENSELY BUSY Source: Tilleray B. & Turpin, R. undiscoveredfrance Cassell Slide69:  SQUARES ARE ON A HUMAN SCALE Source: Tilleray B. & Turpin, R. undiscoveredfrance Cassell PERIODICALLY, INTENSIVELY ACTIVE:  PERIODICALLY, INTENSIVELY ACTIVE Drying grain – Bhaktapur, Nepal Source: GEO SPECIAL THE HIMALAYAS Slide71:  KATHMANDU, NEPAL – STREET AS PUBLIC SPACE THE CITY’S BACKBONE – A COLLECTION OF SPACES AND PUBLIC FACILITIES ALONG THE MOVEMENT ROUTE :  THE CITY’S BACKBONE – A COLLECTION OF SPACES AND PUBLIC FACILITIES ALONG THE MOVEMENT ROUTE VENICE, ITALY ISFAHAN, IRAN MARIANNHILL PLAN COMMISSIONED BY PROVINCE OF KWAZULU-NATAL Source: Dewar, D. & Uytenbogaard, R.S. 1991. South African cities: a manifesto for change. Urban Problems Research Unit,UCT. CRITICAL CHOICE 6: REINFORCE THE PUBLIC SPACES WITH SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS :  CRITICAL CHOICE 6: REINFORCE THE PUBLIC SPACES WITH SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Source: Rudofsky, B. 1969. Streets for People. Anchor Press/Doubleday What defines public spaces?:  What defines public spaces? Locate public facilities and social services around public spaces along the movement channels; Thus, the public spaces celebrate the facilities and; The facilities are used to give a sense of scale, definition and enclosure to the space. The following slide talks of the types of services at the different levels of activity… EXAMPLE FROM CITY OF CAPE TOWN MUNICIPAL SDF:  EXAMPLE FROM CITY OF CAPE TOWN MUNICIPAL SDF SOCIAL FACILITIES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS:  SOCIAL FACILITIES OF DIFFERENT ORDERS Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. PULLING IT TOGETHER: MOVEMENT, PUBLIC SPACES AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS:  PULLING IT TOGETHER: MOVEMENT, PUBLIC SPACES AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. DEVELOPMENT OF A FULLY FUNCTIONAL SQUARE:  DEVELOPMENT OF A FULLY FUNCTIONAL SQUARE Source: City of Cape Town. 2000. Building an equitable city: Urban development principles for the City of Cape Town. Slide79:  MARRAKECH AT NIGHT – A FULLY FUNCTIONAL SQUARE Source: National Geographic Magazine Slide80:  A NUMBER OF THESE PRINCIPLES ARE EVIDENT IN ASSISSI, ITALY Source: Quilici, F. 1994. Italy from the air. Artus Books. CONCLUSIONS ON UNSUSTAINABLE CURRENT TRENDS:  Breakdown of the qualities that made the areas desirable in the first place; Extensive ecological damage and reducing sustainability of household livelihoods; Reduced chances for households - settlement patterns fail to yield benefits of either urban or rural living - local urban or rural economies struggle to develop; A highly inefficient settlement pattern for provision of utility & social services; Viable public transportation never really takes root; Often the poorest are worst off than ever before; Longer-term options for improvement are lost; Propped up by increasing use of more expensive energy. CONCLUSIONS ON UNSUSTAINABLE CURRENT TRENDS IF WE GET THIS RIGHT….:  IF WE GET THIS RIGHT…. Opportunities, activities & experiences in the municipality will become accessible to pedestrians and public transport users, and benefiting all. A viable basis will be provided for delivery of utility & social services, and for efficient public transportation. Clear policies on use of the land will: Contain impact on resources, preventing conflicts with national resource policies; reduce demands on scarce capacity in development administration; improve confidence through clear messages to developers; provide a stable basis for development of rural economies; and enhance the unique character – the sense of place - of our municipalities for benefit of residents and tourists alike. A sound basis for local economies of our urban areas will be established. The need to deal with increasingly-scarce fossil fuels - & therefore the need for energy efficiency & use of renewables -will become manageable. Source: Quilici, F. 1994. Italy from the air. Artus Books. AN AWESOME RESPONSIBLITY:  ‘On behalf of our government I would therefore like to use this important landmark in our national life to repeat the appeal made by Nelson Mandela 12 years ago, that together “we must…seize the time to define for ourselves what we want to make of our shared destiny.” State of the Nation Address of the President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki: Joint Sitting of Parliament 3 February 2006 AN AWESOME RESPONSIBLITY

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